Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh

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Arunachal Pradesh is a state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, located in the far northeast. It borders the states of Assam
Assam
Assam , also, rarely, Assam Valley and formerly the Assam Province , is a northeastern state of India and is one of the most culturally and geographically distinct regions of the country...

 and Nagaland
Nagaland
Nagaland is a state in the far north-eastern part of India. It borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Burma to the east and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur...

 to the south, and shares international borders with Burma in the east, Bhutan
Bhutan
Bhutan , officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked state in South Asia, located at the eastern end of the Himalayas and bordered to the south, east and west by the Republic of India and to the north by the People's Republic of China...

 in the west, and the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 in the north. The majority of the territory is claimed by the People's Republic of China as part of South Tibet
South Tibet
The Arunachal Pradesh dispute is a territorial dispute over the region located on the middle of the Yarlung Zangbo River, 300 km north of the Himalayas. It is entirely administered by India as part of its Arunachal Pradesh state; China claims it as a part of its Tibet Autonomous Region and...

. The northern border of Arunachal Pradesh reflects the McMahon Line
McMahon Line
The McMahon Line is a line agreed to by Great Britain and Tibet as part of Simla Accord, a treaty signed in 1914. Although its legal status is disputed by China, it is the effective boundary between China and India....

, a controversial 1914 treaty between the United Kingdom and a Tibetan government, which was never accepted by the Chinese government, and not enforced by the Indian government until 1950. Itanagar
Itanagar
Itanagar is the capital of the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. Itanagar is situated at the foothills of Himalayas. It comes administratively under Papum Pare district....

 is the capital of the state.

Arunachal Pradesh means "land of the dawn-lit mountains" in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

. It is also known as "land of the rising sun" ("pradesh
Pradesh
Pradesh refers to a province or state in various South Asian languages. It is written प्रदेश in Devanagari script , প্রদেশ in Eastern Nagari script , પ્રદેશ in Gujarati script, ಪ್ರದೇಶ in Kannada script, പ്രദേശം in Malayalam script, ప్రదేశ్ in Telugu script,...

" means "state", "territory" or "region") in reference to its position as the easternmost state of India. Most of the people native to and/or living in Arunachal Pradesh are of Tibeto-Burman  origin. A large and increasing number of migrants have reached Arunachal Pradesh from many other parts of India, although no reliable population count of the migrant population has been conducted, and percentage estimates of total population accordingly vary widely. Part of the famous Ledo Burma Road
Ledo Road
The Ledo Road was built during World War II so that the Western Allies could supply the Chinese as an alternative to the Burma Road which had been cut by the Japanese in 1942. It was renamed the Stilwell Road in early 1945 at the suggestion of Chiang Kai-shek...

, which was a lifeline to China during World War II, passes through the eastern part of the state.

Early history


The history of pre-modern Arunachal Pradesh remains shrouded in mystery. The earliest written references to Arunachal are popularly believed to be found in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

, Ramayana
Ramayana
The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon , considered to be itihāsa. The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India and Nepal, the other being the Mahabharata...

 and other Vedic legends. Several characters, such as King Bhismaka, are believed to represent people from the region in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

; however, since corroborating information is unavailable and since place-names cannot be verified at that historical time-depth such associations are to a large extent speculative. For example, there is no evidence whatsoever that the name Bhismaka plausibly associates with any indigenous Arunachali tribes or languages at all.

Oral histories possessed to this day by many Arunachali tribes of Tibeto-Burman stock are much richer and point unambiguously to a northern origin in modern-day Tibet. Again corroboration remains difficult. From the point of view of material culture it is clear that most indigenous Arunachali groups align with Burma-area hill tribals, a fact that could either be explainable in terms of a northern Burmese origin or from westward cultural diffusion.

From the same perspective the most unusual Arunachali group by far is the Puroik/Sulung, whose traditional staple food is sago palm and whose primary traditional productive strategy is foraging. While speculatively considered to be a Tibeto-Burman population, the uniqueness of Puroik culture and language may well represent a tenuous reflection of a distant and all but unknown pre-Tibeto-Burman, Tai and Indo-Aryan past.

Recorded history from an outside perspective only became available in the Ahom
Ahom language
The Ahom language is an extinct Tai language spoken by the Ahom people who ruled the Brahmaputra river valley in the Indian state of Assam between the 13th and the 18th centuries.- Other names :...

 chronicles of the 16th century. The Monpa and Sherdukpen
Sherdukpen
The Sherdukpen are an ethnic group related to both the Aka and Monpa. Their population of 4,200 is centered in West Kameng in the villages of Rupa, Jigaon, Thongri, Shergaon, in Bomdila. All of these are at elevations between 5000–6000 feet above sea level...

 do keep historical records of the existence of local chiefdoms in the northwest as well. Northwestern parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 B.C. and 600 A.D. This region then came under the loose control of Tibet
Tibet
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people...

 and Bhutan
Bhutan
Bhutan , officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked state in South Asia, located at the eastern end of the Himalayas and bordered to the south, east and west by the Republic of India and to the north by the People's Republic of China...

, especially in the Northern areas. The remaining parts of the state, especially those bordering Myanmar
Myanmar
Burma , officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar , is a country in Southeast Asia. Burma is bordered by China on the northeast, Laos on the east, Thailand on the southeast, Bangladesh on the west, India on the northwest, the Bay of Bengal to the southwest, and the Andaman Sea on the south....

, came under the titular control of the Ahom and the Assam
Assam
Assam , also, rarely, Assam Valley and formerly the Assam Province , is a northeastern state of India and is one of the most culturally and geographically distinct regions of the country...

ese until the annexation of India by the British in 1858. However, most Arunachali tribes remained in practice largely autonomous up until Indian independence and the formalization of indigenous administration in 1947.

Recent excavations of ruins of Hindu temples such as the 14th century Malinithan at the foot of the Siang hills in West Siang
West Siang
West Siang is an administrative district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India.-History:In 1989 territory was given from West Siang to East Siang district -- since 1999 this territory has been in the new Upper Siang district.-Geography:...

 are somewhat automatically associated with the ancient history of Arunachal Pradesh, inasmuch as they fall within its modern-day political borders. However, such temples are generally south-facing, never occur more than a few kilometers from the Assam plains area, and are perhaps more likely to have been associated with Assam plains-based rather than indigenous Arunachali populations. Another notable heritage site, Bhismaknagar, has led to suggestions that the Idu (Mishmi) had an advanced culture and administration in pre-historical times. Again, however, no evidence directly associates Bhismaknagar with this or any other known culture. The third heritage site, the 400-year-old Tawang Monastery
Tawang Monastery
Tawang Monastery in Arunachal Pradesh is the largest monastery in India, founded near the small town of the same name in the northwestern part of Arunachal Pradesh state of India by Merak Lama Lodre Gyatso in 1680-1681 in accordance with the wishes of the 5th Dalai Lama...

 in the extreme north-west of the state, provides some historical evidence of the Buddhist tribal people.The sixth Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
The Dalai Lama is a high lama in the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" branch of Tibetan Buddhism. The name is a combination of the Mongolian word далай meaning "Ocean" and the Tibetan word bla-ma meaning "teacher"...

 Tsangyang Gyatso
Tsangyang Gyatso, 6th Dalai Lama
Tsangyang Gyatso was the sixth Dalai Lama. He was a Monpa by ethnicity and was born at Urgelling Monastery, 5 km from Tawang, Tibet and not far from the large Tawang Monastery in the northwestern part of present-day Arunachal Pradesh in India .He led a playboy lifestyle and disappeared, near...

 was born in Tawang
Tawang Town
Tawang is a small town situated at an elevation of approximately 3,048 meters in the northwestern part of Arunachal Pradesh state of India. The area is historically Tibetan territory and is claimed by both People's Republic of China and Republic of China as a part of South Tibet...

.

Drawing of McMahon line



In 1913-1914 representatives of China, Tibet and Britain negotiated a treaty in India: the Simla Accord
Simla Accord (1913)
The Simla Accord, or the Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet, [in] Simla, was a disputed treaty concerning the status of Tibet negotiated by representatives of China, Tibet and Britain in Simla in 1913 and 1914....

. This treaty's objective was to define the borders between Inner and Outer Tibet as well as between Outer Tibet and British India. British administrator, Sir Henry McMahon, drew up the 550 miles (885.1 km) McMahon Line
McMahon Line
The McMahon Line is a line agreed to by Great Britain and Tibet as part of Simla Accord, a treaty signed in 1914. Although its legal status is disputed by China, it is the effective boundary between China and India....

 as the border between British India and Outer Tibet during the Simla Conference. The Tibetan and British representatives at the conference agreed to the line, which ceded Tawang and other Tibetan areas to the British Empire. The Chinese representative had no problems with the border between British India and Outer Tibet, however on the issue of the border between Outer Tibet and Inner Tibet the talks broke down. Thus, the Chinese representative refused to accept the agreement and walked out. The Tibetan Government and British Government went ahead with the Simla Agreement and declared that the benefits of other articles of this treaty would not be bestowed on China as long as it stays out of the purview. The Chinese position was that Tibet was not independent from China, so Tibet could not have independently signed treaties, and per the Anglo-Chinese (1906) and Anglo-Russian (1907) conventions, any such agreement was invalid without Chinese assent.

Simla was initially rejected by the Government of India as incompatible with the 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention
Anglo-Russian Convention
The British-Russian Convention is a political convention of several days that took place between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland...

. However, this agreement(Anglo-Russian Convention) was renounced by Russia and Britain jointly in 1921, thus making the Simla Conference official. However, with the collapse of Chinese power in Tibet the line had no serious challenges as Tibet
Tibet
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people...

 had signed the convention, therefore it was forgotten to the extent that no new maps were published until 1935, when interest was revived by civil service officer Olaf Caroe. The Survey of India
Survey of India
The Survey of India is India's central engineering agency in charge of mapping and surveying. Set up in 1767 to help consolidate the territories of the British East India Company, it is one of the oldest Engineering Departments of the Government of India...

 published a map showing the McMahon Line as the official boundary in 1937. In 1938, the British finally published the Simla Convention as a bilateral accord two decades after the Simla Conference; in 1938 the Survey of India published a detailed map showing Tawang as part of NEFA
NEFA
NEFA is an abbreviation that has several meanings:* -N-ethyl-4,4a,9,9a-tetrahydro-1H-fluoren-4a-amine* The Nine Eleven Finding Answers Foundation* Non-essential fatty acid* North East Folklore Archive* North East Forest Alliance...

. In 1944 Britain established administrations in the area, from Dirang Dzong in the west to Walong
Walong
Walong is a small cantonment and administrative town in the Anjaw District of the state of Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India. Walong is also the easternmost town in India Anjaw was carved out of Lohit District in 2004. Walong's approximate position is 28 degrees 06 minutes North, 97 degrees...

 in the east. Tibet, however, altered its position on the McMahon Line in late 1947 when the Tibetan government wrote a note presented to the newly independent Indian Ministry of External Affairs laying claims to the Tibetan district (Tawang) south of the McMahon Line. The situation developed further as India became independent and the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 was established in 1949. With the PRC poised to take over Tibet, India unilaterally declared the McMahon Line to be the boundary in November 1950, and forced the last remnants of Tibetan administration out of the Tawang area in 1951. The PRC has never recognized the McMahon Line, and claims Tawang on behalf of Tibetans. The 14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama
The 14th Dalai Lama is the 14th and current Dalai Lama. Dalai Lamas are the most influential figures in the Gelugpa lineage of Tibetan Buddhism, although the 14th has consolidated control over the other lineages in recent years...

, who led the Tibetan government from 1950 to 1959, was quoted in 2003 as saying that Tawang was "actually part of the Tibetan administration" before the Simla Accord. He clarified his position in 2008, saying that as far as Tibet was concerned "Tawang is part of India".

Conflicts between China and India


The NEFA (North East Frontier Agency) was created in 1954. The issue was quiet during the next decade or so of cordial Sino-Indian relations, but erupted again during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The cause of the escalation into war is still disputed by both Chinese and Indian sources. During the war in 1962, the PRC captured most area of Arunachal Pradesh. However, China soon declared victory, voluntarily withdrew back to the McMahon Line
McMahon Line
The McMahon Line is a line agreed to by Great Britain and Tibet as part of Simla Accord, a treaty signed in 1914. Although its legal status is disputed by China, it is the effective boundary between China and India....

 and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963. The war has resulted in the termination of barter trade with Tibet, although in 2007 the state government has shown signs to resume barter trade with Tibet.

After the war


Arunachal Pradesh became a separate state of India in 1986.

Of late, Arunachal Pradesh has come to face threats from certain insurgent groups, notably the National Socialist Council of Nagaland
National Socialist Council of Nagaland
The Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland is a Naga nationalist militant group operating in Northeast India. Its aim is to establish a Christian socialist state based on Maoism in the areas inhabited by the Naga people in Northeast India and Burma.-Formation:The National Socialist Council of...

 (NSCN), who are believed to have base camps in the districts of Changlang
Changlang
Changlang is a census town and headquarters of the Changlang district in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. Its native people includes Tangsa Naga, Lisu, Nocte, Singpho and many more....

 and Tirap
Tirap district
The Tirap district is located in the southeastern part of the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India. It shares a state border with Nagaland and Assam, an international border with Myanmar and a district border with Changlang.- History :...

. There are occasional reports of these groups harassing local people and extracting protection money.

Geography


Much of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayas
Himalayas
The Himalaya Range or Himalaya Mountains Sanskrit: Devanagari: हिमालय, literally "abode of snow"), usually called the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau...

. However, parts of Lohit
Lohit district
Lohit is an administrative district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India. The district headquarters are located at Tezu. As of 2011 it is the third most populous district of Arunachal Pradesh , after Papum Pare and Changlang.-Etymology:...

, Changlang
Changlang
Changlang is a census town and headquarters of the Changlang district in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. Its native people includes Tangsa Naga, Lisu, Nocte, Singpho and many more....

 and Tirap
Tirap district
The Tirap district is located in the southeastern part of the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India. It shares a state border with Nagaland and Assam, an international border with Myanmar and a district border with Changlang.- History :...

 are covered by the Patkai
Patkai
The Pat-kai meaning to Cut Chicken in Tai Ahom language are the hills on India's North Eastern border with Burma. They were created by the same tectonic processes that resulted in the formation of the Himalayain the Mesozoic . They are not as rugged as the Himalayas and its peaks are much lower...

 hills. Kangto, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the Himalayas.

At the lowest elevations, essentially at Arunachal Pradesh's border with Assam, are Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests
The Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of eastern India and southern Bhutan.-Location and description:...

. Much of the state, including the Himalayan foothills and the Patkai hills, are home to Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests
The Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests is a temperate broadleaf forest ecoregion found in the middle elevations of the eastern Himalayas, including parts of Nepal, India, and Bhutan...

. Toward the northern border with China, with increasing elevation, come a mixture of Eastern
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests
The Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests is a temperate coniferous forests ecoregion which is found in the middle and upper elevations of the eastern Middle Himalayas, in western Nepal, Bhutan and northern Indian states including Arunachal Pradesh....

 and Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests
The Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests is a temperate coniferous forests ecoregion of the middle to upper elevations of the eastern Himalayas. It occurs in southeastern Tibet and northeastern India.-Setting:...

 followed by Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows
The Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows is a montane grasslands and shrublands ecoregion of Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal, which lies between the tree line and snow line in the eastern portion of the Himalaya Range.-Setting:...

 and ultimately rock and ice on the highest peaks.

In 2006 Bumla pass in Tawang was opened to traders for the first time in 44 years. Traders from both sides of the pass were permitted to enter each other's territories, in addition to postal workers from each country.

The Himalayan ranges that extend up to the eastern Arunachal separate it from Tibet. The ranges extend toward Nagaland, and form a boundary between India and Burma in Changlang and Tirap district, acting as a natural barrier called Patkai Bum Hills. They are low mountains compared to the Greater Himalayas.

Climate


The climate of Arunachal Pradesh varies with elevation. Areas that are at a very high elevation in the Upper Himalayas close to the Tibetan border enjoy an alpine or Tundra
Tundra
In physical geography, tundra is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term tundra comes through Russian тундра from the Kildin Sami word tūndâr "uplands," "treeless mountain tract." There are three types of tundra: Arctic tundra, alpine...

 climate. Below the Upper Himalayas are the Middle Himalayas, where people experience a temperate climate. Areas at the sub-Himalayan and sea-level elevation generally experience humid, sub-tropical climate with hot summers and mild winters.

Arunachal Pradesh receives heavy rainfall of 80 to 160 in (2,032 to 4,064 mm) annually, most of it between May and September. The mountain slopes and hills are covered with alpine, temperate, and subtropical forests of dwarf rhododendron
Rhododendron
Rhododendron is a genus of over 1 000 species of woody plants in the heath family, most with showy flowers...

, oak
Oak
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus , of which about 600 species exist. "Oak" may also appear in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus...

, pine
Pine
Pines are trees in the genus Pinus ,in the family Pinaceae. They make up the monotypic subfamily Pinoideae. There are about 115 species of pine, although different authorities accept between 105 and 125 species.-Etymology:...

, maple
Maple
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.Maples are variously classified in a family of their own, the Aceraceae, or together with the Hippocastanaceae included in the family Sapindaceae. Modern classifications, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system, favour inclusion in...

, fir
Fir
Firs are a genus of 48–55 species of evergreen conifers in the family Pinaceae. They are found through much of North and Central America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa, occurring in mountains over most of the range...

, and juniper
Juniper
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, there are between 50-67 species of juniper, widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa in the Old World, and to the...

; sal (Shorea) and teak
Teak
Teak is the common name for the tropical hardwood tree species Tectona grandis and its wood products. Tectona grandis is native to south and southeast Asia, mainly India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Burma, but is naturalized and cultivated in many countries, including those in Africa and the...

 are the main economically valuable species.

Sub-divisions



Arunachal Pradesh is divided into sixteen districts, each administered by a district collector
District collector
The District Collector is the district head of administration of the bureaucracy in a state of India. Though he/she is appointed and is under general supervision of the state government, he/she has to be a member of the elite IAS recruited by the Central Government...

, who sees to the needs of the local people. Especially along the Tibetan border, the Indian army
Indian Army
The Indian Army is the land based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces. With about 1,100,000 soldiers in active service and about 1,150,000 reserve troops, the Indian Army is the world's largest standing volunteer army...

 has a considerable presence due to concerns about Chinese intentions in the region.
Special permits
Foreigners (Protected Areas) Order 1958 (India)
The Foreigners Order 1958 states that a Protected Area Permit is required for non-Indian citizens to visit certain areas in India . Certain requirements have to be fulfilled in order to get this permit. Indian citizens, who are not resident in these areas need a Inner Line Permit to enter these...

 called Inner Line Permit
Inner Line Permit
Inner Line Permit is an official travel document issued by the Government of India to allow inward travel of an Indian citizen into a protected/restricted area for a limited period. It is obligatory for Indian citizens from outside those states to obtain permit for entering into the protected state...

s (ILP) are required to enter Arunachal Pradesh through any of its checkgates on the border with Assam.
Districts of Arunachal Pradesh:
  • Tirap District
    Tirap district
    The Tirap district is located in the southeastern part of the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India. It shares a state border with Nagaland and Assam, an international border with Myanmar and a district border with Changlang.- History :...

  • Changlang District
    Changlang District
    Changlang district is located in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, located south of Lohit district and north of Tirap district. As of 2011 it is the second most populous district of Arunachal Pradesh , after Papum Pare.-Post-independence:...

  • Lohit District
    Lohit district
    Lohit is an administrative district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India. The district headquarters are located at Tezu. As of 2011 it is the third most populous district of Arunachal Pradesh , after Papum Pare and Changlang.-Etymology:...

  • Anjaw District
    Anjaw district
    Anjaw District is an administrative district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in north-east India. It is a newly created district, having been split from Lohit district on 16 February 2004 under The Arunachal Pradesh Re-organization of Districts Amendment Bill. The district borders China on the...

  • Lower Dibang Valley
  • Upper Dibang Valley
  • East Siang
    East Siang
    East Siang is an administrative district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India.-History:In 1989 territory was transferred from West Siang district to East Siang. A decade later, in 1999, the district was bifurcated to make Upper Siang district....

  • West Siang
    West Siang
    West Siang is an administrative district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India.-History:In 1989 territory was given from West Siang to East Siang district -- since 1999 this territory has been in the new Upper Siang district.-Geography:...

  • Upper Siang
  • Lower Subansiri
    Lower Subansiri
    Lower Subansiri district is one of the 16 administrative districts of the state of Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India.-History:The district was formed when Subansiri district was bifurcated into Upper and Lower Subansiri districts in 1987...

  • Upper Subansiri
    Upper Subansiri
    Upper Subansiri is an administrative district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India.-History:The district was formed when Subansiri district was bifurcated into Upper and Lower Subansiri districts in 1987.-Geography:...

  • Kurung Kumey
    Kurung Kumey
    Kurung Kumey district is one of the 16 districts of the northeastern Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, with its district headquarters in Koloriang.-Origin of name:...

  • Papum Pare
  • East Kameng
    East Kameng
    East Kameng district is one of the 16 districts of Arunachal Pradesh state in northeastern, India. It shares an international border with Tibet in the north, a state border with Assam and district borders with West Kameng, Papumpare and Kurung Kumey, which was bifurcated from Lower Subansiri...

  • West Kameng
    West Kameng
    West Kameng is a district of Arunachal Pradesh in India. It accounts for 8.86% of the total area of the state. Under Chinese sovereignty claim, West Kameng falls under the jurisdiction of Cuona County of Shannan Prefecture of the Tibet Autonomous Region...

  • Tawang District
    Tawang District
    Tawang district is one of the 16 administrative districts of Arunachal Pradesh in eastern India. The area is historically Tibetan territory and is claimed by both India and Republic of China as a part of South Tibet...



Economy


The chart below displays the trend of the gross state domestic product of Arunachal Pradesh at market prices estimated by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.
Year Gross
Domestic
Product
1980 1,070
1985 2,690
1990 5,080
1995 11,840
2000 17,830


Arunachal Pradesh's gross state domestic product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 for 2004 was estimated at $706 million in current prices. Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

 primarily drives the economy. Jhum, the local word for a shifting cultivation widely practiced among the tribal groups, is now less practiced. Arunachal Pradesh has close to 61,000 square kilometers of forests, and forest products are the next most significant sector of the economy. Among the crops grown here are rice, maize, millet, wheat, pulses, sugarcane, ginger, and oilseeds. Arunachal is also ideal for horticulture and fruit orchards. Its major industries are rice mills, fruit preservation units, and handloom handicrafts. Sawmill
Sawmill
A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards.-Sawmill process:A sawmill's basic operation is much like those of hundreds of years ago; a log enters on one end and dimensional lumber exits on the other end....

s and plywood trades are prohibited under law.

Arunachal Pradesh accounts for a large percentage of India's untapped hydroelectric power
Hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy...

 production potential. In 2008, the state government of Arunachal Pradesh signed deals with various Indian companies planning some 42 hydroelectric schemes that will produce electricity in excess of 27,000 MW. Construction of the Upper Siang Hydroelectric Project
Upper Siang Hydroelectric Project
The Upper Siang Hydroelectric Project consists of the construction of several hydroelectric power dams in the Upper Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India...

, which is expected to generate between 10,000 to 12,000 MW, began in April 2009.

Languages


Modern-day Arunachal Pradesh is one of the linguistically richest and most diverse regions in all of Asia, being home to at least thirty and possibly as many as fifty distinct languages in addition to innumerable dialects and subdialects thereof. Boundaries between languages very often correlate with tribal divisions - for example, Apatani and Nyishi are both tribally and linguistically distinct - but shifts in tribal identity and alignment over time have also ensured that a certain amount of complication enters into the picture - for example, Galo is and has seemingly always been linguistically distinct from Adi, whereas the earlier tribal alignment of Galo with Adi (i.e., "Adi Gallong") has only recently been essentially dissolved.

The vast majority of languages indigenous to modern-day Arunachal Pradesh belong to the Tibeto-Burman language family. The majority of these in turn belong to a single branch of Tibeto-Burman, namely Tani
Tani languages
Tani, Miric, Adi–Galo–Mishing–Nishi , or Abor–Miri–Dafla is a compact family of Tibeto-Burman languages situated at the eastern end of the Himalayas, in an area skirted on four sides by Tibet, Assam, Bhutan, and Burma....

. Almost all Tani languages are indigenous to central Arunachal Pradesh, including (moving from west to east) Nyishi/Nishi
Nishi (Tribe)
- Nyishi People :The Nyishi people principally inhabit the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. Known as the Nyishi ....

, Apatani
Tani languages
Tani, Miric, Adi–Galo–Mishing–Nishi , or Abor–Miri–Dafla is a compact family of Tibeto-Burman languages situated at the eastern end of the Himalayas, in an area skirted on four sides by Tibet, Assam, Bhutan, and Burma....

, Bangni, Tagin, Hills Miri, Galo
Galo
The Galos constitute a tribe inhabiting the West Siang, southwestern side of East Siang, southeastern side of Upper Subansiri, as well as in some small pockets in Itanagar and Lower Dibang Valley, Changlang districts of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India...

, Bokar, Lower Adi
Tani languages
Tani, Miric, Adi–Galo–Mishing–Nishi , or Abor–Miri–Dafla is a compact family of Tibeto-Burman languages situated at the eastern end of the Himalayas, in an area skirted on four sides by Tibet, Assam, Bhutan, and Burma....

 (Padam, Pasi
Pasi
Pasi is a settlement near the coast of Sandaun Province, Papua New Guinea, to the west of the province capital of Vanimo. It is four hours walk from the village of Krisa, of which it is an offshoot. Pasi is the largest I'saka-speaking settlement outside of Krisa....

, Minyong
Minyong
The Minyong are a tribe of the Adi people, a tribal people living in Arunachal Pradesh, India. The Minyong are found in East Siang, Upper Siang and West Siang district. They have originated from Riga Village. Their villages are mostly found on the right and left bank of river Siang , starting from...

, and Komkar), Upper Adi
Tani languages
Tani, Miric, Adi–Galo–Mishing–Nishi , or Abor–Miri–Dafla is a compact family of Tibeto-Burman languages situated at the eastern end of the Himalayas, in an area skirted on four sides by Tibet, Assam, Bhutan, and Burma....

 (Aashing, Shimong, Karko
Karko
Karko is an ethnic group in the Nuba Mountains in Northern Sudan. They speak Karko, a Nubian language . Most members of this ethnicity are Muslims. The population of this ethnicity exceeds 10,000....

 and Bori), and Milang
Milang
Milang is small town situated on the shores of Lake Alexandrina, just over 20 km from Strathalbyn, South Australia. At the 2006 census, Milang had a population of 512.The town was surveyed in December 1853...

; only Mising
Mishing language
Mishing is a Tibetan–Burman language spoken by the Mishing people. There are over 500,000 speakers of the language. It is also known as Plains Miri or Takam....

, among Tani languages, is primarily spoken outside Arunachal Pradesh in modern-day Assam
Assam
Assam , also, rarely, Assam Valley and formerly the Assam Province , is a northeastern state of India and is one of the most culturally and geographically distinct regions of the country...

, while a handful of northern Tani languages including Bangni and Bokar are also spoken in small numbers in Tibet
Tibet
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people...

. Tani languages are noticeably characterized by an overall relative uniformity, suggesting relatively recent origin and dispersal within their present-day area of concentration. Most Tani languages are mutually intelligible with at least one other Tani language, meaning that the area constitutes a dialect chain, as was once found in much of Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

; only Apatani and Milang stand out as relatively unusual in the Tani context. Tani languages are among the better-studied languages of the region.

To the east of the Tani area lie three virtually undescribed and highly endangered languages of the "Mishmi
Mishmi
The Mishmi or Deng people of Tibet and Arunachal Pradesh are an ethnic group comprising mainly three tribes: Idu Mishmi ; Digaro Mishmi , and Miju Mishmi . The Mishmis occupy the north-eastern tip of the central Arunachal Pradesh/South Tibet in Upper and Lower Dibang Valley, Lohit and Anjaw...

" group of Tibeto-Burman, Idu
Idu Mishmi Language
The Idu Mishmi Language is a small language spoken in the Dibang Valley District of the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh and in Southeastern Tibet. There are 8,569 speakers in India as of 1981 and 7,000 speakers in China as of 1994. The total amount of Idu Mishmi Language speakers total to...

, Digaru and Miju. A certain number of speakers of these languages are also found in Tibet. The relationships of these languages, both amongst one another and to other area languages, are as yet uncertain. Further south, one finds the Singpho
Jingpho language
The Jingpho language or Kachin language is a Tibeto-Burman language mainly spoken in Kachin State, Burma and Yunnan Province, China...

 (Kachin) language, which is primarily spoken by large populations in Burma, and the Nocte
Nocte
The Nocte are a Naga people of a population of 33,000 found in the Patkai hills of Tirap district of Arunachal Pradesh. Ethnically related to the Konyak Naga, their origins can be traced back to the Hukong Valley in Myanmar, where they migrated from between the 1670 and 1700...

 and Wancho
Wancho
The Wancho are a tribal people inhabiting the Patkai hills of Tirap district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India. They have a population of 35,000. Culturally Naga, they are ethnically related to the Nocte and Konyak Naga of the Mon and Tirap districts...

 languages, which show affiliations to certain "Naga
Naga people
The term Naga people refers to a conglomeration of several tribes inhabiting the North Eastern part of India and north-western Burma. The tribes have similar cultures and traditions, and form the majority ethnic group in the Indian state of Nagaland...

" languages spoken to the south in modern-day Nagaland
Nagaland
Nagaland is a state in the far north-eastern part of India. It borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Burma to the east and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur...

.

To the west and north of the Tani area are found at least one and possibly as many as four Bodic languages, including Dakpa and Tshangla; within modern-day India, these languages go by the cognate but, in usage, distinct designations Monpa
Monpa language
Tawang is one of the Monpa languages of the East Bodish family. It is spoken in the Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh, claim by Tibet as a part of Lho-kha Sa-khul. It is quite distinct from non-Eastern Tibetan languages, though it shares many similarities with Bumthang...

 and Memba
Memba
The Memba are a tribal population of 3,500 is centered around Tuting and Geling, near the Siang river in the West Siang and Upper Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh in India not very far from the Tibetan border. A sizeable population can be found in the nearby Yargab-Chu valley in Mechuka , where...

. Most speakers of these languages or closely related Bodic languages are found in neighbouring Bhutan and Tibet, and Monpa and Memba populations remain closely adjacent to these border regions.

Between the Bodic and Tani areas lie a large number of almost completely undescribed and unclassified languages, which, speculatively considered to be Tibeto-Burman, exhibit many unique structural and lexical properties that probably reflect both a long history in the region and a complex history of language contact with neighbouring populations. Among them are Sherdukpen
Sherdukpen
The Sherdukpen are an ethnic group related to both the Aka and Monpa. Their population of 4,200 is centered in West Kameng in the villages of Rupa, Jigaon, Thongri, Shergaon, in Bomdila. All of these are at elevations between 5000–6000 feet above sea level...

, Bugun, Aka
Aka (tribe)
The Aka, also known as Hrusso, are found in the Thrizino , Bhalukpong , Buragaon, Jamiri, Palizi, Khuppi area in West Kameng of the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. Their language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman family....

/Hruso
Hruso languages
The Hruso languages are a small family of Tibeto-Burman languages of India. They are Hruso , Dhammai , and possibly also Levai , which may be a dialect of Hruso but which some scholars leave unclassified.-References:...

, Koro, Miji
Miji
The Miji, also known by the names of Sajolang and Damai, inhabit the districts of West Kameng and East Kameng in Arunachal Pradesh, India...

, Bangru and Puroik/Sulung. The high linguistic significance of all of these languages is belied by the extreme paucity of documentation and description of them, even in view of their highly endangered status. Puroik, in particular, is perhaps one of the most culturally and linguistically unique and significant populations in all of Asia from proto-historical and anthropological-linguistic perspectives, and yet virtually no information of any real reliability regarding their culture or language can be found in print even to this day.

Finally, there is an unknown number of Tibeto-Burman languages of Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

-area origin spoken in modern-day Arunachal Pradesh, including Gurung
Gurung
The Gurung people, also called Tamu, are an ethnic group that migrated from Mongolia in the 6th century to the central region of Nepal. Gurungs, like other east Asian featured peoples of Nepal such as Sherpa, Tamang, Thakali, Magar, Manaaggi, Mustaaggi, and Walunggi, are the indigenous people of...

 and Tamang
Tamang
The Tamangs are the ancient and original inhabitants of the mountains and plains of the Himalayan regions of Nepal and India. Their ancient capital being Yambu - modern day Kathmandu. They have their own distinct culture, language and religion. Their ancestral domain is popularly known as...

; not classified as "tribal" in the Arunachali context, such languages generally go unrecognized, while their speakers are largely viewed as itinerant "Nepalis". An unknown number of Tibetan
Standard Tibetan
Standard Tibetan is the most widely used spoken form of the Tibetan languages. It is based on the speech of Lhasa, an Ü-Tsang dialect belonging to the Central Tibetan languages. For this reason, Standard Tibetan is often called Central Tibetan...

 dialects are similarly spoken by recent migrants from Tibet, although they are not generally recognized or classified as tribal or indigenous.

Outside of Tibeto-Burman, one finds in Arunachal Pradesh a single representative of the Tai
Tai languages
The Tai or Zhuang–Tai languages are a branch of the Tai–Kadai language family. The Tai languages include the most widely spoken of the Tai–Kadai languages, including standard Thai or Siamese, the national language of Thailand; Lao or Laotian, the national language of Laos; Burma's Shan language;...

 language family, namely the Khamti
Khamti
The Khamti, whose name is also spelled as Hkamti by the Burmese and Khampti by the Assamese, is a sub-group of the Shan people found in the Sagaing Division, Hkamti District in northwestern Burma as well as Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh in India. Smaller numbers can be found in parts of Assam...

 language, which is closely affiliated to the Shan
Shan language
The Shan language is the native language of Shan people and spoken mostly in Shan State, Burma. It is also used in pockets of Kachin State in Burma, in northern Thailand, and in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. Shan is a member of the Tai–Kadai language family, and...

 dialects of northern Burma; seemingly, Khamti is a recent arrival in Arunachal Pradesh whose presence dates from 18th and/or early 19th-century migrations from northern Burma. In addition to these non-Indo-European
Indo-European
Indo-European may refer to:* Indo-European languages** Aryan race, a 19th century and early 20th century term for those peoples who are the native speakers of Indo-European languages...

 languages, the Indo-European languages Assamese
Assamese language
Assamese is the easternmost Indo-Aryan language. It is used mainly in the state of Assam in North-East India. It is also the official language of Assam. It is also spoken in parts of Arunachal Pradesh and other northeast Indian states. Nagamese, an Assamese-based Creole language is widely used in...

, Bengali
Bengali language
Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

, English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

, Nepali
Nepali language
Nepali or Nepalese is a language in the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.It is the official language and de facto lingua franca of Nepal and is also spoken in Bhutan, parts of India and parts of Myanmar...

 and especially Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 are making strong inroads into Arunachal Pradesh. Primarily as a result of the primary education system - in which classes are generally taught by Hindi-speaking immigrant teachers from Bihar and other Hindi-speaking parts of northern India - a large and growing section of the population now speaks a semi-creolized variety of Hindi as its mother tongue. Despite, or perhaps because of, the linguistic diversity of the region, English is the only official language recognized in the state.

Demographics


Arunachal Pradesh can be roughly divided into a set of semi-distinct cultural spheres, on the basis of tribal identity, language, religion, and material culture: the Tibetic area bordering Bhutan
Bhutan
Bhutan , officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked state in South Asia, located at the eastern end of the Himalayas and bordered to the south, east and west by the Republic of India and to the north by the People's Republic of China...

 in the west, the Tani area in the centre of the state, the Mishmi area to the east of the Tani area, the Tai
Tai peoples
The Tai ethnicity refers collectively to the ethnic groups of southern China and Southeast Asia, stretching from Hainan to eastern India and from southern Sichuan to Laos, Thailand, and parts of Vietnam, which speak languages in the Tai family and share similar traditions and festivals, including...

/Singpho/Tangsa
Tangsa
The Tangsa, termed Tangshang in Myanmar , is a community of several tens of thousands living in Changlang and Tirap Districts of Arunachal Pradesh,and parts of Tinsukia District of Assam, in north-eastern India, and across the border in Sagaing Region, Myanmar . The Tangshang in Myanmar were...

 area bordering Burma, and the "Naga
Naga people
The term Naga people refers to a conglomeration of several tribes inhabiting the North Eastern part of India and north-western Burma. The tribes have similar cultures and traditions, and form the majority ethnic group in the Indian state of Nagaland...

" area to the south, which also borders Burma. In between there are transition zones, such as the Aka
Aka (tribe)
The Aka, also known as Hrusso, are found in the Thrizino , Bhalukpong , Buragaon, Jamiri, Palizi, Khuppi area in West Kameng of the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. Their language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman family....

/Hruso/Miji
Miji
The Miji, also known by the names of Sajolang and Damai, inhabit the districts of West Kameng and East Kameng in Arunachal Pradesh, India...

/Sherdukpen
Sherdukpen
The Sherdukpen are an ethnic group related to both the Aka and Monpa. Their population of 4,200 is centered in West Kameng in the villages of Rupa, Jigaon, Thongri, Shergaon, in Bomdila. All of these are at elevations between 5000–6000 feet above sea level...

 area, which provides a "buffer" of sorts between the Tibetic Buddhist tribes and the animist Tani hill tribes. In addition, there are isolated peoples scattered throughout the state, such as the Sulung.

Within each of these cultural spheres, one finds populations of related tribes speaking related languages and sharing similar traditions. In the Tibetic area, one finds large numbers of Monpa tribespeople, with several subtribes speaking closely related but mutually incomprehensible languages, and also large numbers of Tibetan refugees. Within the Tani area, major tribes include Nishi, which has recently come to be used by many people to encompass Bangni, Tagin and even Hills Miri. Apatani also live among the Nishi, but are distinct. In the centre, one finds predominantly Galo
Galo
The Galos constitute a tribe inhabiting the West Siang, southwestern side of East Siang, southeastern side of Upper Subansiri, as well as in some small pockets in Itanagar and Lower Dibang Valley, Changlang districts of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India...

 people, with the major sub-groups of Lare and Pugo among others, extending to the Ramo
Ramo
A ramo was a warrior-leader among certain tribes on Malaita in the Solomon Islands. A ramo was recognized when he had killed an adversary in personal combat, and established an intimidating reputation...

 and Pailibo areas (which are close in many ways to Galo). In the east, one finds the Adi
Adi people
The Adi, or Bangni-Bokar Lhoba people is a major collective tribe living in the Himalayan hills of Arunachal Pradesh, and they are found in the temperate and sub-tropical regions within the districts of East Siang, Upper Siang, West Siang and Dibang Valley. The older term Abor is a deprecated...

, with many subtribes including Padam, Pasi
Pasi
Pasi is a settlement near the coast of Sandaun Province, Papua New Guinea, to the west of the province capital of Vanimo. It is four hours walk from the village of Krisa, of which it is an offshoot. Pasi is the largest I'saka-speaking settlement outside of Krisa....

, Minyong
Minyong
The Minyong are a tribe of the Adi people, a tribal people living in Arunachal Pradesh, India. The Minyong are found in East Siang, Upper Siang and West Siang district. They have originated from Riga Village. Their villages are mostly found on the right and left bank of river Siang , starting from...

, and Bokar, among others. Milang
Milang
Milang is small town situated on the shores of Lake Alexandrina, just over 20 km from Strathalbyn, South Australia. At the 2006 census, Milang had a population of 512.The town was surveyed in December 1853...

, while also falling within the general "Adi" sphere, are in many ways quite distinct. Moving east, the Idu, Miju and Digaru make up the "Mishmi" cultural-linguistic area, which may or may not form a coherent historical grouping.

Moving southeast, the Tai
Tai peoples
The Tai ethnicity refers collectively to the ethnic groups of southern China and Southeast Asia, stretching from Hainan to eastern India and from southern Sichuan to Laos, Thailand, and parts of Vietnam, which speak languages in the Tai family and share similar traditions and festivals, including...

 Khamti
Khamti
The Khamti, whose name is also spelled as Hkamti by the Burmese and Khampti by the Assamese, is a sub-group of the Shan people found in the Sagaing Division, Hkamti District in northwestern Burma as well as Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh in India. Smaller numbers can be found in parts of Assam...

 are linguistically distinct from their neighbours and culturally distinct from the majority of other Arunachali tribes; they are religiously similar to the Chakmas who have migrated from erstwhile East Pakistan
East Pakistan
East Pakistan was a provincial state of Pakistan established in 14 August 1947. The provincial state existed until its declaration of independence on 26 March 1971 as the independent nation of Bangladesh. Pakistan recognized the new nation on 16 December 1971. East Pakistan was created from Bengal...

. They follow the same Theraveda sect of Buddhism. The Chakmas consist of the majority of the tribal population. Districts of Lohit, Changlang, Dibang and Papumpare have a considerable number of Chakmas. They speak a linguistic variant derived from Assamese
Assamese language
Assamese is the easternmost Indo-Aryan language. It is used mainly in the state of Assam in North-East India. It is also the official language of Assam. It is also spoken in parts of Arunachal Pradesh and other northeast Indian states. Nagamese, an Assamese-based Creole language is widely used in...

 and Bengali
Bengali language
Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

. Assam
Assam
Assam , also, rarely, Assam Valley and formerly the Assam Province , is a northeastern state of India and is one of the most culturally and geographically distinct regions of the country...

 also have a large population of Chakmas who reside in the district of Karbi Anglong, Nagaon
Nagaon
Nagaon , is a medium sized city and a municipal board in Nagaon district in the Indian state of Assam. It is situated east of Guwahati. An older spelling of the name is Nowgong.It is one of the fastest growing cities of the northeast.-History:...

 and Kachar
Kachar
The Kachar are a Muslim community found in the state of Maharashtra in India. They are also known as Kachera or Shishgar-Origin:The Kachar get their name from the word Hindi word kanch, which means glass, and the Kachar were historically involved in the manufacture of glass bangles...

. They also exhibit considerable convergence with the Singpho and Tangsa
Tangsa
The Tangsa, termed Tangshang in Myanmar , is a community of several tens of thousands living in Changlang and Tirap Districts of Arunachal Pradesh,and parts of Tinsukia District of Assam, in north-eastern India, and across the border in Sagaing Region, Myanmar . The Tangshang in Myanmar were...

 tribes of the same area, all of which are also found in Burma. Finally, the Nocte
Nocte
The Nocte are a Naga people of a population of 33,000 found in the Patkai hills of Tirap district of Arunachal Pradesh. Ethnically related to the Konyak Naga, their origins can be traced back to the Hukong Valley in Myanmar, where they migrated from between the 1670 and 1700...

 and Wancho
Wancho
The Wancho are a tribal people inhabiting the Patkai hills of Tirap district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India. They have a population of 35,000. Culturally Naga, they are ethnically related to the Nocte and Konyak Naga of the Mon and Tirap districts...

 exhibit cultural and possibly also linguistic affinities to the tribes of Nagaland
Nagaland
Nagaland is a state in the far north-eastern part of India. It borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Burma to the east and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur...

, which they border.

In addition, there are large numbers of migrants from diverse areas of India and Bangladesh, who, while legally not entitled to settle permanently, in practice stay indefinitely, progressively altering the traditional demographic makeup of the state. Finally, populations of "Nepalis" (in fact, usually Tibeto-Burman tribespeople whose tribes predominate in areas of Nepal, but who do not have tribal status in India) and Chakmas are distributed in different areas of the state (although reliable figures are hard to come by).

Literacy has risen in official figures to 66.95% in 2011 from 54.74% in 2001. The literate population is said to number 789,943. Number of literate males are 454,532 (73.69%) and number of literate females are 335,411 (59.57%).

An uncertain but relatively large percentage of Arunachal's population are animist, and follow shamanistic-animistic religious traditions such as Donyi-Polo
Donyi-Polo
Donyi-Polo is an animist religion, literally meaning "Sun-Moon" . It is followed by many of the tribal groups of Arunachal Pradesh, India like the Galos, Adis, Apatanis, Nishis, Hill Miris, Mishings...

 (in the Tani area) and Rangfrah
Rangfrah
Rangfarah is the only indigenous religion of Tangsa community of Arunachal Pradesh.The concept of God was dormant in Tangsa community for centuries. Christianity was the only religion people adopted by this community...

 (further east). A small number of Arunachali peoples have traditionally identified as Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s, although the number is growing as animist traditions are merged with Hindu traditions. Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and India . It is the state religion of Bhutan...

 predominates in the districts of Tawang, West Kameng
West Kameng
West Kameng is a district of Arunachal Pradesh in India. It accounts for 8.86% of the total area of the state. Under Chinese sovereignty claim, West Kameng falls under the jurisdiction of Cuona County of Shannan Prefecture of the Tibet Autonomous Region...

, and isolated regions adjacent to Tibet
Tibet
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people...

. Theravada Buddhism is practiced by groups living near the Burmese border. Around 19% of the population are said to be followers of the Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

 faith, and this percentage is probably growing due to Christian missionary activities in the area.

According to the 2001 Indian Census, the religions of Arunachal Pradesh break down as follows:
  • Hindu: 379,935 (34.6%)
  • Others (mostly Donyi-Polo
    Donyi-Polo
    Donyi-Polo is an animist religion, literally meaning "Sun-Moon" . It is followed by many of the tribal groups of Arunachal Pradesh, India like the Galos, Adis, Apatanis, Nishis, Hill Miris, Mishings...

    ): 337,399 (30.7%)
  • Christian: 205,548 (18.7%)
  • Buddhist: 143,028 (13.0%)
  • Muslim: 20,675 (1.9%)
  • Sikh
    Sikhism
    Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak Dev and continued to progress with ten successive Sikh Gurus . It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing...

    : 1,865 (0.1%)
  • Jain
    Jainism
    Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

    : 216 (<0.1%)


A law has been enacted to protect the indigenous religions (e.g., Donyi-Poloism, Buddhism) in Arunanchal Pradesh against the spread of other religions, though no comparable law exists to protect the other religions.

Transport



The state's airports are located at Daparjio, Ziro
Ziro
Ziro is a census town in Lower Subansiri district in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh.-Geography:Ziro is the district headquarter of Lower Subansiri district and is one of the oldest towns in Arunachal Pradesh. It was the headquarters of the undivided Subansiri district comprising the present...

, Along, Tezu
Tezu
Tezu is a census town and the headquarters of Lohit district in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh.The ancient inhabitant of this land of valley and rivers are the Mishmi tribes. The Mishmi tribes have traditions and customs dating back to the times of Mahabharata. According to sacred Hindu...

 and Pasighat. However, owing to the rough terrain, these airports are mostly small and cannot handle many flights. Before being connected by road, they were originally used for the transportation of food.

Arunachal Pradesh has two highways: the 336 km (208.8 mi) National Highway 52, completed in 1998, which connects Jonai
Jonai
Jonai is a sub-division of Dhemaji District in the state of Assam in India. According to 2001 consensus, the population of Jonai is 143,199. Jonai has a literacy rate of 48.78% according to 2001 census...

 with Dirak, and another highway, which connects Tezpur
Tezpur
Tezpur is a city and the administrative headquarters and municipal board of Sonitpur district in the state of Assam in northeastern India. Tezpur is an ancient city on the banks of the river Brahmaputra and is the largest of the north bank towns with a population exceeding 100,000...

 in Assam
Assam
Assam , also, rarely, Assam Valley and formerly the Assam Province , is a northeastern state of India and is one of the most culturally and geographically distinct regions of the country...

 with Tawang
Tawang Town
Tawang is a small town situated at an elevation of approximately 3,048 meters in the northwestern part of Arunachal Pradesh state of India. The area is historically Tibetan territory and is claimed by both People's Republic of China and Republic of China as a part of South Tibet...

.
As of 2007, every village has been connected by road thanks to funding provided by the central government. Every small town has its own bus station and daily bus services are available. All places are connected to Assam
Assam
Assam , also, rarely, Assam Valley and formerly the Assam Province , is a northeastern state of India and is one of the most culturally and geographically distinct regions of the country...

, which has increased trading activity. An additional National Highway is being constructed following the famous Stillwell Ledo Road
Ledo Road
The Ledo Road was built during World War II so that the Western Allies could supply the Chinese as an alternative to the Burma Road which had been cut by the Japanese in 1942. It was renamed the Stilwell Road in early 1945 at the suggestion of Chiang Kai-shek...

, which connects Ledo in Assam to Jairampur in Arunachal.

Education


The current education system in Arunachal Pradesh is relatively underdeveloped. The state government is expanding the education system in concert with NGOs like Vivekananda Kendra
Vivekananda Kendra
Vivekananda Kendra is a Hindu spiritual organisation based on the principles preached by Swami Vivekananda. It was founded 7 January 1972 in Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India by Shri Ekanathji Ranade. Its current president is P. Parameswaran.-Sphere of influence:...

. With this, the state's literacy rate has had a sharp improvement in the recent past through the schools run by the Catholic Diocese of Miao, under the leadership of Bishop George Pallipparambil. The state has 33 schools under his patronage, expanding from Tirap District in the extreme east and Lohit and Changlang Districts in the central part of Arunachal Pradesh. There are nine Government Colleges, affiliated to the Rajiv Gandhi University, Doimukh. The first college, Jawaharlal Nehru College, Pasighat, was established in 1964; the college has been recognised by the UGC as a College with Potential For Excellence. The College was awarded B++ by the NAAC.

The state has several reputable schools, colleges, and institutions. There are also trust institutes like Pali Vidyapith run by Buddhists. They teach Pali and Khamti
Khamti
The Khamti, whose name is also spelled as Hkamti by the Burmese and Khampti by the Assamese, is a sub-group of the Shan people found in the Sagaing Division, Hkamti District in northwestern Burma as well as Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh in India. Smaller numbers can be found in parts of Assam...

 scripts in addition to typical education subjects. Khamti
Khamti
The Khamti, whose name is also spelled as Hkamti by the Burmese and Khampti by the Assamese, is a sub-group of the Shan people found in the Sagaing Division, Hkamti District in northwestern Burma as well as Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh in India. Smaller numbers can be found in parts of Assam...

 is the only tribe in Arunachal Pradesh that has its own script. Libraries of sciptures are in a number of places in Lohit district
Lohit district
Lohit is an administrative district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India. The district headquarters are located at Tezu. As of 2011 it is the third most populous district of Arunachal Pradesh , after Papum Pare and Changlang.-Etymology:...

, the largest one in Chowkham.

Rajiv Gandhi University
Rajiv Gandhi University
Rajiv Gandhi University earlier known as Arunachal University, established in 1984, is a university in the State of Arunachal Pradesh.-Introduction:...

 (formerly known as Arunachal University) is the premier educational institution, the only university, and North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology the only deemed university in the state. Additionally, there are nine government colleges and four private colleges in different districts, providing students a higher education. NERIST plays an important role in technical and management higher education. The directorate of technical education conducts examinations yearly, so that students who qualify can continue on to higher studies in other states.

The state has two polytechnic institutions: Rajiv Gandhi Government Polytechnic in Itanagar and Tomi Polytechnic College in Basar.
Sl. No. Polytechnic colleges Location Established
1 Rajiv Gandhi Govt. Polytechnic Itanagar 2002
2 Tomi Polytechnic College Basar 2006

Tourism




Arunachal Pradesh attracts tourists from many parts of the world. Tourist attractions include Tawang, a beautiful town famous for its Buddhist monastery, Ziro
Ziro
Ziro is a census town in Lower Subansiri district in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh.-Geography:Ziro is the district headquarter of Lower Subansiri district and is one of the oldest towns in Arunachal Pradesh. It was the headquarters of the undivided Subansiri district comprising the present...

, famous for cultural festivals, the Namdapha tiger project in Changlang
Changlang
Changlang is a census town and headquarters of the Changlang district in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. Its native people includes Tangsa Naga, Lisu, Nocte, Singpho and many more....

 district and Sela lake near Bomdila
Bomdila
Bomdila is the headquarters of West Kameng district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India.-Geography:Bomdila is located at . It has an average elevation of 2217 metres .-Demographics:...

 with its bamboo
Bamboo
Bamboo is a group of perennial evergreens in the true grass family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family....

 bridges overhanging the river. Religious places of interest include Malinithan in Lekhabali, Rukhmininagar near Roing
Roing
Roing is a census town in Lower Dibang Valley district in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh.-Demographics: India census, Roing had a population of 10,106. Males constitute 57% of the population and females 43%. Roing has an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national average of...

 (the place where Rukmini, Lord Krishna's wife in Hindu mythology, is said to have lived), and Parshuram Kund in Lohit district
Lohit district
Lohit is an administrative district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India. The district headquarters are located at Tezu. As of 2011 it is the third most populous district of Arunachal Pradesh , after Papum Pare and Changlang.-Etymology:...

 (which is believed to be the lake where Parshuram washed away his sins). Rafting and trekking are common activities. A visitor's permit from the tourism department is required. Places like Tuting have wonderful, undiscovered scenic beauty.

The state is rich in wildlife. Perhaps the highest diversity of mammals in India is in Arunachal Pradesh (200+ species). The diversity of birds is also very high, 700+ and is second only to Assam.

State Symbols

State Bird State Flower State Animal State Tree
Hornbill
Hornbill
Hornbills are a family of bird found in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Melanesia. They are characterized by a long, down-curved bill which is frequently brightly-colored and sometimes has a casque on the upper mandible. Both the common English and the scientific name of the family...

Foxtail Orchid
Rhynchostylis gigantea
Rhynchostylis gigantea is a species of orchid. This species was first described in 1896 by Lindley and occurs in Myanamar, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Hainan China, Borneo,Bangladesh and the Philippines....

Bos Frontalis Hollong


See also





External links