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Arterivirus

Arterivirus

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Encyclopedia
Arterivirus is a genus of virus
Virus
A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms. Viruses infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea...

, with type species equine arteritis virus
Equine viral arteritis
Equine viral arteritis is a disease of horses caused by an RNA virus of the genus Arterivirus. The virus which causes EVA was first isolated from horses in Ohio in 1953 but the disease has afflicted equine animals worldwide for centuries. It has been more common in some breeds of horses in the...

. In 1996, the family Arteriviridae was included within the order Nidovirales
Nidovirales
The Nidovirales are an order of viruses with animal hosts. It includes the families Coronaviridae, Arterivirus and Roniviridae.-Virology:...

. Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an icosahedral core containing a positive-sense RNA
RNA
Ribonucleic acid , or RNA, is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life....

 genome. The family includes equine arteritis virus
Equine viral arteritis
Equine viral arteritis is a disease of horses caused by an RNA virus of the genus Arterivirus. The virus which causes EVA was first isolated from horses in Ohio in 1953 but the disease has afflicted equine animals worldwide for centuries. It has been more common in some breeds of horses in the...

 (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus , also known as blue-ear pig disease , is a virus that causes a disease of pigs, called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome . This economically important, pandemic disease causes reproductive failure in breeding stock and respiratory...

 (PRRSV), lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus
Lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus
Lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus, or LDV for short, belongs to part of the arteriviridae family and the nidovirales order. Also included in the nidovirales order are the coronaviridae. The arteriviridae infect macrophages in animals and cause a variety of diseases...

 (LDV) of mice and simian haemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Three of these viruses were first discovered and characterized in the 1950/60s, whereas PRRSV was first isolated in Europe and in North America in the early 1990s. The arteriviruses are highly species specific, but share many biological and molecular properties, including virion morphology, a unique set of structural proteins, genome organization and replication strategy, and the ability to establish prolonged or true persistent infection in their natural hosts. However, the epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology is the study of health-event, health-characteristic, or health-determinant patterns in a population. It is the cornerstone method of public health research, and helps inform policy decisions and evidence-based medicine by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive...

 and pathogenesis
Pathogenesis
The pathogenesis of a disease is the mechanism by which the disease is caused. The term can also be used to describe the origin and development of the disease and whether it is acute, chronic or recurrent...

of the infection caused by each virus is distinct, as are the diseases they cause.

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