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Asma bint Umays

Asma bint Umays

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Asma bint Umais from the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
Banū Hāshim was a clan in the Quraysh tribe. Muhammad, was a member of this clan; his great-grandfather was Hashim, for whom the clan is named. Members of this clan are referred to by the Anglicised version of their name as Hashemites, or Huseini or Hasani...

 tribe was a Sahabiyyah (a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

). Her grave can be found in Baab Sagheer
Bab Saghir
Bāb Saghīr , also called "Goristan-e-Ghariban", is an ancient cemetery and street in Damascus, Syria, with tombs on either side of the road...

 cemetery, Damascus
Damascus
Damascus , commonly known in Syria as Al Sham , and as the City of Jasmine , is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo, both are part of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major...

, Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

.

Family


Her father was Umays ibn Ma'ad
Umays ibn Ma'ad
Umays ibn Ma'ad was married to Hind bint Awf.One of their daughters, Asma bint Umays married Ja'far ibn Abu Talib, then Abu Bakr and lastly Ali.Their other daughter, Salma bint Umays married Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib....

, and her mother was Hind bint Awf
Hind bint Awf
Hind bint Awf was Muhammad's mother-in-law and Ibn Abbas' grandmother. She was the mother of several female Sahaba. Her father was Awf ibn Zuhayr ibn al-Haarith ibn HumaaTah ibn juraysh /jarsh. She was first married to Mas'ud ibn 'Amr ath Thaqafi but he divorced her...

. Her half sister was Maymuna bint al-Harith
Maymuna bint al-Harith
Maymuna bint al-Harith was a wife of Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers.-Family:Her original name was Burrah, but Muhammad changed it to Maimunah....

, one of Muhammad's wives. Her full sister Salma bint Umays
Salma bint Umays
Salma bint Umays was a sahaba of Muhammad, from the Banu Hashim clan and married to Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib.-Family:Mother: Hind bint AwfFather: Umays ibn Ma'adSister: Asma bint Umays - married to Ja'far ibn Abu Talib, the cousin of Muhammad...

 married Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib.

First marriage


Her first husband was Ja'far ibn Abu Talib, also of the Banu Hashim tribe. She had children with Ja'far and several years before Hijra
Hijra (Islam)
The Hijra is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. Alternate spellings of this Arabic word are Hijrah, Hijrat or Hegira, the latter following the spelling rules of Latin.- Hijra of Muhammad :In September 622, warned of a plot to...

, she participated in the Migration to Abbysian with her husband and a group of Muslims.

It is also known that Ja'far returned to Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 after the Muslims conquered Khaybar
Khaybar
Khaybar is the name of an oasis some 153 km to the north of Medina , Saudi Arabia. It was inhabited by Jews before the rise of Islam, and was conquered by Muhammad in 629 AD.-Pre-Islamic Khaybar:...

 in 5 AH. In 8 AH Ja'far was killed in the Battle of Mu'tah
Battle of Mu'tah
The Battle of Mu'tah was fought in 629 , near the village of Mu'tah, east of the Jordan River and Karak in Karak Governorate, between an army sent by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, and an army of the Byzantine Empire- The Eastern Romans.In Muslim histories, the battle is usually described as the...

 which was fought against Byzantium
Byzantium
Byzantium was an ancient Greek city, founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas . The name Byzantium is a Latinization of the original name Byzantion...

 along with Zayd ibn Harithah
Zayd ibn Harithah
Zayd ibn Harithah or Zayd mawla Muhammad was a prominent figure in the early Islamic community and the only one of sahaba whose name is spelled directly in the Qur'an. As he was the adopted son of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, before Islam abolished adoption in exchange of Kafala. He was an...

 (Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

's adopted son), and `Abd Allah ibn Rawahah
`Abd Allah ibn Rawahah
‘Abdullah ibn Rawahah ibn Tha‘labah was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.-Biography:Ibn Rawahah was from the Arabian tribe, the Banu Khazraj...

. Mu'tah is in the south of Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 and Ja'far's tomb is there.

Second husband


After Ja'fars death she married Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr was a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death...

 (after the hijra
Hijra (Islam)
The Hijra is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. Alternate spellings of this Arabic word are Hijrah, Hijrat or Hegira, the latter following the spelling rules of Latin.- Hijra of Muhammad :In September 622, warned of a plot to...

). She was present at the house of Ali at the time when Fatima bint Muhammad was died after 6 months from Muhammad's death.

Asma, when married to Abu Bakr, was expecting their child but did not want to miss Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

's last pilgrimage even though her delivery was near and so she decided to accompany her husband. On one of the stops along the pilgrimage route, Asma gave birth to their son who they named Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr. The boy was later adopted by Ali ibn Abu Talib after the death of Abu Bakr.

Abu Bakr planned to send Asma and their child back to Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

, but when Muhammad learned of his intent he told him to let her continue by making the major ablution
Ghusl
Ghusl is an Arabic term referring to the full ablution required in Islam for various rituals and prayers. The ablution becomes mandatory for any adult Muslim after having sexual intercourse, any sexual discharge , completion of the menstrual cycle, giving birth, and death by natural causes.Islam...

, and then rededicating herself in offering the pilgrimage. http://www.islamic-paths.org/Home/English/Muhammad/Book/Millennium_Biography/Chapter_132.htm

Third husband


When Abu Bakr died, Asma married Ali ibn Abu Talib. Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was adopted by Ali
Ali
' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

 and brought up as his own son.

Legacy


She was regarded as a scholar of Islam.

According to an authentic report in Al-KhiSaal by Shaykh Al-Sadooq, vol. 2, pg. 363, she is considered one of the women of paradise.

Historical Controversy


The following historians state that she was present at Fatima's wedding ceremony in 1AH:
  • The author of Kashf Al-Ghummah
  • Hadhrami in Rashfat al-Sadi, p. 10
  • Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in al-Manaqib
  • Al-Haithami in Majma' Az-Zawaed
  • Nisaee in Khasaes pg 31
  • Muhib Ad-Din Tabari in Dhakhaer al-Uqbi.


They depend on the narrations of: Abu Abbas Khawarazmi from Al-Hussain Ibn Ali (A), Sayid Jalal al-Din Abu al-Hamid Ibn Fakhr al-Musawi, and Dulabi from Imam Baqir and his father (A)

This is a historical problem that has not yet been solved despite the various attempts made by Sheikh Majlisi in Bihar v.10.

It is also narrated that she was present during the marriage of Aisha.

One theory states that Asma Bint Umais had actually immigrated with her husband to Habashah, but repeatedly returned to Mecca and Medina. The distance between Jedda and Habashah is limited to that of the width of the Red Sea, which in not so difficult for a journey. One narration makes a mentions of Ja'far supporting this stance. http://al-islam.org/gracious/29.htm

See also

  • Sunni view of the Sahaba