, common name
A common name of a taxon or organism is a name in general use within a community; it is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism...
the Friar's Cowl
, is an herbaceous
A herbaceous plant is a plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of the growing season to the soil level. They have no persistent woody stem above ground...
, perennial, with an underground rhizome
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome is a characteristically horizontal stem of a plant that is usually found underground, often sending out roots and shoots from its nodes...
plant in the genus Arisarum
Arisarum is a genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family. There are 3 species of plants in this genus namely:*Arisarum simorrhinum*Arisarum proboscideum*Arisarum vulgare....
belonging to the family Araceae
Araceae are a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants in which flowers are borne on a type of inflorescence called a spadix. The spadix is usually accompanied by, and sometimes partially enclosed in, a spathe or leaf-like bract. Also known as the Arum family, members are often colloquially...
Arisarum vulgare reaches on average 10–30 cm (3.9–11.8 ) of height. The leaves of this geophyte plant are basal only, wide, ovate to arrow-shaped, with a petiole 12–15 cm (4.7–5.9 ) long. The stems are erect and unbranched, usually mottled and grow directly from the underground rhizome. A single leaflike bract (spathe) forms a purplish-brown or olive green striped tube about 5 inches long, with an open upper part helmet or hood-shaped curved forward. It encloses a fleshy greenish clublike spike (spadix) bent forward, protruding from the tube and bearing at the bottom minute purple violet flowers. The 20 male flowers are located above the four to six female, with sterile flowers completely missing. The flowering period extends from October through May. The sexes are united in the same individual plant. Pollination is granted by insects (entomophily
Entomophily is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by insects. Several insect are reported to be responsible for the pollination of many plant species, particularly bees, Lepidoptera , wasps, flies, ants and beetles. Some plant species co-evolved with a particular pollinator, such...
). The fruits are greenish berries of about 1 centimetre (0.393700787401575 in)long.
This plant native to Asia and Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...
occurs in the entire Mediterranean, in Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...
, in the Canary Islands
The Canary Islands , also known as the Canaries , is a Spanish archipelago located just off the northwest coast of mainland Africa, 100 km west of the border between Morocco and the Western Sahara. The Canaries are a Spanish autonomous community and an outermost region of the European Union...
, the Azores
The Archipelago of the Azores is composed of nine volcanic islands situated in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, and is located about west from Lisbon and about east from the east coast of North America. The islands, and their economic exclusion zone, form the Autonomous Region of the...
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago that lies between and , just under 400 km north of Tenerife, Canary Islands, in the north Atlantic Ocean and an outermost region of the European Union...
Arisarum vulgare prefers grassy fields and rocky scrubland, forests and wasteland, mainly in shady and cool places and in moist soils, at an altitude of 0–800 m (0–2,624.7 ) above sea level.
The main described subspecies are the following:
- Arisarum vulgare O.Targ.Tozz. subsp. vulgare (above described)
- Arisarum vulgare O.Targ.Tozz. subsp. simorrhinum (Durieu) Maire & Weiller
In Arisarum vulgare subsp. simorrhinum the flower stem is much shorter than the petioles. Bract and spadix are erect. The latter is thickened at the tip.
- Arisarum arisarum (L.) Huth
Huth is a surname and may refer to:- A :* Alfred Henry Huth English author and bibliophile * Andrew Huth , Scottish writer on music and cultural affairs* Angela Huth , English novelist and journalist...
- Arisarum australe Rich.
- Arisarum azoricum Schott
Heinrich Wilhelm Schott was an Austrian botanist well known for his extensive work on the aroids ....
- Arisarum balansae Schott
- Arisarum crassifolium Schott
- Arisarum forbesii Schott
- Arisarum incurvatum Holmboe
Jens Holmboe was a Norwegian politician for the Conservative Party. A jurist by education, he was a member of the Norwegian Parliament for five terms, and held several different government posts from 1874 to 1884.-Personal life:...
- Arisarum jacquinii Schott
- Arisarum latifolium Bubani
- Arisarum latifolium Hill
A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. Hills often have a distinct summit, although in areas with scarp/dip topography a hill may refer to a particular section of flat terrain without a massive summit A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. Hills...
- Arisarum libani Schott
- Arisarum serpentrium Raf.
Arisarum sibthorpii Schott
Arisarum subalpinum Kotschy
Kotschy:* Carl Friedrich Kotschy * Theodor Kotschy * Johannes Kotschy, a Swedish singer/songwriter...
Arisarum veslingii Schott
Arum arisarum L.
Arum arisarum Lour.
Arum calyptrale Salisb.
Arum incurvatum Lam.
Arum libani Schott
Balmisa vulgaris (Targ.Tozz.) Lag.
Calyptrocoryne cochinchinensis (Blume
Charles Ludwig de Blume or Karl Ludwig von Blume was a German-Dutch botanist.He was born at Braunschweig in Germany, but studied at Leiden University and spent his professional life working in the Dutch East Indies and in the Netherlands, where he was Director of the Rijksherbarium at Leiden...
Typhonium cochinchinense Blume
- Herbaro virtual
- Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia - Edagricole – 1982 - Vol. II, pag. 629
- Tutin, T.G. et al. - Flora Europaea, second edition - 1993