The Archbishopric of Trier
was a Roman Catholic diocese
A diocese is the district or see under the supervision of a bishop. It is divided into parishes.An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese. An archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or had importance due to size or historical significance...
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...
, that existed from Carolingian times until the end of the Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...
. Its suffragans were the dioceses of Metz
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz is a Diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in France. In the Middle Ages it was in effect an independent state, part of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the bishop who had the ex officio title of count. It was annexed to France by King Henry II in...
The Diocese of Toul was a Roman Catholic diocese seated at Toul in present-day France. It existed from 365 until 1824. From 1048 until 1552 , it was also a state of the Holy Roman Empire.- History :...
and Verdun. Since the 9th century the Archbishops of Trier were simultaneously princes and since the 11th century prince electors of the empire. Their temporal territories were known as the Electorate of Trier
( or Kurtrier
Trier, historically called in English Treves is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle. It is the oldest city in Germany, founded in or before 16 BC....
, as the important Roman provincial capital of Augusta Treverorum
, had been the seat of a bishop since Roman times. It was raised to archiepiscopal status during the reign of Charlemagne
Charlemagne was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans from 800 to his death in 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800...
The bishops of Trier were already virtually independent territorial magnates in Merovingian times. In 772 Charlemagne granted Bishop Wiomad complete immunity from the jurisdiction of the ruling count
A count or countess is an aristocratic nobleman in European countries. The word count came into English from the French comte, itself from Latin comes—in its accusative comitem—meaning "companion", and later "companion of the emperor, delegate of the emperor". The adjective form of the word is...
for all the churches and monasteries, as well as villages and castles that belonged to the Church of St. Peter at Trier. In 816 Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious , also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781. He was also King of the Franks and co-Emperor with his father, Charlemagne, from 813...
confirmed to Archbishop Hetto the privileges of protection and immunity granted by his father.
At the partition of the Carolingian empire
Carolingian Empire is a historiographical term which has been used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty in the Early Middle Ages. This dynasty is seen as the founders of France and Germany, and its beginning date is based on the crowning of Charlemagne, or Charles the...
Verdun is a city in the Meuse department in Lorraine in north-eastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department.Verdun is the biggest city in Meuse, although the capital of the department is the slightly smaller city of Bar-le-Duc.- History :...
in 843, Trier fell to Lothair; at the partition of Lotharingia
Lotharingia was a region in northwest Europe, comprising the Low Countries, the western Rhineland, the lands today on the border between France and Germany, and what is now western Switzerland. It was born of the tripartite division in 855, of the kingdom of Middle Francia, itself formed of the...
at Meersen in 870, it fell to the East Frankish kingdom, which developed into Germany. Archbishop Radbod received in 898 complete immunity from all taxes for the entire episcopal territory, granted by Zwentibold
Zwentibold was the illegitimate son of the Carolingian Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia. In 895 his father, then king of East Francia, granted him the Kingdom of Lotharingia, which he ruled until his death.After his death he was declared a saint and martyr by the Catholic Church.- Life :Zwentibold...
, the natural son of Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia
Arnulf of Carinthia was the Carolingian King of East Francia from 887, the disputed King of Italy from 894 and the disputed Holy Roman Emperor from February 22, 896 until his death.-Birth and Illegitimacy:...
, who reigned briefly as King of Lotharingia and, under great pressure from his independent nobles, desperately needed a powerful ally. The gift cemented the position of the archbishops as territorial lords in their own right. Following Zwentibold's assassination in 900, the handlers of the child-king Louis
Louis the Child , sometimes called Louis IV or Louis III, was the last Carolingian ruler of East Francia....
courted Radbold in their turn, granting him the district and city of Trier outright, and the right to have a mint — as much a symbol of independent authority as an economic tool — and to impose customs-duties. From the court of Charles the Simple
Charles III , called the Simple or the Straightforward , was the undisputed King of France from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919/23...
he obtained the final right, that of election of the Bishop of Trier by the chapter, free of Imperial interference.
The last archbishop-elector removed to Koblenz
Koblenz is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine at its confluence with the Moselle, where the Deutsches Eck and its monument are situated.As Koblenz was one of the military posts established by Drusus about 8 BC, the...
in 1786. From 1795, the territories of the Archbishopric on the left bank of the Rhine — which is to say almost all of them — were under French occupation, and were annexed in 1801 and a separate bishopric established (later assuming control of the whole diocese in 1803). In 1803, what was left of the Archbishopric was secularized and annexed by the Princes of Nassau.
In 1821 the new Diocese of Trier was created as a suffragan of the archbishopric of Cologne
The Electorate of Cologne was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire and existed from the 10th to the early 19th century. It consisted of the temporal possessions of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne . It was ruled by the Archbishop in his function as prince-elector of...
- Auspicius of Trier
Auspicius is said to be the successor of St. Maternus as the Bishop of Trier, Germany. However, some authorities identify him as the fifth-century Bishop of Toul, France.-References:...
c. 130, uncertain
Saint Eucharius is venerated as the first bishop of Trier. He lived in the second half of the third century. According to an ancient legend, he was one of the seventy-two disciples of Christ, and was sent to Gaul by Saint Peter as bishop, together with the deacon Valerius and the subdeacon...
Saint Valerius was a semi-legendary bishop of Trier. His feast day is 29 January.-Legend:According to an ancient legend, he was a follower of Saint Eucharius, the first bishop of Trier...
- Maternus c. 300
- Agricius (Agrippinus) 327-335
- Maximinus II
Saint Maximin was the fifth bishop of Trier, according to the list provided by the diocese's website, taking his seat in 341/342...
Saint Paulinus of Trier was bishop of Trier and a supporter of Athanasius in the conflict with Arianism. At the Synod of Arles of 353 he was targeted by the Arians, and was exiled, to Phrygia, being effectively singled out by the Emperor Constantius II. He died in exile five years later, but his...
- Bonosus 359–365
- Veteranius 365–384
- Felix II 384–398
- Mauritius II 398–407
- Leontius 407–409
- Auctor II
Andrew of Trier is listed as the twelfth Bishop of Trier. He is sometimes listed as a martyr.-References:...
- Severus 428–455
- Cyrillus 455–457
- Iamblichus 457–458
- Evemerus 458–461
- Marcus II 461–465
- Volusianus 465–469
- Miletius 469–476
Saint Modest was bishop of Trier when the Franks gained control over the city of Trier. His feast day is 24 February.-External links:** at St. Patrick's Church...
- Maximianus 479–499
- Fibicius 500–526
Aprunculus of Treves was a bishop of Trier.He became bishop upon the death of his predecessor, Fibicius, and served in that capacity through 532....
Saint Nicetius was a bishop of Trier, born in the latter part of the fifth century, exact date unknown; died in 563 or more probably 566....
- Rusticus II 566–573
Magneric was a Frankish bishop of Trier. He is a Catholic and Orthodox saint, with feast day July 25.He was a friend of Gregory of Tours, and is mentioned in his History of the Franks. St Géry is said to be one of his disciples....
- Gundwich 596–600
- Sibald 600–626
- Modoald 626–645
- Numerianus 645–665
- Hildulf 665–671, d. 707
- Basinus 671–697 d. 706 ?
- Leudwinus 697–718
Milo was Archbishop of Reims and Trier since c. 722,as his uncle and his father, Saint Liutwin, had been before him.When Charles Martel drove Rigobert from Reims, he replaced him with a warrior clerk named Milo. While bishop, Milo discharged a mission against the Vascones. He accumulated much of...
Wermad, Wiomad, Weomad, or Wiemad was the Bishop of Trier from 757/8 until his death. He accompanied Charlemagne on his conquest of Italy in 774 and against the Avars. He was granted full autonomy over his diocese and the properties of the church of Trier received immunity from the jurisdiction...
Richbod was the Abbot of Lorsch from 784 and Abbot of Mettlach and Archbishop of Trier from around 792. He held the two abbacies and the bishopric concurrently until his death. He was the first archbishop of Trier....
791–804 , first archbishop
- Waso 804–809
Amalhar or Amalarius Fortunatus was the third Archbishop of Trier from 809 until 814.Amalhar was a pupil of Alcuin of York. In 809, Charlemagne appointed him to the see of Trier and in 813 he was sent as the chief Frankish ambassador to the court of Michael I Rhangabes at Constantinople. On...
Hetto was the Archbishop of Trier from 814 until his death. In this capacity he was both a political and ecclesiastical leader. Louis the Pious confirmed to Hetto the privilege of immunity from the saecular courts...
- Dietgold 847–868
- Bartholf von Wetterau 869–883
Radbod was the Archbishop of Trier from 883 until his death. Under the last Carolingians he obtained a great deal of benefits and converted the archdiocese of Trier into one of the most powerful institutions in Germany....
- Rudgar 915–930
- Rudbrecht 930–956
- Heinrich I
Henry I was the Archbishop of Trier from 956 until his death.Henry was a member of the House of Babenberg. His brother was Poppo I, Bishop of Würzburg, and another possible brother was the Berthold of Schweinfurt. Henry was trained with Wolfgang, the future saint and Bishop of Regensburg, in the...
- Dietrich I 965–977
Egbert was the Archbishop of Trier from 977 until his death.Egbert was a son of Dirk II, Count of Holland. After being trained in the abbey of Egmond and the court of Bruno I, Archbishop of Cologne, he became the chancellor of Otto II in 976. The following year he was appointed to the archdiocese...
- Ludolf 994–1008
1000 to 1200
- Megingod 1008–1015
- Poppo von Babenberg 1016–1047
Eberhard was the Archbishop of Trier from 1047 until his death.Eberhard was a son of Ezelin. He was educated at the Cathedral of Worms...
- Kuno I von Wetterau
The Wetterau is a fertile undulating tract, watered by the Wetter, a tributary of the Nidda River, in the western German state of Hesse, between the hilly province Oberhessen and the north-western Taunus mountains....
- Udo of Nellenburg 1066–1078
- Egilbert of Rothenburg, 1079–1101
- Bruno 1101–1124
- Gottfrid 1124–1127
- Meginher 1127–1130
- Adalberon von Munsterol 1131–1152
- Hillin von Fallemanien 1152–1169
- Arnold I 1169–1183
Fulmar of Karden , also spelled Folmar or Vollmar, was the Archbishop of Trier from 1183 and the last to not also be a prince elector. He opposed the emperor in the late twelfth-century phase of the Investiture Controversy....
1200 to 1500
- John I 1189–1212
- Theodoric II (Dietrich von Wied) 1212–42
- Arnold II von Isenburg 1242–59
- Heinrich I von Finstingen 1260–86
- Bohemond I von Warnesberg 1286–99
- Diether von Nassau 1300–07
- Heinrich II von Virneburg 1300–06 (in opposition)
- Baldwin von Luxemburg 1307–54
- Bohemond II von Saarbrücken 1354–61
- Kuno II von Falkenstein
Kuno II of Falkenstein was from 1362 to 1388 the Roman Catholic Archbishop Elector of Trier....
- Werner von Falkenstein 1388–1418
- Otto von Ziegenhain 1418–30
- Rhaban von Helmstadt 1430–38
- Jakob von Sierk 1439–56
- Johann II of Baden 1456–1503
- Jakob II of Baden 1503–11
- Richard Greiffenklau zu Vollraths 1511–31
- Johann III von Metzenhausen 1531–40
- Johann Ludwig von Hagen
Johann Ludwig von Hagen was the Archbishop-Elector of Trier from 1540 to 1547.-Biography:Johann Ludwig von Hagen was born in Pfalzel near Trier in 1492, the son of Friedrich von Hagen, Amtmann of the Archbishopric of Trier...
- Johann IV von Isenburg 1547–56
- Johann V von der Leyen 1556–67
- Jakob III von Eltz 1567–81
- Johann VI von Schonenberg 1581–99
- Lothar von Metternich
Lothar Johann Reinhard von Metternich was the Archbishop-Elector of Trier from 1599 to 1623.-Biography:Lothar von Metternich was born in Schloss Vettelhoven in Grafschaft on August 31, 1551, the son of Johann von Metternich , Lord of Vettelhoven and bailiff of Saffenberg, and his fourth wife,...
- Philipp Christoph von Sotern
Philipp Christoph von Sötern was the Prince-Bishop of Speyer from 1610 to 1652 and the Archbishop-Elector of Trier from 1623 to 1652.-Biography:...
- Karl Kaspar von der Leyen 1652–76
- Johann Hugo von Orsbeck
Johann Hugo von Orsbeck was the Archbishop-Elector of Trier from 1675 to 1711.-Biography:Johann Hugo von Orsbeck was born in Weilerswist on January 30, 1634, the son of Wilhelm von Orsbeck, Herr von Vernich and of Katharina von der Leyen...
- Charles Joseph of Lorraine
Charles Joseph John Anthony Ignace Felix of Lorraine , also known as Charles III in his capacity as the bishop of Olomouc , was a German prelate.Born in Vienna, he was the second son of Charles V, Duke of Lorraine...
- Franz Ludwig of Palatinate-Neuburg 1716–29
- Franz Georg von Schönborn-Buchheim
Franz Georg von Schönborn was the Archbishop-Elector of Trier from 1729 until 1756, and the Prince-Bishop of Worms and Prince-Provost of Ellwangen from 1732 until 1756.-Biography:...
- Johann Philipp von Walderdorf
Johann Philipp von Walderdorf was the Archbishop-Elector of Trier from 1756 until 1768, and the Prince-Bishop of Worms from 1763 until 1768.-Biography:...
- Clemens Wenzel of Saxony 1768–1803