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Argentine Declaration of Independence

Argentine Declaration of Independence

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What today is commonly referred as the Independence of Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

was declared on July 9, 1816 by the Congress
Congress of Tucumán
The Congress of Tucumán was the representative assembly, initially meeting in Tucumán, that declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America on July 9, 1816, from the Spanish Empire....

 of Tucumán. In reality, the congressmen that were assembled in Tucumán declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America
United Provinces of South America
The United Provinces of South America was the original name of the state that emerged from the May Revolution and the early developments of the Argentine War of Independence...

, which is still today one of the legal names of the Argentine Republic. The Federal League
Liga Federal
The Federal League or League of Free Peoples was a confederal state based around Montevideo from 1815 to 1820...

 Provinces, at war
Argentine Civil War
The Argentine Civil Wars were a series of internecine wars that took place in Argentina from 1814 to 1876. These conflicts were separate from the Argentine War of Independence , though they first arose during this period....

 with the United Provinces, were not allowed into the Congress
Congress of Tucumán
The Congress of Tucumán was the representative assembly, initially meeting in Tucumán, that declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America on July 9, 1816, from the Spanish Empire....

. At the same time, several provinces from the Upper Peru
Upper Peru
Upper Peru was the region in the Viceroyalty of Peru, and after 1776, the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, comprising the governorships of Potosí, La Paz, Cochabamba, Los Chiquitos, Moxos and Charcas...

 that would later become part of present-day Bolivia
Bolivia
Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

, were represented at the Congress.

Causes


The 1810 May Revolution
May Revolution
The May Revolution was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish colony that included roughly the territories of present-day Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay...

 followed the deposition
Abdications of Bayonne
The Abdications of Bayonne is the name given to a series of abdications of kings of Spain that led to the Peninsular War.The Mutiny of Aranjuez forced king Charles IV to abdicate and give the throne to his son, Ferdinand VII. Napoleon Bonaparte forced Ferdinand to abdicate as well, ending the...

 of the Spanish king Ferdinand VII by the Napoleonic French. The revolution ended the authority of the Viceroy
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, , was the last and most short-lived Viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire in America.The Viceroyalty was established in 1776 out of several former Viceroyalty of Perú dependencies that mainly extended over the Río de la Plata basin, roughly the present day...

 Cisneros
Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros
Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros de la Torre was a Spanish naval officer born in Cartagena. He took part in the Battle of Cape St Vincent and the Battle of Trafalgar, and in the Spanish resistance against Napoleon's invasion in 1808. He was later appointed Viceroy of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la...

 and replaced it with the Primera Junta
Primera Junta
The Primera Junta or First Assembly is the most common name given to the first independent government of Argentina. It was created on 25 May 1810, as a result of the events of the May Revolution. The Junta initially had representatives from only Buenos Aires...

.

When the Spanish monarchy resumed its functions in 1814, Spain was determined to recover control over its colonies
Spanish colonization of the Americas
Colonial expansion under the Spanish Empire was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by the Monarchy of Spain through its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Christian faith through indigenous conversions...

 in the Americas
Americas
The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

. Moreover, the royalists from Peru
Viceroyalty of Peru
Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru was a Spanish colonial administrative district that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima...

 had been victorious at the battles of Sipe-Sipe
Battle of Sipe-Sipe
The Battle of Sipe-Sipe was a major battle in the South American wars of independence in which the United Provinces of Río de la Plata were decisively defeated by Spanish royalist forces in Upper Peru...

, Huaqui
Battle of Huaqui
The Battle of Huaqui , was a battle between the Primera Junta's revolutionary troops and the royalist troops of the Viceroyalty of Peru on the border between Upper Peru, , and the Viceroyalty of Peru on June 20, 1811.- Prelude :The army commanded by Juan...

, Vilcapugio
Battle of Vilcapugio
The Battle of Vilcapugio was an action fought on October 1, 1813 during the second Campaign of Upper Peru in the Argentine War of Independence, where the republican forces led by General Manuel Belgrano were defeated by a pro-Spanish royalist army, led by Joaquin de la Pezuela.The campaign was...

 and Ayohuma
Battle of Ayohuma
The Battle of Ayohuma was an action fought on 14 November 1813, during the second Upper Peru Campaign of the Argentine War of Independence...

, in Upper Peru
Upper Peru
Upper Peru was the region in the Viceroyalty of Peru, and after 1776, the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, comprising the governorships of Potosí, La Paz, Cochabamba, Los Chiquitos, Moxos and Charcas...

, and seriously threatened the United Provinces from the north.

On April 15, 1815, a revolution ended the mandate of Carlos María de Alvear
Carlos María de Alvear
Carlos María de Alvear was an Argentine soldier and statesman, Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in 1815....

 as Supreme Director
Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata
The Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata , was a title given to the executive officers of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, according to the form of government established in 1814 by the Asamblea del Año XIII...

 and demanded that a General Congress
Congress of Tucumán
The Congress of Tucumán was the representative assembly, initially meeting in Tucumán, that declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America on July 9, 1816, from the Spanish Empire....

 be summoned. Delegate deputies, each representing 15,000 inhabitants, were sent from all the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata to the sessions, which started on March 24, 1816. However, the Federal League
Liga Federal
The Federal League or League of Free Peoples was a confederal state based around Montevideo from 1815 to 1820...

 Provinces did not send delegates: the Argentine littoral Provinces (Santa Fé
Santa Fe Province
The Invincible Province of Santa Fe, in Spanish Provincia Invencible de Santa Fe , is a province of Argentina, located in the center-east of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise Chaco , Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and Santiago del Estero...

, Entre Ríos
Entre Ríos Province
Entre Ríos is a northeastern province of Argentina, located in the Mesopotamia region. It borders the provinces of Buenos Aires , Corrientes and Santa Fe , and Uruguay in the east....

, Corrientes
Corrientes Province
Corrientes is a province in northeast Argentina, in the Mesopotamia region. It is surrounded by : Paraguay, the province of Misiones, Brazil, Uruguay, and the provinces of Entre Rios, Santa Fe and Chaco.-History:...

 and Misiones
Misiones Province
Misiones is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the northeastern corner of the country in the Mesopotamiсa region. It is surrounded by Paraguay to the northwest, Brazil to the north, east and south, and Corrientes Province of Argentina to the southwest.- History :The province was...

), and the Eastern Province
Banda Oriental
The Banda Oriental del Uruguay was the South American territory east of the Uruguay River and north of the Río de la Plata, coinciding approximately with the modern nation of Uruguay, the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul and some parts of Santa Catarina...

 (modern-day Uruguay
Uruguay
Uruguay ,officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,sometimes the Eastern Republic of Uruguay; ) is a country in the southeastern part of South America. It is home to some 3.5 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area...

).

Development


The Congress was inaugurated in the city of Tucumán, with 33 deputies. The presidency of the Congress would be rotated monthly. Because the Congress had the freedom to choose topics to debate, endless discussions ensued.

The voting finally ended on July 9 with a declaration of independence. The Declaration pointed to the circumstances in Europe of the past six years—the removal of the King of Spain by the Napoleon
Peninsular War
The Peninsular War was a war between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when French and Spanish armies crossed Spain and invaded Portugal in 1807. Then, in 1808, France turned on its...

 and the subsequent refusal of Ferdinand VII to accept constitutional rule
Spanish Constitution of 1812
The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was promulgated 19 March 1812 by the Cádiz Cortes, the national legislative assembly of Spain, while in refuge from the Peninsular War...

 both in the Peninsula and overseas. The Document claimed that Spanish America
Hispanic America
Hispanic America or Spanish America is the region comprising the American countries inhabited by Spanish-speaking populations.These countries have significant commonalities with each other and with Spain, whose colonies they formerly were...

 recovered its sovereignty from the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
The Crown of Castile was a medieval and modern state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then King Ferdinand III of Castile to the vacant Leonese throne...

 in 1808, when Ferdinand VII had been deposed, and therefore, any union between the overseas dominions of Spain and the Peninsula had been dissolved. This was a legal concept that was also invoked by the other Spanish American declarations of independence, such as Venezuela's
Venezuelan Declaration of Independence
The Venezuelan Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by a congress of Venezuelan provinces on July 5, 1811 through which Venezuelans made the decision to break away from the Spanish Crown in order to establish a new nation based on the premises of equality of individuals, abolition of...

 (1811) and Mexico's
Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America
The Solemn Act of Northern America's Declaration of Independence is the first Mexican legal historical document which established the separation of Mexico from Spanish rule...

 (1810), which were responding to the same events. The president of the Congress at the time was Francisco Narciso de Laprida
Francisco Narciso de Laprida
Francisco Narciso de Laprida was an Argentine lawyer and politician. He was a representative for San Juan at the Congress of Tucumán, and its president on July 9, 1816, when the Declaration of Independence of Argentina was declared.Laprida started his studies at the Real Colegio de San Carlos in...

, delegate from San Juan Province
San Juan Province (Argentina)
San Juan is a province of Argentina, located in the western part of the country. Neighbouring provinces are, moving clockwise from the north, La Rioja, San Luis and Mendoza. It borders with Chile at the west....

. Subsequent discussions centered on what form of government the emerging state should adopt.

The congress continued its work in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

 in 1817, but it dissolved in 1820 after the Battle of Cepeda
Battle of Cepeda (1820)
The Battle of Cepeda of 1820 took place on February 1 in Cañada de Cepeda, Santa Fe, Argentina.It was the first major battle that saw Unitarians and Federals as two constituted sides. Federal League Provinces of Santa Fe and Entre Ríos joined forces to topple the 1819 centralist Constitution, and...

, which deepened the differences between the Unitarian Party
Unitarian Party
Unitarianists or Unitarians were the proponents of the concept of a Unitary state in Buenos Aires during the civil wars which shortly followed the Declaration of Independence of Argentina in 1816. They were opposed to the Argentine Federalists, who wanted a federation of independent provinces...

, who favored a strong central government, and the Federales
Federales (Argentina)
Federales was the name under which the supporters of federalism in Argentina were known, opposing the Unitarios that claimed a centralised government of Buenos Aires Province, with no participation of the other provinces of the custom taxes benefits of the Buenos Aires port...

, who favored a weak central government.

The house where the declaration was adopted has been rebuilt and is now a museum and monument: the House of Tucumán
House of Tucumán
The House of Tucumán is a historical building and museum located in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina, where an assembly of delegates from several provinces of the country declared independence from Spain on 9 July 1816.Distinguishable by its Solomonic columns...

.

Signatories of the declaration

  • Francisco Narciso de Laprida
    Francisco Narciso de Laprida
    Francisco Narciso de Laprida was an Argentine lawyer and politician. He was a representative for San Juan at the Congress of Tucumán, and its president on July 9, 1816, when the Declaration of Independence of Argentina was declared.Laprida started his studies at the Real Colegio de San Carlos in...

    , Deputy for San Juan
    San Juan Province (Argentina)
    San Juan is a province of Argentina, located in the western part of the country. Neighbouring provinces are, moving clockwise from the north, La Rioja, San Luis and Mendoza. It borders with Chile at the west....

    , President
  • Mariano Boedo
    Mariano Boedo
    Mariano Boedo was an Argentine statesman and soldier. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Salta
    Salta Province
    Salta is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the east clockwise Formosa, Chaco, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán and Catamarca. It also surrounds Jujuy...

    , Vice-president
  • José Mariano Serrano
    José Mariano Serrano
    José Mariano Serrano was a Bolivian-born statesman and jurist. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán of 9 July 1816 which declared the Independence of the provinces of the River Plate and presided over the assembly that declared the independence of Bolivia.Serrano was born in...

    , Deputy for Charcas
    Charcas
    Charcas may refer to:* Charcas Province, a province in Potosí Department, Bolivia* Real Audiencia of Charcas, one of six political units of the Viceroyalty of Peru* Charcas, a historical name of Sucre, capital of Bolivia...

     (present-day Bolivia
    Bolivia
    Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

    ), Secretary
  • Juan José Paso
    Juan José Paso
    Juan José Paso, was an Argentine politician who participated in the events that started the Argentine War of Independence known as May Revolution of 1810....

    , Deputy for Buenos Aires
    Buenos Aires Province
    The Province of Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous province of Argentina. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880...

    , Secretary
  • Dr. Antonio Sáenz
    Antonio Sáenz
    Antonio Sáenz was an Argentine statesman, educator and cleric. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán of July 9, 1816 which declared the Independence of Argentina. He was the first rector of the University of Buenos Aires.Sáenz was born in Buenos Aires...

    , Deputy for Buenos Aires
    Buenos Aires Province
    The Province of Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous province of Argentina. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880...

  • Dr. José Darragueira
    José Darragueira
    José Darragueira was a Peruvian-born statesman and lawyer. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Buenos Aires
    Buenos Aires Province
    The Province of Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous province of Argentina. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880...

  • Friar Cayetano José Rodríguez
    Cayetano José Rodríguez
    Cayetano José Rodríguez was an Argentine cleric, journalist and poet. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán of 9 July 1816 which declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Buenos Aires
    Buenos Aires Province
    The Province of Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous province of Argentina. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880...

  • Dr. Pedro Medrano
    Pedro Medrano
    Pedro Medrano was a Uruguayan-born Argentine statesman and lawyer. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Buenos Aires
    Buenos Aires Province
    The Province of Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous province of Argentina. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880...

  • Dr. Manuel Antonio Acevedo
    Manuel Antonio Acevedo
    Manuel Antonio Acevedo was an Argentine statesman, lawyer and priest. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Catamarca
    Catamarca Province
    Catamarca is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. The province has a population of 334,568 as per the , and covers an area of 102,602 km². Its literacy rate is 95.5%. Neighbouring provinces are : Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Córdoba, and La Rioja...

  • Dr. José Ignacio de Gorriti
    José Ignacio de Gorriti
    General José Ignacio de Gorriti was an Argentine statesman, soldier and lawyer. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Salta
    Salta Province
    Salta is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the east clockwise Formosa, Chaco, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán and Catamarca. It also surrounds Jujuy...

  • Dr. José Andrés Pacheco de Melo
    José Andrés Pacheco de Melo
    José Andrés Pacheco de Melo was an Argentine statesman and priest. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Chibchas (present-day Bolivia
    Bolivia
    Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

    )
  • Dr. Teodoro Sánchez de Bustamante
    Teodoro Sánchez de Bustamante
    Teodoro Sánchez de Bustamante was an Argentine statesman, lawyer and soldier. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Jujuy
    Jujuy Province
    Jujuy is a province of Argentina, located in the extreme northwest of the country, at the borders with Chile and Bolivia. The only neighboring Argentine province is Salta to the east and south.-History:...

  • Eduardo Pérez Bulnes
    Eduardo Pérez Bulnes
    Eduardo Pérez Bulnes was an Argentine statesman. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Córdoba
    Córdoba Province (Argentina)
    Córdoba is a province of Argentina, located in the center of the country. Neighboring provinces are : Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, La Pampa, San Luis, La Rioja and Catamarca...

  • Tomás Godoy Cruz
    Tomás Godoy Cruz
    Tomás Godoy Cruz was an Argentine statesman and businessman. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on July 9, 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Mendoza
    Mendoza Province
    The Province of Mendoza is a province of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region. It borders to the north with San Juan, the south with La Pampa and Neuquén, the east with San Luis, and to the west with the republic of Chile; the international limit is...

  • Dr. Pedro Miguel Aráoz
    Pedro Miguel Aráoz
    Pedro Miguel Aráoz was an Argentine statesman and priest. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Tucumán
    Tucumán Province
    Tucumán is the most densely populated, and the smallest by land area, of the provinces of Argentina. Located in the northwest of the country, the capital is San Miguel de Tucumán, often shortened to Tucumán. Neighboring provinces are, clockwise from the north: Salta, Santiago del Estero and...

  • Dr. Esteban Agustín Gazcón
    Esteban Agustín Gazcón
    Esteban Agustín Gazcón was a Bolivian-born statesman and lawyer. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Buenos Aires
    Buenos Aires Province
    The Province of Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous province of Argentina. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880...

  • Pedro Francisco de Uriarte
    Pedro Francisco de Uriarte
    Pedro Francisco Uriarte was an Argentine statesman and priest. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Santiago del Estero
    Santiago del Estero Province
    Santiago del Estero is a province of Argentina, located in the north of the country. Neighbouring provinces are from the north clockwise Salta, Chaco, Santa Fe, Córdoba, Catamarca and Tucumán.-History:...

  • Pedro León Gallo
    Pedro León Gallo
    Pedro León Díaz Gallo was an Argentine statesman and priest. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Santiago del Estero
    Santiago del Estero Province
    Santiago del Estero is a province of Argentina, located in the north of the country. Neighbouring provinces are from the north clockwise Salta, Chaco, Santa Fe, Córdoba, Catamarca and Tucumán.-History:...

  • Pedro Ignacio Rivera
    Pedro Ignacio Rivera
    Pedro Ignacio Rivera was a Bolivian-born statesman and lawyer. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Mizque
    Mizque Province
    Mizque is a province in the Cochabamba Department, Bolivia. Its capital is Mizque.The province, in 1992, had a population of 27,959 inhabitants, mostly indigenous citizens of Quechuan descent. In 2001, the population increased to 36,181 inhabitants and it was estimated at 41,062 in 2005...

     (present-day Bolivia
    Bolivia
    Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

    )
  • Dr. Mariano Sánchez de Loria
    Mariano Sánchez de Loria
    Mariano Sánchez de Loria was a Bolivian-born statesman and lawyer. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Charcas
    Charcas
    Charcas may refer to:* Charcas Province, a province in Potosí Department, Bolivia* Real Audiencia of Charcas, one of six political units of the Viceroyalty of Peru* Charcas, a historical name of Sucre, capital of Bolivia...

     (present-day Bolivia
    Bolivia
    Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

    )
  • Dr. José Severo Malabia
    José Severo Malabia
    José Severo Malabia was an Bolivian-born statesman and lawyer. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Charcas
    Charcas
    Charcas may refer to:* Charcas Province, a province in Potosí Department, Bolivia* Real Audiencia of Charcas, one of six political units of the Viceroyalty of Peru* Charcas, a historical name of Sucre, capital of Bolivia...

     (present-day Bolivia
    Bolivia
    Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

    )
  • Dr. Pedro Ignacio de Castro Barros
    Pedro Ignacio de Castro Barros
    Pedro Ignacio de Castro Barros was an Argentine statesman and priest. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for La Rioja
    La Rioja Province (Argentina)
    La Rioja is a one of the provinces of Argentina and is located in the west of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise Catamarca, Córdoba, San Luis and San Juan.-History:...

  • Lic. Gerónimo Salguero de Cabrera y Cabrera
    Gerónimo Salguero de Cabrera y Cabrera
    Gerónimo Salguero de Cabrera Moynos , sometimes seen as Luis Jerónimo Cabrera y Cabrera or some variant, was an Argentine statesman and lawyer. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán, which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina.Salguero was born in Córdoba to an...

    , Deputy for Córdoba
    Córdoba Province (Argentina)
    Córdoba is a province of Argentina, located in the center of the country. Neighboring provinces are : Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, La Pampa, San Luis, La Rioja and Catamarca...

  • Dr. José Colombres
    José Colombres
    José Eusebio Colombres was an Argentine statesman and bishop. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán of 9 July 1816 which declared the Independence of Argentina, and is credited with the foundation of the important sugar cane industry in Tucumán Province.Colombres was born in San...

    , Deputy for Catamarca
    Catamarca Province
    Catamarca is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. The province has a population of 334,568 as per the , and covers an area of 102,602 km². Its literacy rate is 95.5%. Neighbouring provinces are : Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Córdoba, and La Rioja...

  • Dr. José Ignacio Thames
    José Ignacio Thames
    José Ignacio Thames was an Argentine statesman and priest. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on July 9, 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Tucumán
    Tucumán Province
    Tucumán is the most densely populated, and the smallest by land area, of the provinces of Argentina. Located in the northwest of the country, the capital is San Miguel de Tucumán, often shortened to Tucumán. Neighboring provinces are, clockwise from the north: Salta, Santiago del Estero and...

  • Friar Justo de Santa María de Oro
    Justo de Santa María de Oro
    Justo de Santa María de Oro y Albarracín was an Argentine statesman and bishop. He was an influential representative in the Congress of Tucumán, which on 9 July 1816, declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for San Juan
    San Juan Province (Argentina)
    San Juan is a province of Argentina, located in the western part of the country. Neighbouring provinces are, moving clockwise from the north, La Rioja, San Luis and Mendoza. It borders with Chile at the west....

  • José Antonio Cabrera
    José Antonio Cabrera
    José Antonio Cabrera y Cabrera was an Argentine statesman and lawyer. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Córdoba
    Córdoba Province (Argentina)
    Córdoba is a province of Argentina, located in the center of the country. Neighboring provinces are : Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, La Pampa, San Luis, La Rioja and Catamarca...

  • Dr. Juan Agustín Maza
    Juan Agustín Maza
    Juan Agustín Maza was an Argentine statesman and lawyer. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina....

    , Deputy for Mendoza
    Mendoza Province
    The Province of Mendoza is a province of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region. It borders to the north with San Juan, the south with La Pampa and Neuquén, the east with San Luis, and to the west with the republic of Chile; the international limit is...

  • Tomás Manuel de Anchorena, Deputy for Buenos Aires
    Buenos Aires Province
    The Province of Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous province of Argentina. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880...


Recognition of independence

  • Kingdom of Hawaii: 1818
  • Britain: December 15, 1823
  • France: 1830
  • Spain: April 29, 1857

See also

  • Congress of Tucumán
    Congress of Tucumán
    The Congress of Tucumán was the representative assembly, initially meeting in Tucumán, that declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America on July 9, 1816, from the Spanish Empire....

  • United Provinces of South America
    United Provinces of South America
    The United Provinces of South America was the original name of the state that emerged from the May Revolution and the early developments of the Argentine War of Independence...

  • Argentine War of Independence
    Argentine War of Independence
    The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown...