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Arjun MBT

Arjun MBT

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The Arjun also called Nagari , is an abugida alphabet of India and Nepal...

) is a third generation main battle tank
Main battle tank
A main battle tank , also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the heavy direct fire role of many modern armies. They were originally conceived to replace the light, medium, heavy and super-heavy tanks. Development was spurred onwards in the Cold War with the development...

 developed by India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

's Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), for the Indian Army
Indian Army
The Indian Army is the land based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces. With about 1,100,000 soldiers in active service and about 1,150,000 reserve troops, the Indian Army is the world's largest standing volunteer army...

. The tank is named for Arjun
Arjuna
Arjuna in Indian mythology is the greatest warrior on earth and is one of the Pandavas, the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahābhārata. Arjuna, whose name means 'bright', 'shining', 'white' or 'silver' Arjuna (Devanagari: अर्जुन, Thai: อรชุน, Orachun, Tamil: Arjunan, Indonesian and Javanese: Harjuna,...

, a character in the Indian epic
Indian epic poetry
Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya . The Ramayana and Mahabharata, originally composed in Sanskrit and translated thereafter into many other Indian languages, are some of the oldest surviving epic poems on earth and form part of...

, Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

.

The Arjun features a 120 mm main rifled gun with indigenously developed APFSDS ammunition, one 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun
Machine gun
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm, usually designed to fire rounds in quick succession from an ammunition belt or large-capacity magazine, typically at a rate of several hundred rounds per minute....

, and a 12.7 mm machine gun. It is powered by a single MTU
MTU Friedrichshafen
MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH is a manufacturer of commercial internal combustion engines founded by Wilhelm Maybach and his son Karl Maybach in 1909...

 multi-fuel diesel engine rated at 1,400 hp, and can achieve a maximum speed of 70 km/h (43.5 mph) and a cross-country speed of 40 km/h (24.9 mph). It has a four-man crew: commander, gunner, loader and driver. Automatic fire detection and suppression, and NBC protection systems are included. All-round anti-tank warhead protection by the newly developed Kanchan armour
Kanchan armour
Kanchan Armour is the name informally given to a modular composite armour indigenously developed by India. The Kanchan Armour got its name from Kanchan Bagh , Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India where the Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory is located....

 is claimed to be much higher than available in comparable third generation tanks.

In March 2010, the Arjun was pitted against the T-90 in comparative trials and performed well. Subsequently delays and other problems in its development from the 1990s to the 2000s prompted the Indian Army to order vast numbers of T-90
T-90
The T-90 is a Russian third-generation main battle tank that is a modernisation of the T-72 . It is currently the most modern tank in service with the Russian Ground Forces and Naval Infantry...

S tanks from Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 to meet requirements that the Arjun had been expected to fulfill.

Army placed an order for an additional 124 tanks on May 17, 2010 and 124 Arjun Mk-II Tanks on August 9 2010.

The Arjun entered service with the Indian Army on 12 March 2011. The tanks were first inducted into the 75th Armoured Regiment in Jaisalmer
Jaisalmer
Jaysalmer , nicknamed "The Golden City", is a town in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is located west from the state capital Jaipur. It was once known as Jaisalmer state. The town stands on a ridge of yellowish sandstone, crowned by a fort, which contains the palace and several ornate Jain...

, replacing T-55
T-55
The T-54 and T-55 tanks were a series of main battle tanks designed in the Soviet Union. The first T-54 prototype appeared in March 1945, just before the end of the Second World War. The T-54 entered full production in 1947 and became the main tank for armored units of the Soviet Army, armies of...

 tanks.

Planning and development


The DRDO, with its Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) as the main laboratory, was tasked to develop the hull, armor, turret, running gear and gun for the tank, with the powerpack being imported.

Although the development of the tank began in 1972 by the CVRDE, it was only in 1996 that the Indian government decided to mass produce the tank at Indian Ordinance Factory's production facility in Avadi.

When first accepted for service in the army, the Arjun relied heavily on foreign components and technology. Initially close to 50% of the tank's components were imported, which included the engine, transmission, gun barrel, tracks, and fire control system. However, several of these have since been replaced by indigenous systems or are being supplied by Indian companies. Recent comments from Army sources indicate that the Russian T-90S will form the mainstay of its future force, despite that tank’s performance issues in hot weather.

The Arjun project experienced serious budget overruns and repeated delays that resulted in a development time of over 37 years. A complicating factor was that advances in technology and the threat environment in the intervening years led to multiple revision of requirements by the Army. While the government sanctioned for the initial design in May 1974, by 1995, DRDO had spent on development due to changing requirements and inflationary cost increases.

Production and deployment


The Indian Army ordered 124 Arjuns in 2000, expected to cost 471.2 million.

The first 45 tanks were delivered to the army between August 2004 and May 2009. More than 100 tanks have been delivered to the Indian Army by June 2011. After extensive field evaluations and tests, the tank entered service with the 75th Armoured Regiment on 12 May 2011.

Upgrades



As part of improving the Arjun to the Mark-II variant, DRDO is continuing to develop new technology systems for MBT Arjun, in order to improve performance in areas like automatic target locating, tracking and destruction. The Arjun MK-II variant is being developed in coordination with and with the involvement of the Indian Army and will feature several modifications that are being sought by it.

DRDO is developing the Tank Urban Survival Kit which is a series of improvements to the Arjun intended to improve fighting ability in urban environments which includes defensive aids like laser warning, IR jammer, and aerosol smoke grenade
Smoke grenade
Smoke grenades are canister-type grenades used as ground-to-ground or ground-to-air signaling devices, target or landing zone marking devices, or as screening devices for unit movements. Smoke grenades are normally considered non-lethal, although incorrect use may cause death...

 system.

CVRDE is in the process of developing tank simulators.
The upgrade also includes a new improved 1500 hp engine. An anti-helicopter round is under development as well.

Specifications


Weighing in at 58.5 tons, the Arjun tank is significantly heavier than the Soviet-legacy tanks used presently by the Indian Army, and required changes to the army's logistics
Military logistics
Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. In its most comprehensive sense, it is those aspects or military operations that deal with:...

 establishment, including new railroad car
Railroad car
A railroad car or railway vehicle , also known as a bogie in Indian English, is a vehicle on a rail transport system that is used for the carrying of cargo or passengers. Cars can be coupled together into a train and hauled by one or more locomotives...

s to transport the bigger and heavier Arjuns. The required logistical changes have been made but the cost of the whole project has increased.

Armament



Armed with a 120 mm rifled gun, the Arjun is believed to be capable of firing APFSDS (Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy
The kinetic energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion.It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes...

) rounds, HE, HEAT
Heat
In physics and thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one body, region, or thermodynamic system to another due to thermal contact or thermal radiation when the systems are at different temperatures. It is often described as one of the fundamental processes of energy transfer between...

, High Explosive Squash Head (HESH) rounds at the rate of 6-8 rounds per minute and the Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

i semi-active laser guided LAHAT
LAHAT
The LAHAT is a third generation semi-active laser homing low-weight anti-tank guided missile developed since 1992 and manufactured by Israel Aerospace Industries...

 missile. The LAHAT, developed in Israel, is a gun-launched missile and is designed to defeat both enemy armor and enemy combat helicopters. In addition, it is armed with a 12.7 mm AA machine gun
Machine gun
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm, usually designed to fire rounds in quick succession from an ammunition belt or large-capacity magazine, typically at a rate of several hundred rounds per minute....

 and a 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun. The Arjun can carry 39 rounds in special blast-proof canisters. The Arjun uses a manual loader and has a crewman to reload the gun.

Fire control and navigation


The computerized fire control system aboard Arjun has been jointly developed by DRDO with the Elbit,Israel. The Fire Control System is stabilised on two axes, and with an extremely high hit probability (design criteria call for a greater than 0.9 Pk
Probability of kill
Computer games, simulations, models, and operations research programs often require a mechanism to determine statistically whether the engagement between a weapon and a target resulted in a kill, or the probability of kill...

) replaces an earlier analogue one, which had problems due to its inability to function under the harsh desert conditions. The combined day sight from Bharat Electronics Ltd.
Bharat Electronics Limited
Bharat Electronics Limited is a state-owned electronics company with about nine factories, and few regional offices in India. It is owned by the Indian Government & primarily manufactures advanced electronic products for the Indian Armed Forces.BEL is one of the eight PSUs under Ministry of...

 and the thermal imager (formerly from Sagem, now reported to be from El-Op) constitute the gunner's primary sight. The first batch of tanks of the 124 ordered by the Army will have an all-digital Sagem FCS, whereas the second block will have the BEL
Bharat Electronics Limited
Bharat Electronics Limited is a state-owned electronics company with about nine factories, and few regional offices in India. It is owned by the Indian Government & primarily manufactures advanced electronic products for the Indian Armed Forces.BEL is one of the eight PSUs under Ministry of...

 unit, which will be used for all units thereafter. The commander's own stabilised panoramic sight allows him to engage targets and/or hand them over to the gunner. The Arjun has an auxiliary power unit to operate weapon systems in silent watch mode as well.

The tank incorporates GPS-based navigation systems and sophisticated frequency hopping
Frequency-hopping spread spectrum
Frequency-hopping spread spectrum is a method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels, using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver...

 radios. The state-of-the-art Battlefield Management System, co-developed by DRDO and Ebit Israel, allows it to network with other fighting units. The Arjun has the capability to network with other tanks, thanks to its Battle Management System. In a search and engage operation, several Arjun tanks can monitor an opponent and his moves, and try to eliminate him in a chase or ambush.

Protection


The turret and glacis
Glacis
A glacis in military engineering is an artificial slope of earth used in late European fortresses so constructed as to keep any potential assailant under the fire of the defenders until the last possible moment...

 are heavily armoured and use "Kanchan" ("gold") modular composite armour. The Kanchan armour
Kanchan armour
Kanchan Armour is the name informally given to a modular composite armour indigenously developed by India. The Kanchan Armour got its name from Kanchan Bagh , Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India where the Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory is located....

 got its name from Kanchan Bagh, Hyderabad, where the Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) is located. The armour is made by sandwiching composite panels between Rolled Homogenous Armor (RHA) to defeat APFDS or HEAT rounds. During the trials in 2000, the Kanchan was able to withstand a hit from a T-72
T-72
The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1970. It is developed directly from Obyekt-172, and shares parallel features with the T-64A...

 at point blank range, and was able to defeat all available HESH and APFSDS rounds, which included the Israeli APFSDS rounds. A new honeycomb design non-explosive and non-energetic reactive armour (NERA) armour is reportedly being tested on the Arjun.

A Mobile Camouflage System has been developed and integrated into the Arjun as part of the 'Development of Defensive Aids System' project. in collaboration with Barracuda Camouflage Limited,to reduce the vehicle signature against all known sensors and smart munitions.

An Advanced Laser Warning Countermeasure System (ALWCS) for the fire control system has been developed. This consists of a laser warning system, Infra-Red (IR) jammer and aerosol smoke grenade system. This is being developed jointly with Elbit Systems Limited of Israel. The ALWCS has been integrated on Arjun MBT and trials have been carried out.

Mobility


The engine and transmission are provided by German companies MTU
MTU Friedrichshafen
MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH is a manufacturer of commercial internal combustion engines founded by Wilhelm Maybach and his son Karl Maybach in 1909...

 and Renk
Renk
RENK AG is a German company, part of the MAN Group. It has its headquarters in Augsburg, and is producer of gears, other components of propulsion technology and test systems. It is currently the leading manufacturer of transmissions for tracked vehicles, worldwide and a major supplier for marine...

 respectively. The water-cooled engine generates 1,400 hp and is integrated with an Indian turbocharger
Turbocharger
A turbocharger, or turbo , from the Greek "τύρβη" is a centrifugal compressor powered by a turbine that is driven by an engine's exhaust gases. Its benefit lies with the compressor increasing the mass of air entering the engine , thereby resulting in greater performance...

 and epicyclic train gearbox with four forward and 2 reverse gears. A local transmission is under trials and it is envisioned to ultimately replace the Renk-supplied unit. The tracks which were being supplied by German company Diehl
Diehl
-People:*As a surname:**Arthur Diehl , English impressionist landscape artist**August Diehl , German actor**David Diehl , American football player**Ella Diehl , Russian badminton player...

 are now being manufactured by L&T
L&T
L&T may refer to:*Larsen & Toubro, India's largest engineering and construction conglomerate*Lord & Taylor, the oldest department store chain in the United States...

. The cooling pack has been designed for desert operations. The Arjun has a lower ground pressure
Ground pressure
Ground pressure is the pressure exerted on the ground by the tires or tracks of a motorized vehicle, and is one measure of its potential mobility, especially over soft ground. Ground pressure is measured in pascals which corresponds to the EES unit of pounds per square inch...

 than the lighter T-72, due to its design.

The Arjun features a hydro-pneumatic suspension
Suspension
Suspension may refer to:In science and engineering:*Suspension , in mathematics*Suspension , in mathematics*Suspension , mixture of two chemicals with the property that one does not rapidly settle out...

. This coupled with the Arjun's stabilisation and fire control system allows the tank excellent first-hit probability against moving targets while on the move. Its ride comfort is highly praised. Though on the negative side, it is a more maintenance-intensive and expensive system, even if more capable than the simpler and cheaper torsion bar system utilized on many older tanks worldwide. During trials, the Arjun showcased its fording capability, by driving under six feet of water for 20 minutes.

A new 1500 hp engine
Engine
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert energy into useful mechanical motion. Heat engines, including internal combustion engines and external combustion engines burn a fuel to create heat which is then used to create motion...

 is being developed that will eventually replace the present engine. An allocation of has been allocated for the project which is expected to be completed within five years.

Trials and exercise


In 1988-1989 two prototypes underwent automotive trials, which revealed major deficiencies in mobility, engine, and transmission.

Several prototypes underwent extensive mobility and armament trials, in 1996 and 1997. The Army found the performance of the prototypes below the acceptable standards and listed deficiencies in the following areas:
  1. accuracy of gun at battle ranges
  2. mission reliability
  3. ammunition lethality
  4. containerisation of ammunition bin
  5. emergency traverse
  6. fire control system unable to function in temperatures above 42 degrees Celsius (108 degrees Fahrenheit).


During summer trials in 2005, it was reported that the Arjun suffered major problems with its main gun sight, suspension system, and fire control system. Moreover, engine failures occurred commonly in temperatures averaging 55-60 degrees Celsius.

There are conflicting accounts of Arjun's trial results in 2006. In 2007, Major General H.M. Singh, a director in charge of trial and evaluation, said that the last year's user field trial report had certified that the accuracy and consistency of the weapon system was proved beyond doubt." However, the 2006 army trial results showed that "the decade-old problems of overheating persist" and that "tank’s main subsystems, the fire control system (FCS) and integrated gunner’s main sight, which includes a thermal imager and laser range-finder, are rendered erratic and useless by the Arjun’s abnormally high peak internal temperature, which moves well beyond 55 degrees Celsius. This is in testimony to the Parliamentary committee."

In 2007 the Arjun tank was fielded during the Ashwamedha exercise in the deserts of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

. The army was extremely unhappy with the tank, citing 14 defects that included "deficient fire control system", "inaccuracy of its guns", "low speeds in tactical areas" and "inability to operate over 50 degrees Celsius". "The Army is now faced with a troubling prospect: inducting a lumbering, misfiring, vintage design tank like the Arjun, and that, too, in large numbers". This, after DRDO over-shot Arjun’s project deadline by 16 years — from 1984 to 1995, finally closing the project only in 2000 — and the cost over-run is almost 20 times the original estimate. This is the highest percentage over-run for any DRDO project.

With the September 2007 winter trials, the Indian army deemed Arjun's performance unsatisfactory, including at least four engine failures.
DRDO, on the other hand, insisted the tank was a viable choice for adoption and suggested the unsatisfactory performance of the engine during the winter trials was due to sabotage.
The Auxiliary User Cum Reliability Trials (AUCRT) of the Arjun MBT were conducted from September 2007 to summer of 2008. In a report to the Parliamentary standing committee the Indian army deemed Arjun's performance unsatisfactory, including four engine failures within only 1000 kilometers. The defense minister presented this report before the parliament, later published by Press Information Bureau Government of India (PIB).

The Army wrote in the report that during the "accelerated user-cum-reliability trials" in 2008, the Arjun "was found to have failure of power packs, low accuracy and consistency, failure of hydropneumatic suspension units, shearing of top rollers and chipping of gun barrels". Sabotage was suspected, but the Army rejected that any sabotage happened during the trials. A later report published by the Government of India during the induction ceremony of the Arjun tank, confirms the success of the trial. "An independent evaluation of the tank by a reputed tank manufacturer found that the MBT Arjun is an excellent tank with very good mobility and fire power characteristics." DRDO installed an instrument to function as a black box
Black box
A black box is a device, object, or system whose inner workings are unknown; only the input, transfer, and output are known characteristics.The term black box can also refer to:-In science and technology:*Black box theory, a philosophical theory...

 in the Arjun, following attempts to "sabotage" its engine.

Subsequently in September 2008, the Indian Army signed a deal with Russia to import 347 T-90
T-90
The T-90 is a Russian third-generation main battle tank that is a modernisation of the T-72 . It is currently the most modern tank in service with the Russian Ground Forces and Naval Infantry...

 tanks and license build a further 1000. Transfer of key T-90 technologies has also been agreed upon as a part of the deal.

In 2008, the Indian Army announced plans to acquire an entirely new main battle tank unrelated to the Arjun, to be inducted after 2020. The Indian Army has held an "international seminar on future MBTs", during which the parameters and requirements of this future MBT were identified. As a result, Russia has offered to team with India on developing this future tank.
According to Jane's, the Indian Army had confirmed that the Arjun's production will be capped at 124 units.
According to the testimony to the Indian Parliament in the winter of 2008 by the Defense Minister, the Arjun's defects have been rectified "periodically", and the army has "categorically" indicated Arjun's performance as satisfactory. 124 Arjun tanks will be inducted into the army, one regiment by the end of 2008 and the next regiment by the summer of 2009. The tanks will enter service with 140 Armoured Brigade at Jaisalmer
Jaisalmer
Jaysalmer , nicknamed "The Golden City", is a town in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is located west from the state capital Jaipur. It was once known as Jaisalmer state. The town stands on a ridge of yellowish sandstone, crowned by a fort, which contains the palace and several ornate Jain...

. The Arjun was to undergo comparative trials against the Indian Army's Russian-built T-90 tanks in June 2009.

Retired Lt. Col. Anil Bhat, a strategic analyst, pointed out that “the Arjun tank is cumbersome for strategic movement, i.e. to be taken from one sector to another. It is too wide and too heavy to be moved in the railway carriages that we have in India. The comparative trials are just an eyewash as Arjun is incomparable to T-90" owing to the different weight class of both tanks. This comment by Lt. Col. Anil Bhat was made without realizing that Arjun-specific rail wagons have already been inducted.

A comparative trial was conducted by the Indian Army in March 2010, in which the Arjun was pitted against the Indian T-90. The trial pitted one squadron of Arjuns against an equal number of T-90s. Each squadron was given three tactical tasks; each involved driving across 50 kilometres of desert terrain and then shooting at a set of targets. Each tank had to fire at least ten rounds, stationary and on the move, with each hit being carefully logged. In total, each tank drove 150 km and fired between 30-50 rounds. The trials also checked the tanks’ ability to drive through water channels 5–6 feet deep.

Regarding the trial, a Ministry of Defence press release reported:

Variants

  • A 155 mm self-propelled howitzer variant of the Arjun (labelled 'Bhima
    Bhima
    In the Mahābhārata, Bhima is one of the central characters of Mahabharata and the second of the Pandava brothers...

    ') has been prototyped by fitting the South African Denel T6 turret, which comes with the G5 howitzer
    G5 howitzer
    The G5 is a South African towed howitzer of 155 mm calibre designed with the help of the Canadian scientist Gerald Bull and his company, Space Research Corporation and manufactured by Denel Land Systems.-Production history:...

     to the Arjun chassis. This project has been delayed as Denel has become embroiled in a corruption scandal in India, and hence the Indian Ministry of Defence has suspended the Bhim.
  • A bridge layer tank (BLT) based on the Arjun chassis has also been displayed by the DRDO. Developed in cooperation with Indian industry, this bridge layer is deemed superior to the T-72 based units, as it can handle a larger load and uses a "scissors type" bridgelaying method, which does not raise the bridge high up into the air, and hence make it visible from afar. India’s main battle tank, Arjun, has taken the “avatar” of a bridge laying tank (BLT). The R&DE(E) did this by replacing the tank’s gun and turret with the bridge launcher. The bridge is cantilevered over chasms or across rivers to cover a distance of 26 m with a width of 4 m. The BLT-Arjun carries two halves of a bridge. At a wet or dry gap, the launcher slides the two parts and docks them to each other in such a way that the far end of the second half touches the other bank. The BLT then crosses the bridge, turns around, retrieves the bridge after undocking its two halves, folds it and is ready to move with the armoured column.
  • Armoured engineering vehicles based on the Arjun are also assumed to be in development, as the Arjun induction will require units of a similar power-to-weight ratio or powerful enough to tow it, or recover it on the battlefield.
  • Tank EX: A new tank obtained by coupling a T-72 chassis and an Arjun turret. Only prototypes have been built so far.
  • An MBT Arjun Simulator comprising a driving simulator and turret simulator are being developed for troop level training.

Arjun Mk-II


DRDO chief VK Saraswat said the German engine on the current version of the tank would be replaced by an Indian power plant and the new variant (Arjun Mk-II) would have 90% indigenous component. Saraswat, also the scientific adviser to the defence minister, told HT at Aero India-2011: "The new variant will have high indigenous quotient, except for some hydraulic and electronic systems. The tank should be ready in early 2014. It will feature several modifications including superior missile firing capabilities." On June-2011 the Mk-II begun to undergo trials at Pokhran ranges in Rajasthan. The Mk-II is also expected to go through its winter trials later the same year.

According to CVRDE the Director P. Sivakumar, the Arjun Mark II will have a total of 93 upgrades, including 13 major improvements. The major upgrades would be missile-firing capability against long-range targets, panoramic sight with night vision to engage targets effectively at night, containerisation of the ammunition, enhanced main weapon penetration; additional ammunition types, explosive reactive armour, an advanced air-defence gun to engage helicopters; a mine plough, an advanced land navigation system and a warning system which can fire smoke grenades to confuse laser guidance. Other upgrades are an enhanced Auxiliary power unit
Auxiliary power unit
An auxiliary power unit is a device on a vehicle that provides energy for functions other than propulsion. They are commonly found on large aircraft, as well as some large land vehicles.-Function:...

 providing 8.5 KW (from 4.5 KW) and an improved gun barrel, changes in the commander's panoramic sight with eye safe LRF, night vision capability including for driver, digital control harness, new final drive, track and sprocket.

Arjun tank hull and turret has been modified to achieve the target weight of about 55 tons from 59-64 tons. Elbit is helping to enhance its firepower and battlefield survivability and IMI
IMI
IMI is a three letter acronym. It can stand for*Industrial Management Institute* Industrial Vibration Monitoring Instrumentation, division of PCB Piezotronics*Indian Music Industry*Innovative Medicines Initiative of the European Union...

 is helping to augment Arjun Mk II’s mobility, redesign its turret and hull and improve its production-line processes told Rahul Bedi, Jane's correspondent
Jane's Information Group
Jane's Information Group is a publishing company specializing in transportation and military topics.-History:It was founded by Fred T...

.

FMBT


The Arjun MKII variant is to be followed by the Futuristic Main Battle Tank (FMBT), which started development in 2010. The Indian Army plans to induct the FMBT from 2020 onwards. The FMBT will be a lighter tank of 50 tons.

Operators

    • Indian Army
      Indian Army
      The Indian Army is the land based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces. With about 1,100,000 soldiers in active service and about 1,150,000 reserve troops, the Indian Army is the world's largest standing volunteer army...

       3 regiment of 50 tanks in service, total 248 (124 Mk-I, 124 Mk-II) tanks ordered.

See also


External links