Ark of the Covenant

Ark of the Covenant

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The Ark of the Covenant ({{lang-he|אָרוֹן הָבְּרִית}} Ārōn Hāb’rīt, modern pron. Aron Habrit), also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a chest described in [[Book of Exodus]] as solely containing the [[Tablets of Stone]] on which the [[Ten Commandments]] were inscribed. According to some traditional interpretations of the [[Book of Exodus]], [[Book of Numbers]], and the [[Letter to the Hebrews]] the Ark also contained [[Aaron's rod]], a jar of [[manna]] and the first [[Torah scroll]] as written by [[Moses]]. However, [[Books of Kings]] is categoric in declaring that the Ark contained only the two Tablets of the Law. According to the [[Book of Exodus]], the Ark was built at the command of God, in accordance with the instructions given to [[Moses]] on [[Biblical Mount Sinai|Mount Sinai]]. God was said to have communicated with Moses "from between the two [[cherub]]im" on the Ark's cover. [[Rashi]] and some [[Midrash]]im suggest that there were two arks - a temporary one made by Moses himself, and a later one constructed by [[Bezalel]]. [[File:Schrana01.jpg|thumb|right|380px|The covered ark with golden staves carried by the Kohanim, and seven priests with rams' horns, at the siege of Jericho.]]The biblical account relates that during the Israelites' [[The Exodus|exodus from Egypt]], the Ark was carried by the priests some 2,000 [[cubit]]s in advance of the people and their army, or host. When the Ark was borne by priests into the bed of the [[Jordan River|Jordan]], water in the river separated, opening a pathway for the entire host to pass through (Josh. 3:15-16; 4:7-18). The city of [[Jericho]] was taken with no more than a shout after the Ark of the Covenant was paraded for seven days around its wall by seven priests sounding seven trumpets of [[shofar|rams' horns]] (Josh. 6:4-20). When carried, the Ark was always wrapped in a veil, in [[tachash]] skins and a blue cloth, and was carefully concealed, even from the eyes of the [[Kohen|Kohanim]] who carried it. There are no contemporary extra-biblical references to the Ark.

Construction and description

According to the [[Book of Exodus]], [[God of Israel|God]] instructed [[Moses]] on [[Biblical Mount Sinai|Mount Sinai]] during his 40 day stay upon the mountain within the thick cloud and darkness where God was (Ex. 19:20; 24:18) and he was shown the pattern for the tabernacle and furnishings of the Ark to be made of [[Shittim Wood|shittim-wood]] to house the [[Tablets of Stone]]. Moses instructed [[Bezalel]] and [[Oholiab]] to construct the Ark (Exodus 31). The Book of Exodus gives detailed instructions on how the Ark is to be constructed. It is to be 2½ [[cubit]]s in length, 1½ in breadth, and 1½ in height (as {{convert/3 |2+1/2|x|1+1/2|x|1+1/2|royal cubit|m|disp=or}}). Then it is to be plated entirely with [[gold]], and a crown or molding of gold is to be put around it. Four rings of gold are to be attached—two on each side—and through these rings staves of shittim-wood overlaid with gold for carrying the Ark are to be inserted; and these are not to be removed. A golden cover, adorned with golden [[cherub]]im, is to be placed above the Ark. The Ark is finally to be placed behind a veil ([[Parochet]]), a full description of which is also given.

Mobile vanguard

[[File:Tissot Moses and Joshua in the Tabernacle.jpg|280px|thumb|right|Moses and Joshua bowing before the Ark, painting by James Jacques Joseph Tissot, c. 1900]] [[File:Figures The erection of the Tabernacle and the Sacred vessels.jpg|thumb|right|280px|1728 illustration of the Ark at the erection of the Tabernacle and the sacred vessels, as in Exodus 40:17-19]] After its creation by Moses, the Ark was carried by the [[Israelites]] during their 40-years of wandering in the desert. Whenever the Israelites camped, the Ark was placed in a special and sacred [[tent]], called the [[Tabernacle]]. When the Israelites, led by [[Joshua]] toward the [[Promised Land]], arrived at the banks of the [[River Jordan]], the Ark was carried in the lead preceding the people and was the signal for their advance (Joshua 3:3, 6). During the crossing, the river grew dry as soon as the feet of the priests carrying the Ark touched its waters, and remained so until the priests—with the Ark—left the river after the people had passed over (Josh. 3:15-17; 4:10, 11, 18). As memorials, [[Twelve Stones|twelve stones]] were taken from the Jordan at the place where the priests had stood (Josh. 4:1-9). In the [[Battle of Jericho]], the Ark was carried round the city once a day for seven days, preceded by the armed men and seven priests sounding seven trumpets of rams' horns (Josh. 6:4-15). On the seventh day, the seven priests sounding the seven trumpets of rams' horns before the Ark compassed the city seven times and, with a great shout, Jericho's wall fell down flat and the people took the city (Josh. 6:16-20). After the defeat at [[Ai (Bible)|Ai]], Joshua lamented before the Ark (Josh. 7:6-9). When Joshua read the Law to the people between [[Mount Gerizim]] and [[Mount Ebal]], they stood on each side of the Ark. The Ark was again set up by Joshua at [[Shiloh (Biblical)|Shiloh]], but when the Israelites fought against Benjamin at [[Gibeah]], they had the Ark with them and consulted it after their defeat.

Capture by the Philistines

{{Main|Philistine captivity of the Ark}} The Ark is next spoken of as being in the Tabernacle at [[Shiloh (Biblical city)|Shiloh]] during Samuel's apprenticeship (1 Sam. 3:3). After the settlement of the Israelites in [[Canaan]], the Ark remained in the Tabernacle at [[Gilgal]] for a season before being removed to Shiloh until the time of [[Eli (Judges)|Eli]], between 300 and 400 years ([[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]] 7:12), when it was carried into the field of battle, so as to secure, as they had hoped, victory to the Hebrews. The Ark was taken by the [[Philistines]] (1 Sam. 4:3-11) who subsequently sent it back after retaining it for seven months (1 Sam. 5:7, 8) because of the events said to have transpired. After their first defeat at [[Eben-ezer]], the Israelites had the Ark brought from Shiloh, and welcomed its coming with great rejoicing. In the second battle, the Israelites were again defeated, and the Philistines captured the Ark (1 Sam. 4:3-5, 10, 11). The news of its capture was at once taken to Shiloh by a messenger "with his clothes rent, and with earth upon his head." The old priest, Eli, fell dead when he heard it; and his daughter-in-law, bearing a son at the time the news of the capture of the Ark was received, named him [[Ichabod]]—explained as "The glory has departed Israel." in reference to the loss of the Ark (1 Sam. 4:12-22). The Philistines took the Ark to several places in their country, and at each place misfortune befell them (1 Sam. 5:1-6). At [[Ashdod]] it was placed in the temple of [[Dagon]]. The next morning Dagon was found prostrate, bowed down, before it; and on being restored to his place, he was on the following morning again found prostrate and broken. The people of Ashdod were smitten with [[tumors]]; a plague of rats was sent over the land (1 Sam. 6:5). The affliction of boils was also visited upon the people of [[Gath (city)|Gath]] and of [[Ekron]], whither the Ark was successively removed (1 Sam. 5:8-12). After the Ark had been among them for seven months, the Philistines, on the advice of their diviners, returned it to the Israelites, accompanying its return with an offering consisting of golden images of the tumors and rats wherewith they had been afflicted. The Ark was set in the field of Joshua the [[Beth-shemesh|Beth-shemite]], and the Beth-shemites offered sacrifices and burnt offerings (1 Sam. 6:1-15). Out of curiosity the men of [[Beth-shemesh]] gazed at the Ark; and as a punishment, seventy of them (fifty thousand seventy in some ms.) were smitten by the Lord (1 Sam. 6:19). The Bethshemites sent to [[Kirjath-jearim]], or Baal-Judah, to have the Ark removed (1 Sam. 6:21); and it was taken to the house of [[Abinadab]], whose son [[Eleazar (son of Aminadab)|Eleazar]] was sanctified to keep it. Kirjath-jearim remained the abode of the Ark for twenty years. Under Saul, the Ark was with the army before he first met the Philistines, but the king was too impatient to consult it before engaging in battle. In [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]] 13:3 it is stated that the people were not accustomed to consult the Ark in the days of [[Saul]].

In the days of King David

[[File:Morgan-bible-fl-39.jpg|thumb|left|290px|Illustration from the 13th century [[Morgan Bible]] of David bringing the Ark into Jerusalem (2 Samuel 6).]] At the beginning of his reign, King [[David]] removed the Ark from [[Kirjath-jearim]] amid great rejoicing. On the way to [[Zion]], [[Uzzah]], one of the drivers of the cart whereon the Ark was carried, put out his hand to steady the Ark, and was smitten by God for touching it. David, in fear, carried the Ark aside into the house of [[Obed-edom]] the [[Gath (city)|Gittite]], instead of carrying it on to Zion, and there it stayed three months (2 Samuel 6:1-11; 1 Chronicles 13:1-13). On hearing that God had blessed Obed-edom because of the presence of the Ark in his house, David had the Ark brought to Zion by the [[Levite]]s, while he himself, "girded with a linen [[ephod]]," "danced before the Lord with all his might" and in the sight of all the public gathered in Jerusalem — a performance that caused him to be scornfully rebuked by his first wife, Saul's daughter [[Michal]] (2 Sam. 6:12-16, 20-22; 1 Chron. 15). In Zion, David put the Ark in the tabernacle he had prepared for it, offered sacrifices, distributed food, and blessed the people and his own household (2 Sam. 6:17-20; 1 Chron. 16:1-3; 2 Chron. 1:4). The Levites were appointed to minister before the Ark (1 Chron. 16:4). David's plan of building a temple for the Ark was stopped at the advice of God (2 Sam. 7:1-17; 1 Chron. 17:1-15; 28:2, 3). The Ark was with the army during the siege of [[Rabbah]] (2 Sam. 11:11); and when David fled from Jerusalem at the time of [[Absalom]]'s conspiracy, the Ark was carried along with him until he ordered [[Zadok (High Priest)|Zadok]] the priest to return it to Jerusalem (2 Sam. 15:24-29).

In Solomon's Temple

[[File:Folio 29r - The Ark of God Carried into the Temple.jpg|thumb|The Ark carried into the Temple from the early 15th century [[Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry]]]] When [[Abiathar]] was dismissed from the priesthood by King [[Solomon]] for having taken part in [[Adonijah]]'s [[conspiracy (political)|conspiracy]] against David, his life was spared because he had formerly borne the Ark (1 Kings 2:26). Solomon worshipped before the Ark after his dream in which God promised him wisdom (1 Kings 3:15). During the construction of [[Solomon's Temple]], a special inner room, named [[Kodesh Hakodashim]] (Eng. [[Holy of Holies]]), was prepared to receive and house the Ark (1 Kings 6:19); and when the Temple was dedicated, the Ark—containing the original [[Tablets of Stone|tablets]] of the [[Ten Commandments]]—was placed therein (1 Kings 8:6-9). When the priests emerged from the holy place after placing the Ark there, the Temple was filled with a cloud, "for the glory of the Lord had filled the house of the Lord" (1 Kings 8:10-11; 2 Chron. 5:13, 14). When Solomon married Pharaoh's daughter, he caused her to dwell in a house outside [[Zion]], as Zion was consecrated because of its containing the Ark (2 Chron. 8:11). King Josiah had the Ark put in the Temple (2 Chron. 35:3), whence it appears to have again been removed by one of his successors.

The Babylonian Conquest and aftermath

In 586 BC, the [[Babylonia]]ns [[Siege of Jerusalem (597 BC)|destroyed Jerusalem]] and Solomon's Temple. There is no record of what became of the Ark in the Books of Kings and Chronicles. But in Greek 3-d Book of Ezra (1 Esdras) suggests that Babylonians: "...took all the holy vessels of the Lord, both great and small, and the ark of God, and the king's treasures, and carried them away into Babylon." (1 Esdras 1:54)

Book of Revelation

According to the Christian New Testament [[Book of Revelation]], the Ark is in the Temple of God in Heaven in vision: "Then God's temple in heaven was opened, and within his temple was seen the Ark of his Covenant" (Rev. 11:19 NIV).

Jewish Tanakh

The Ark is first mentioned in the [[Book of Exodus]], and then numerous times in [[Deuteronomy]], [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]], [[Book of Judges|Judges]], [[I Samuel]], [[II Samuel]], [[I Kings]], [[I Chronicles]], [[II Chronicles]], [[Psalms]] and [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]. In the Book of Jeremiah, it is referenced by [[Jeremiah (prophet)|Jeremiah]], who, speaking in the days of [[Josiah]] (Jer. 3:16), prophesied a future time when the Ark will no longer be talked about or be made again.

Second Book of Maccabees

{{See also|Books of the Maccabees}} In the Jewish [[Deuterocanonical books|Deuterocanonical book]] [[Second Maccabees]], Chapter 2, "one finds in the records" that Jeremiah, having received an oracle of the Lord, ordered that the tent and the ark and the altar of incense should follow him to the [[Biblical Mount Sinai|mountain of God]] where he sealed them up in a cave, and he told those who followed him in order to mark the way, but they could not find it, "The place shall remain unknown until God gathers his people together again and shows his mercy, and then the Lord will disclose these things, and the glory of the Lord and the cloud shall appear, as they were shown in the case of Moses, and as Solomon asked that the place be specially consecrated." [ 2 Maccabees 2:4-8]

Christian New Testament

[[File:Cathédrale d'Auch 20.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Carrying the Ark of the Covenant: gilded bas-relief at the [[Auch Cathedral]]]] In the [[New Testament]], the Ark is mentioned in the [[Letter to the Hebrews]] and the [[Book of Revelation|Revelation to St. John]]. {{bibleverse||Hebrews|9:4|NIV}} states that the Ark contained "the golden pot that had [[manna]], and [[Aaron's rod]] that budded, and the tablets of the covenant." {{bibleverse||Revelation|11:19|NIV}} says the prophet saw God's temple in heaven opened, "and the ark of his covenant was seen within his temple." A number of [[Roman Catholic]] writers connect this verse with the [[Woman of the Apocalypse]] in {{bibleverse||Revelation|12:1|NIV}}, which immediately follows, and argue that the [[Blessed Virgin Mary (Roman Catholic)|Blessed Virgin Mary]] is the "Ark of the New Covenant." Carrying the saviour of mankind within her, she herself became the [[Holy of Holies]]. This is the interpretation given in the fourth century by Saint [[Ambrose]], [[Ephrem the Syrian|Saint Ephraem of Syria]] and [[Augustine of Hippo|Saint Augustine]]. [[Athanasius of Alexandria|Athanasius]] the bishop of Alexandria wrote about the connections between the Ark and the Virgin Mary: "O noble Virgin, truly you are greater than any other greatness. For who is your equal in greatness, O dwelling place of God the Word? To whom among all creatures shall I compare you, O Virgin? You are greater than them all O (Ark of the) Covenant, clothed with purity instead of gold! You are the Ark in which is found the golden vessel containing the true manna, that is, the flesh in which Divinity resides" (Homily of the Papyrus of Turin).


In chapter 2 of the Islamic Quran (Verse 248), the Children of Israel, at the time of [[Samuel]] and [[Saul]], were given back the Tabut E Sakina (the casket of [[Shekhinah]]) which contained remnants of the household of [[Musa]] (Moses) and [[Islamic view of Aaron|Harun]] (Aaron) carried by angels which confirmed peace and reassurance for them from their Lord. The [[Qur'an]] states: {{quote|And (further) their Prophet said to them: "A Sign of his authority is that there shall come to you the Ark of the covenant, with (an assurance) therein of security ([[Sakina]]) from your Lord, and the relics left by the family of Moses and the family of Aaron, carried by angels. In this is a symbol for you if ye indeed have faith.}} The Islamic scholar [[Baidawi|Al Baidawi]] mentioned that the sakina could be [[Tawrat]], the Books of Moses. According to Al-Jalalan, the relics in the Ark were the fragments of the two tablets, rods, robes, shoes, mitres of Moses and the vase of manna. Al-Tha'alibi, in [[Qisas Al-Anbiya]] (The Stories of the Prophets), has given an earlier and later history of the Ark. According to most Muslim scholars, the Ark of the Covenant has a religious basis in Islam, and Islam gives it special significance. Shia sect of Muslims believe that it will be found by [[Mahdi]] near the [[Qiyamah|end of times]] from Lake Tiberias.

Rumoured current locations

Since its disappearance from the Biblical narrative, there have been a number of claims of having discovered or of having possession of the Ark, and several possible places have been suggested for its location.

Mount Nebo

[[2 Maccabees]] 2:4-10, written around 100 BC, says that the prophet [[Jeremiah]], "being warned by God" before the [[Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC)|Babylonian invasion]], took the Ark, the Tabernacle, and the Altar of Incense, and buried them in a cave on [[Mount Nebo (Jordan)]], informing those of his followers who wished to find the place that it should remain unknown "until the time that God should gather His people again together, and receive them unto mercy."


[[File:Ark of the Covenant church in Axum Ethiopia.jpg|thumb|right|The Chapel of the Tablet at the [[Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion]] in [[Axum]] allegedly houses the original Ark of the Covenant.]] The [[Ethiopian Orthodox Church]] claims to possess the Ark of the Covenant, or [[Tabot]], in [[Axum, Ethiopia|Axum]]. The object is currently kept under guard in a treasury near the [[Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion]] and is used occasionally in ritual processions. Replicas of the Axum tabot are kept in every Ethiopian church, each with its own dedication to a particular saint, the most popular of these include Mary, George and Michael. The [[Kebra Nagast]], composed to legitimise the new dynasty ruling [[Ethiopia]] following its establishment in 1270, narrates how the real Ark of the Covenant was brought to Ethiopia by [[Menelik I]] with divine assistance, while a forgery was left in the Temple in Jerusalem. Although the Kebra Nagast is the best-known account of this belief, the belief predates the document. [[Abu al-Makarim|Abu Salih the Armenian]], writing in the last quarter of the twelfth century, makes one early reference to this belief that they possessed the Ark. "The Abyssinians possess also the Ark of the Covenant", he wrote, and, after a description of the object, describes how the liturgy is celebrated upon the Ark four times a year, "on the feast of the great nativity, on the feast of the glorious Baptism, on the feast of the holy Resurrection, and on the feast of the illuminating Cross." On 25 June 2009, the patriarch of the Orthodox Church of Ethiopia, [[Abune Paulos]], said he would announce to the world the next day the unveiling of the Ark of the Covenant, which he said had been kept safe and secure in a church in Axum, Ethiopia. The following day, on 26 June 2009, the patriarch announced that he would not unveil the Ark after all, but that instead he could attest to its current status.

Southern Africa

The [[Lemba people]] of South Africa and Zimbabwe have claimed that their ancestors carried the Ark south, calling it the [[ngoma lungundu]] or "voice of God", eventually hiding it in a deep cave in the Dumghe mountains, their spiritual home. On 14 April 2008, in a UK [[Channel 4]] documentary broadcast, [[Tudor Parfitt]], taking a literalist approach to the Biblical story, described his research into this claim. He says that the object described by the Lemba has attributes similar to the Ark. It was of similar size, was carried on poles by priests, was not allowed to touch the ground, was revered as a voice of their God, and was used as a weapon of great power, sweeping enemies aside.{{Citation needed|date=August 2009}} In his book The Lost Ark of the Covenant (2008), Parfitt also suggests that the Ark was taken to Arabia following the [[Second Book of Maccabees]], and cites Arabic sources which maintain it was brought in distant times to [[Yemen]]. One Lemba clan, the Buba, which was supposed to have brought the Ark to Africa, have a genetic signature called the [[Cohen Modal Haplotype]]. This suggests a male Semitic link to the [[Levant]]. Lemba tradition maintains that the Ark spent some time in [[Sena, Yemen|Sena]] in Yemen. Later, it was taken across the sea to East Africa and may have been taken inland at the time of the [[Great Zimbabwe civilization]]. According to their oral traditions, some time after the arrival of the Lemba with the Ark, it self-destructed. Using a core from the original, the Lemba priests constructed a new one. This replica was discovered in a cave by a [[Sweden|Swedish]] [[Germany|German]] missionary named Harald von Sicard in the 1940s and eventually found its way to the Museum of Human Science in [[Harare]]. Parfitt had this artifact radio-[[carbon dating|carbon dated]] to about 1350 AD, which coincided with the sudden end of the [[Kingdom of Zimbabwe|Great Zimbabwe civilization]].

Chartres Cathedral, France

French author Louis Charpentier claimed that the Ark was taken to [[Chartres Cathedral]] by the [[Knights Templar]].

Rennes-le-Château, then to America

Several recent authors have theorised that the Ark was taken from Jerusalem to the village of [[Rennes-le-Château]] in Southern France. Karen Ralls has cited Freemason Patrick Byrne, who believes the Ark was moved from Rennes-le-Château at the outbreak of World War I to America.


The Ark of the Covenant is alleged to be kept in the [[Basilica of St. John Lateran]], surviving the pillages of Rome by [[Genseric]] and [[Alaric I]].

United Kingdom

In 2003, author [[Graham Phillips (author)|Graham Phillips]] hypothetically concluded that the Ark was taken to [[Biblical Mount Sinai|Mount Sinai]] in the Valley of [[Edom]] by the [[Maccabees]]. Phillips claims it remained there until the 1180s, when [[Ralph de Sudeley]], the leader of the [[Knights Templar|Templars]] found the Maccabean treasure at [[Jebel al-Madhbah]], returned home to his estate at [[Herdewyke]] in [[Warwickshire]], [[United Kingdom|UK]], taking the treasure with him.


During the turn of the 20th century [[British Israelism|British Israelites]] carried out some excavations of the [[Hill of Tara]] in [[Republic of Ireland|Ireland]] looking for the Ark of the Covenant – the [[Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland]] campaigned successfully to have them stopped before they destroyed the hill.

In popular culture

* The Ark of the Covenant is the main focus of [[Steven Spielberg]]'s 1981 film [[Raiders of the Lost Ark]].

See also

{{Commons category|Ark of the Covenant}} * [[Foucault's Pendulum (book)]] * [[History of ancient Israel and Judah]] * [[Israel]] * [[Jewish symbolism]] * [[List of artifacts significant to the Bible]] * [[Lost history]] * [[Mikoshi]] * [[Rastafari movement]] * [[Sanctuary]] * [[Science and the Bible]] * [[Theodulf]] * [[The Exodus Decoded]] (television documentary)

Further reading

* Carew, Mairead, Tara and the Ark of the Covenant: A Search for the Ark of the Covenant by British Israelites on the Hill of Tara, 1899-1902. Royal Irish Academy, 2003. ISBN 0-9543855-2-7 * [[Eric H. Cline|Cline, Eric H.]] (2007), From Eden to Exile: Unravelling Mysteries of the Bible, National Geographic Society, ISBN 978-1-4262-0084-7 * Fisher, Milton C., The Ark of the Covenant: Alive and Well in Ethiopia?. Bible and Spade 8/3, pp. 65–72, 1995. * Grierson, Roderick & Munro-Hay, Stuart, The Ark of the Covenant. Orion Books Ltd, 2000. ISBN 0-7538-1010-7 * [[Graham Hancock|Hancock, Graham]], [[The Sign and the Seal|The Sign and the Seal: The Quest for the Lost Ark of the Covenant]]. Touchstone Books, 1993. ISBN 0-671-86541-2 * Hertz, J.H., The Pentateuch and Haftoras. Deuteronomy. Oxford University Press, 1936. * Hubbard, David (1956) The Literary Sources of the Kebra Nagast Ph.D. dissertation., St. Andrews University, Scotland *Munro-Hay, Stuart., The Quest For The Ark of The Covenant: The True History of The Tablets of Moses. L. B. Tauris & Co Ltd., 2006. ISBN 1-84511-248-2 * Ritmeyer, L., The Ark of the Covenant: Where it Stood in Solomon's Temple. Biblical Archaeology Review 22/1: 46-55, 70-73, 1996.

External links

{{Wikibooks}} * Portions of this article have been taken from the Jewish Encyclopedia of 1906. [ Ark of the Covenant] * Initial text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897. [ Ark of the Covenant] * The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. [ Ark of the Covenant] * [ Shemot (Exodus) - Chapter 25] * Israel National News. [ Kabbalist Blesses Jones: Now's the Time to Find Holy Lost Ark] * [ "Keepers of the Lost Ark?"] * Derby, Josiah, [ "The Gold of The Ark"], Jewish Bible Quarterly Journal. *Havergal, William Henry. Six Lectures on The Ark of The Covenant (London: Hamilton, Adams And Co, 1867). Available on Google Books. [] * Pendleton, Philip Y., [ A Brief Sketch of the Jewish Tabernacle]. 1901. (International Sunday-school Lessons for 1902. Standard Eclectic Commentary comprising original and selected notes, explanatory, illustrative, practical. Embellished with maps, diagrams, chronological charts, tables, etc.) * Schatz, Elihu, [ "The Weight of The Ark of The Covenant"], Jewish Bible Quarterly Journal. * Shyovitz, David, [ The Lost Ark of the Covenant]. Jewish Virtual Library. {{Ark of the Covenant}} {{Tabernacle and Jerusalem Temples}} {{Indiana Jones}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Ark Of The Covenant}}