Arabic grammar

Arabic grammar

Encyclopedia
Arabic grammar is the grammar of the Arabic language
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

. Arabic is a Semitic language
Semitic languages
The Semitic languages are a group of related languages whose living representatives are spoken by more than 270 million people across much of the Middle East, North Africa and the Horn of Africa...

 and its grammar has many similarities with the grammar of other Semitic languages.

The article focuses both on the grammar of Literary Arabic
Literary Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic , Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standard and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech....

 (i.e. Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic , also known as Qur'anic or Koranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times . It is based on the Medieval dialects of Arab tribes...

 and Modern Standard Arabic, which have largely the same grammar) and of the colloquial spoken varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic
The Arabic language is a Semitic language characterized by a wide number of linguistic varieties within its five regional forms. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. The Arabic of North Africa, for example, is often incomprehensible to an Arabic speaker...

. The grammar of the two types is largely similar in its particulars. Generally, the grammar of Classical Arabic is described first, followed by the areas in which the colloquial variants tend to differ (note that not all colloquial variants have the same grammar). The largest differences between the two systems are the loss of grammatical case
Grammatical case
In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun is an inflectional form that indicates its grammatical function in a phrase, clause, or sentence. For example, a pronoun may play the role of subject , of direct object , or of possessor...

; the loss of the previous system of grammatical mood
Grammatical mood
In linguistics, grammatical mood is a grammatical feature of verbs, used to signal modality. That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying...

, along with the evolution of a new system; the loss of the inflected passive voice
Passive voice
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. Passive is used in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb. That is, the subject undergoes an action or has its state changed. A sentence whose theme is marked as grammatical subject is...

, except in a few relic varieties; and restriction in the use of the dual number
Dual (grammatical number)
Dual is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural. When a noun or pronoun appears in dual form, it is interpreted as referring to precisely two of the entities identified by the noun or pronoun...

.

History


The identity of the oldest Arabic grammarian is disputed with some sources saying Ibn Abi Ishaq and medieval sources saying Abu-Aswad al-Du'ali, the oldest known Arabic grammarian, established diacritical marks and vowels for Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

 in the mid-600s. The schools of Basra
Basra
Basra is the capital of Basra Governorate, in southern Iraq near Kuwait and Iran. It had an estimated population of two million as of 2009...

 and Kufa
Kufa
Kufa is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf. It is located on the banks of the Euphrates River. The estimated population in 2003 was 110,000....

 further developed grammatical rules in the late 700s with the rapid rise of Islam.

The earliest grammarian who is known is
{{Contains Arabic text}}

Arabic grammar ({{lang-ar|نحو عربي}} {{transl|ar|DIN|naḥw ʻarabī}} or {{lang|ar|قواعد اللغة العربية}} {{transl|ar|DIN|qawāʻid al-luġat al-ʻarabiyyah}}) is the grammar of the
Arabic language
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

. Arabic is a Semitic language
Semitic languages
The Semitic languages are a group of related languages whose living representatives are spoken by more than 270 million people across much of the Middle East, North Africa and the Horn of Africa...

 and its grammar has many similarities with the grammar of other Semitic languages.

The article focuses both on the grammar of Literary Arabic
Literary Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic , Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standard and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech....

 (i.e. Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic , also known as Qur'anic or Koranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times . It is based on the Medieval dialects of Arab tribes...

 and Modern Standard Arabic, which have largely the same grammar) and of the colloquial spoken varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic
The Arabic language is a Semitic language characterized by a wide number of linguistic varieties within its five regional forms. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. The Arabic of North Africa, for example, is often incomprehensible to an Arabic speaker...

. The grammar of the two types is largely similar in its particulars. Generally, the grammar of Classical Arabic is described first, followed by the areas in which the colloquial variants tend to differ (note that not all colloquial variants have the same grammar). The largest differences between the two systems are the loss of grammatical case
Grammatical case
In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun is an inflectional form that indicates its grammatical function in a phrase, clause, or sentence. For example, a pronoun may play the role of subject , of direct object , or of possessor...

; the loss of the previous system of grammatical mood
Grammatical mood
In linguistics, grammatical mood is a grammatical feature of verbs, used to signal modality. That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying...

, along with the evolution of a new system; the loss of the inflected passive voice
Passive voice
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. Passive is used in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb. That is, the subject undergoes an action or has its state changed. A sentence whose theme is marked as grammatical subject is...

, except in a few relic varieties; and restriction in the use of the dual number
Dual (grammatical number)
Dual is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural. When a noun or pronoun appears in dual form, it is interpreted as referring to precisely two of the entities identified by the noun or pronoun...

.

History


The identity of the oldest Arabic grammarian is disputed with some sources saying Ibn Abi Ishaq and medieval sources saying Abu-Aswad al-Du'ali, the oldest known Arabic grammarian, established diacritical marks and vowels for Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

 in the mid-600s. The schools of Basra
Basra
Basra is the capital of Basra Governorate, in southern Iraq near Kuwait and Iran. It had an estimated population of two million as of 2009...

 and Kufa
Kufa
Kufa is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf. It is located on the banks of the Euphrates River. The estimated population in 2003 was 110,000....

 further developed grammatical rules in the late 700s with the rapid rise of Islam.

The earliest grammarian who is known is
{{Contains Arabic text}}

Arabic grammar ({{lang-ar|نحو عربي}} {{transl|ar|DIN|naḥw ʻarabī}} or {{lang|ar|قواعد اللغة العربية}} {{transl|ar|DIN|qawāʻid al-luġat al-ʻarabiyyah}}) is the grammar of the
Arabic language
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

. Arabic is a Semitic language
Semitic languages
The Semitic languages are a group of related languages whose living representatives are spoken by more than 270 million people across much of the Middle East, North Africa and the Horn of Africa...

 and its grammar has many similarities with the grammar of other Semitic languages.

The article focuses both on the grammar of Literary Arabic
Literary Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic , Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standard and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech....

 (i.e. Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic , also known as Qur'anic or Koranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times . It is based on the Medieval dialects of Arab tribes...

 and Modern Standard Arabic, which have largely the same grammar) and of the colloquial spoken varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic
The Arabic language is a Semitic language characterized by a wide number of linguistic varieties within its five regional forms. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. The Arabic of North Africa, for example, is often incomprehensible to an Arabic speaker...

. The grammar of the two types is largely similar in its particulars. Generally, the grammar of Classical Arabic is described first, followed by the areas in which the colloquial variants tend to differ (note that not all colloquial variants have the same grammar). The largest differences between the two systems are the loss of grammatical case
Grammatical case
In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun is an inflectional form that indicates its grammatical function in a phrase, clause, or sentence. For example, a pronoun may play the role of subject , of direct object , or of possessor...

; the loss of the previous system of grammatical mood
Grammatical mood
In linguistics, grammatical mood is a grammatical feature of verbs, used to signal modality. That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying...

, along with the evolution of a new system; the loss of the inflected passive voice
Passive voice
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. Passive is used in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb. That is, the subject undergoes an action or has its state changed. A sentence whose theme is marked as grammatical subject is...

, except in a few relic varieties; and restriction in the use of the dual number
Dual (grammatical number)
Dual is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural. When a noun or pronoun appears in dual form, it is interpreted as referring to precisely two of the entities identified by the noun or pronoun...

.

History


The identity of the oldest Arabic grammarian is disputed with some sources saying Ibn Abi Ishaq and medieval sources saying Abu-Aswad al-Du'ali, the oldest known Arabic grammarian, established diacritical marks and vowels for Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

 in the mid-600s. The schools of Basra
Basra
Basra is the capital of Basra Governorate, in southern Iraq near Kuwait and Iran. It had an estimated population of two million as of 2009...

 and Kufa
Kufa
Kufa is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf. It is located on the banks of the Euphrates River. The estimated population in 2003 was 110,000....

 further developed grammatical rules in the late 700s with the rapid rise of Islam.

The earliest grammarian who is known is {{transl
Abi Ishaq
' , an Arab grammarian and is the earliest known grammarian of the Arabic language. He compiled a prescriptive grammar by referring to the usage of the Bedouins, whose language was seen as especially pure .Two students of Abi Ishaq's were and...

 (died AD 735/6, AH
Islamic calendar
The Hijri calendar , also known as the Muslim calendar or Islamic calendar , is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries , and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic...

 117).{{citation needed|date=October 2011}}

Division


For classical Arabic grammarians, the grammatical sciences are divided into five branches:
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|al-luġah}} اللغة (language/lexicon) concerned with collecting and explaining vocabulary
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|at-taṣrīf}} التصريف (morphology) determining the form of the individual words
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|an-naḥw}} النحو (syntax) primarily concerned with inflection ({{transl|ar|DIN|[[ʼiʻrāb]]}}) which had already been lost in dialects.
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|al-ištiqāq}} الاشتقاق (derivation) examining the origin of the words
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|al-balāġah}} البلاغة (rhetoric) which elucidates construct quality


The grammar or grammars of contemporary varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic
The Arabic language is a Semitic language characterized by a wide number of linguistic varieties within its five regional forms. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. The Arabic of North Africa, for example, is often incomprehensible to an Arabic speaker...

 are a different question. Said M. Badawi, an expert on Arabic grammar, divided Arabic grammar into five different types based on the speaker's level of literacy
Literacy
Literacy has traditionally been described as the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently and think critically about printed material.Literacy represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from print...

 and the degree to which the speaker deviated from Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic , also known as Qur'anic or Koranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times . It is based on the Medieval dialects of Arab tribes...

. Badawi's five types of grammar from the most colloquial to the most formal are Illiterate Spoken Arabic (عامية الأميين {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻāmmiyat al-ʼummiyyīn}}), Semi-literate Spoken Arabic (عامية المتنورين {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻāmmiyat al-mutanawwirīn}}), Educated Spoken Arabic (عامية المثقفين {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻāmmiyat al-muṯaqqafīn}}), Modern Standard Arabic (فصحى العصر {{transl|ar|DIN|fuṣḥā l-ʻaṣr}}), and Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic , also known as Qur'anic or Koranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times . It is based on the Medieval dialects of Arab tribes...

 (فصحى التراث {{transl|ar|DIN|fuṣḥā t-turāṯ}}). This article is concerned with the grammar of Classical Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic exclusively.

Phonology


{{main|Arabic phonology}}
Classical Arabic has 28 consonant
Consonant
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of the tongue; , pronounced in the throat; and ,...

al phoneme
Phoneme
In a language or dialect, a phoneme is the smallest segmental unit of sound employed to form meaningful contrasts between utterances....

s, including two semi-vowels, which constitute the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
The Arabic alphabet or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language. It is written from right to left, in a cursive style, and includes 28 letters. Because letters usually stand for consonants, it is classified as an abjad.-Consonants:The Arabic alphabet has...

. It also has six vowel
Vowel
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! or oh! , pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, such as English sh! , where there is a constriction or closure at some...

 phonemes (three short vowels and three long vowels). These appear as various allophone
Allophone
In phonology, an allophone is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds used to pronounce a single phoneme. For example, and are allophones for the phoneme in the English language...

s, depending on the preceding consonant. Short vowels are not usually represented in written language, although they may be indicated with diacritics.

{{transl|ar|DIN|Hamzat ul-waṣl}} (همزة الوصل), elidable hamza, is a phonetic object prefixed to the beginning of a word for ease of pronunciation, since literary Arabic
Literary Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic , Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standard and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech....

 doesn't allow consonant clusters at the beginning of a word. Elidable hamza drops out as a vocal, if a word is preceding it. This word will then produce an ending vocal, "helping vocal" to facilitate pronunciation. This short vocal may be, depending on the preceding vowel, ـَ a {{transl|ar|DIN|fatḥah}} (فتحة) /a/ , ـِ a {{transl|ar|DIN|kasrah}} (كسرة) /i/ or ـُ a {{transl|ar|DIN|ḍammah}} (ضمة) /u/. If the preceding word ends in a {{transl|ar|DIN|sukūn}} (سكون) (i.e. not followed by a short vowel), the {{transl|ar|DIN|Hamzat ul-waṣl}} assumes a {{transl|ar|DIN|kasrah}} /i/. Symbol ـّ {{transl|ar|DIN|šaddah}} (شدة) indicates a gemination or consonant doubling. See more in Tashkīl.

Noun and Adjective Inflection (Classical Arabic)


Noun
Noun
In linguistics, a noun is a member of a large, open lexical category whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition .Lexical categories are defined in terms of how their members combine with other kinds of...

s (اسم {{transl|ar|DIN|ism}}) and adjective
Adjective
In grammar, an adjective is a 'describing' word; the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified....

s in Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic , also known as Qur'anic or Koranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times . It is based on the Medieval dialects of Arab tribes...

 are declined according to the following properties:
  • Case
    Grammatical case
    In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun is an inflectional form that indicates its grammatical function in a phrase, clause, or sentence. For example, a pronoun may play the role of subject , of direct object , or of possessor...

     (حالات {{transl|ar|DIN|ḥālāt}}) (nominative
    Nominative case
    The nominative case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments...

    , genitive
    Genitive case
    In grammar, genitive is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun...

    , and accusative
    Accusative case
    The accusative case of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of prepositions...

    )
  • State (indefinite, definite or construct)
  • Gender
    Grammatical gender
    Grammatical gender is defined linguistically as a system of classes of nouns which trigger specific types of inflections in associated words, such as adjectives, verbs and others. For a system of noun classes to be a gender system, every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be...

     (masculine or feminine): an inherent characteristic of nouns, but part of the declension of adjectives
  • Number
    Grammatical number
    In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions ....

     (singular, dual or plural)


Nouns are normally given in their pausal form. For example, {{transl|ar|DIN|malik}} "king" would be declined as {{transl|ar|DIN|malikun}} "king (nominative singular indefinite)", {{transl|ar|DIN|al-maliku}} "the king (nominative singular definite)", etc. A feminine noun like {{transl|ar|DIN|malikah}} "queen" would be declined as {{transl|ar|DIN|malikatun}} "queen (nominative singular indefinite)", {{transl|ar|DIN|al-malikatu}} "the queen (nominative singular definite)", etc. The citation form with final {{transl|ar|DIN|-ah}} reflects the formal pausal pronunciation of this word (i.e. as it would be pronounced at the end of an utterance) — although in practice the h is not usually pronounced, and hence the word may be cited in some sources as {{transl|ar|DIN|malika}}.

Overview of inflection


The following table is an overview of noun and adjective inflection in Classical Arabic:
Noun and Adjective Inflection (Classical Arabic)
Declension→ |(1) Regular Triptote |(2) Triptote w/
"Long Construct"
|(3) Diptote (4) Defective
in -in
(usu. masc.)
|(5) Defective
in -an
(usu. masc.)
|(6) Invariable
in -ā
(1a) No suffix
(usu. masc.)
|(1b) in ة ({{transl|ar|DIN|-at-}})
(usu. feminine)
|(1c) in اة ({{transl|ar|DIN|-āt-}})
(usu. feminine)
Pausal pronun.
(in singular) →
|- |-ah |-āh -ū, -ā, -ī | - |-ī |-ā |-ā
Informal pronun.
(in singular) →
|-a |-āt
Number
State→
Case↓
Indef. Def. Const. Indef. Def. Const. Indef. Def. Const. Const. Indef. Indef. Def. Const. Indef. Def. Const. Indef., Def. Const.
Singular Nominative -un -u -at-un -at-u -āt-un -āt-u -u -in -an
Accusative -an -a -at-an -at-a -āt-an -āt-a -a -iyan,
-iya
-iya
Genitive -in -i -at-in -at-i -āt-in -āt-i -in
Dual Nominative -āni -at-āni -at-ā -āt-āni -āt-ā same as (1a) regular triptote -iy-āni -iy-ā -ay-āni,
-aw-āni
-ay-ā,
-aw-ā
-ay-āni -ay-ā
Accusative,
Genitive
-ayni -ay -at-ayni -at-ay -āt-ayni -āt-ay -iy-ayni -iy-ay -ay-ayni,
-aw-ayni
-ay-ay,
-aw-ay
-ay-ayni -ay-ay
Declension→ |(7) Sound Masculine |(8) Sound Feminine same as (1a) regular triptote (7) Sound Masculine (9) Defective in -an
Plural Nominative -ūna -ātun -ātu -ay-ātun,
-aw-ātun
-ay-ātu,
-aw-ātu
-ūna -awna -aw
Accusative,
Genitive
-īna -ātin -āti -ay-ātin,
-aw-ātin
-ay-āti,
-aw-āti
-īna -ayna -ay


NOTE:
  • The plural forms listed are actually separate declensions. Most singular adjectives of the indicated declensions, as well as some singular nouns, are declined in the plural according to the indicated plural declensions. However, most nouns have a plural from a different declension — either a sound plural (declined according to one of the plural declensions, sometimes with a different stem as well) or a broken plural (invariably with a different stem, and declined according to one of the singular declensions). Some adjectives also have broken plurals (again, with different stems, and declined according to one of the singular declensions). See the discussion below on case for more details.
  • The so-called "sound masculine" and "sound feminine" plural declensions refer to form, not gender – grammatically masculine nouns often have sound feminine plurals, and occasionally vice-versa. (Note, however, that most nouns of this sort are inanimate objects, and as a result actually have feminine-singular agreement in the plural, regardless of their inherent gender or the form of their plural. See discussion below.)
  • Diptotes are declined exactly like regular triptotes other than in the singular indefinite state.
  • In the defective-in--in declension, accusative -iyan occurs in singular nouns, while -iya occurs in broken plurals (especially three-syllable broken plurals such as {{transl|ar|layālin}} "nights" or {{transl|ar|ʼayādin}} "hands", whose stem is of a form that would be declined as a diptote if it were declined regularly).
  • There are only limited classes of invariable nouns and adjectives and none have their own plural declension; instead, they decline like one of the other singular or plural declensions.
  • Only a limited number of nouns in -an have a dual in -awāni/-awayni; all of these are short nouns with a two-character stem, and are spelled in Arabic script with a "tall alif" (ـا) rather than {{transl|ar|alif maqṣūrah}} (ـی). Examples are {{transl|ar|ʻaṣan}} عصاً "stick" (and possibly {{transl|ar|riḍan}} رضاً "approval").


The following table shows some examples of noun inflections.
Examples of inflection in nouns
Singular Declension Meaning Gender Type,Notes Root Plural Declension
{{transl|ar|yad}} (1a) triptote hand feminine root noun y-d {{transl|ar|ʼaydin}} (4) broken plural defective in -in
{{transl|ar|ʼayādin}} (4) broken plural defective in -in
{{transl|ar|ʼab}} (2) "long construct" triptote father masculine root noun ʼ-b {{transl|ar|ʼābāʼ}} (1a) broken plural triptote
{{transl|ar|yawm}} (1a) triptote day masculine root noun y-w-m {{transl|ar|ʼayyām}} (1a) broken plural triptote
{{transl|ar|laylah}} (1b) triptote in -ah night feminine root noun l-y-l {{transl|ar|laylāt}} (8) sound feminine plural
{{transl|ar|layālin}} (4) broken plural defective in -in
{{transl|ar|layāʼil}} (3) broken plural diptote
{{transl|ar|baḥr}} (1a) triptote sea masculine root noun b-ḥ-r {{transl|ar|biḥār}} (1a) broken plural triptote
{{transl|ar|buḥūr}} (1a) broken plural triptote
{{transl|ar|ʼabḥār}} (1a) broken plural triptote
{{transl|ar|ʼabḥur}} (1a) broken plural triptote
{{transl|ar|ʼarḍ}} (1a) triptote land feminine root noun rowspan=2|ʼ-r-ḍ {{transl|ar|ʼarāḍin}} (4) broken plural defective in -in
{{transl|ar|ʼaraḍūna}} (7) sound masculine plural
{{transl|ar|ṭālib}} (1a) triptote student masculine Form I active participle ṭ-l-b {{transl|ar|ṭullāb}} (1a) broken plural triptote
{{transl|ar|ṭalabah}} (1b) broken plural triptote in -ah
{{transl|ar|muʻallim}} (1a) triptote teacher masculine Form II active participle ʻ-l-m {{transl|ar|muʻallimūna}} (7) sound masculine plural
{{transl|ar|ḥayāh}} (1c) triptote in -āh life feminine Form I verbal noun ḥ-y-w {{transl|ar|ḥayawāt}} (8) sound feminine plural
{{transl|ar|ḥayawān}} (1a) triptote animal masculine derived noun in -ān (intensive) ḥ-y-w {{transl|ar|ḥayawānāt}} (7) sound feminine plural
{{transl|ar|qāḍin}} (4) defective in -in judge masculine Form I active participle q-ḍ-y {{transl|ar|quḍāh}} (1c) broken plural triptote in -āh
{{transl|ar|qaḍiyyah}} (1b) triptote in -ah lawsuit feminine derived noun (verbal-noun form, Form I) q-ḍ-y {{transl|ar|qaḍāyā}} (6) broken plural invariable -ā
{{transl|ar|mustašfan}} (5) defective in -an hospital masculine?? Form X noun of place (passive-particle form) š-f-y {{transl|ar|mustašfayāt}} (7) sound feminine plural
{{transl|ar|kitāb}} (1a) triptote book masculine derived noun (verbal-noun form, Form I or possibly Form III) k-t-b {{transl|ar|kutub}} (1a) broken plural triptote
{{transl|ar|maktab}} (1a) triptote desk, office masculine Form I noun of place k-t-b {{transl|ar|makātib}} (3) broken plural diptote
{{transl|ar|maktabah}} (1b) triptote in -ah library feminine Form I noun of place k-t-b {{transl|ar|maktabāt}} (8) sound feminine plural
{{transl|ar|makātib}} (3) broken plural diptote
{{transl|ar|dunyā}} (6) invariable -ā world (lit. "lowest (place)") feminine nominalized feminine elative adjective d-n-y {{transl|ar|dunyayāt}} (8) sound feminine plural
{{transl|ar|ṣaḥrāʼ}} (3) diptote desert (lit. "desert-like (place)" < "desert-sand-colored") feminine nominalized feminine color/defect adjective ṣ-ḥ-r {{transl|ar|ṣaḥārin}} (4) broken plural defective in -in
{{transl|ar|ṣaḥārā}} (6) broken plural invariable -ā
{{transl|ar|ṣaḥrāwāt}} (8) sound feminine plural
{{transl|ar|šaǧarah}} (1b) triptote in -ah tree feminine noun of unity š-ǧ-r {{transl|ar|šaǧar}} (1a) triptote, root noun, collective singular ("trees" in general)
{{transl|ar|šaǧarāt}} (8) sound feminine plural, plural of paucity ("trees" when counting 3-10)
{{transl|ar|ʼašǧār}} (1a) broken plural triptote, plural of variety ("different kinds of trees")
{{transl|ar|ʻabd}} (1a) triptote slave, servant masculine derived noun (verbal-noun form) rowspan=4|ʻ-b-d {{transl|ar|ʻabīd}} (1a) broken plural triptote
{{transl|ar|ʻubdān}} (1a) broken plural triptote
{{transl|ar|ʻibdān}} (1a) broken plural triptote
servant (of God), human being {{transl|ar|ʻibād}} (1a) broken plural triptote
{{transl|ar|tilivizyōn}} (1a) triptote television masculine borrowed noun {{transl|ar|tilivizyōnāt}} (8) sound feminine plural
{{transl|ar|film}} (1a) triptote film masculine borrowed noun — (or f-l-m) {{transl|ar|ʼaflām}} (1a) broken plural triptote
{{transl|ar|sigārah}} (1b) triptote in -ah cigarette feminine borrowed noun — (or s-g-r) {{transl|ar|sagāʼir}} (3) broken plural diptote


The following table shows some examples of adjective inflections.
Examples of inflection in adjectives
Type,Notes Root Meaning Masculine Singular Declension Feminine Singular Declension Masculine Plural Declension Feminine Plural Declension
{{transl|ar|faʻīl}} {{transl|ar|k-b-r}} big {{transl|ar|kabīr}} (1a) triptote {{transl|ar|kabīrah}} (1b) triptote in -ah {{transl|ar|kibār}} (1a) broken plural triptote {{transl|ar|kabīrāt}} (8) sound feminine plural
{{transl|ar|kubarāʼ}} (3) broken plural diptote
elative {{transl|ar|k-b-r}} bigger, biggest {{transl|ar|ʼakbar}} (3) diptote {{transl|ar|kubrā}} (6) invariable -ā {{transl|ar|ʼakbarūna}} (7) sound masculine plural {{transl|ar|kubrayāt}} (8) sound feminine plural
{{transl|ar|ʼakābir}} (3) broken plural diptote
{{transl|ar|faʻīl}}, third-weak {{transl|ar|d-n-w}} near, low {{transl|ar|daniyy}} (1a) triptote {{transl|ar|daniyyah}} (1b) triptote in -ah {{transl|ar|ʼadniyāʼ}} (3) broken plural diptote {{transl|ar|daniyyāt}} (8) sound feminine plural
elative, third-weak {{transl|ar|d-n-w}} nearer, nearest; lower, lowest {{transl|ar|ʼadnā}} (6) invariable -ā {{transl|ar|dunyā}} (6) invariable -ā {{transl|ar|ʼadānin}} (4) broken plural defective in -in {{transl|ar|dunan}} (5) broken plural defective in -an
{{transl|ar|ʼadnawna}} (7) sound masculine plural defective in -an {{transl|ar|dunyawāt}} (8) sound feminine plural
color/defect {{transl|ar|ḥ-m-r}} red {{transl|ar|ʼaḥmar}} (3) diptote {{transl|ar|ḥamrāʼ}} (3) diptote {{transl|ar|ḥumr}} (1a) broken plural triptote {{transl|ar|ḥumr}} (1a) broken plural triptote
{{transl|ar|faʻlān}} (intensive) {{transl|ar|ʻ-ṭ-š}} thirsty {{transl|ar|ʻaṭšān}} (3) diptote {{transl|ar|ʻaṭšā}} (6) invariable -ā {{transl|ar|ʻiṭāš}} (1a) broken plural triptote ? ?
{{transl|ar|ʻaṭšā}} (6) broken plural invariable -ā

Number


Arabic distinguishes between nouns based on number
Grammatical number
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions ....

 (عدد {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻadad}}). All nouns are either singular
Grammatical number
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions ....

  (مفرد {{transl|ar|DIN|mufrad}}) dual
Dual (grammatical number)
Dual is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural. When a noun or pronoun appears in dual form, it is interpreted as referring to precisely two of the entities identified by the noun or pronoun...

 (مثنى {{transl|ar|DIN|muṯannā}}), or plural
Plural
In linguistics, plurality or [a] plural is a concept of quantity representing a value of more-than-one. Typically applied to nouns, a plural word or marker is used to distinguish a value other than the default quantity of a noun, which is typically one...

 (جمع {{transl|ar|DIN|ǧamʻ}}). In Classical Arabic, the use of the dual is mandatory whenever exactly two objects are referred to, regardless of whether the "two-ness" of the objects is explicit or not. For example, in a sentence like "I picked up my children from school yesterday and then helped them with their homework", the words "children", "them" and "their" must be in the dual if exactly two children are referred to, regardless of whether the speaker wants to make this fact explicit or not. This implies that when the plural is used, it necessarily implies three or more. (Colloquial varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic
The Arabic language is a Semitic language characterized by a wide number of linguistic varieties within its five regional forms. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. The Arabic of North Africa, for example, is often incomprehensible to an Arabic speaker...

 are very different in this regard, as the dual is normally used only for emphasis, i.e. in cases similar to when an English speaker would use the word "two".)

Nouns take either a sound plural or broken plural
Broken plural
In linguistics, a broken plural is an irregular plural form of a noun or adjective found in the Semitic languages and other Afroasiatic languages such as Berber. Broken plurals are formed by changing the pattern of consonants and vowels inside the singular form...

. The sound plural is formed by adding endings, and can be considered part of the declension. The broken plural, however, is a different stem. It may belong to a different declension (see below), and is declined as a singular noun. For example, the plural of the masculine triptote noun {{transl|ar|DIN|kitāb}} "book" is {{transl|ar|DIN|kutub}}, which is declined as a normal singular triptote noun: indefinite nominative {{transl|ar|DIN|kutubun}}; indefinite accusative {{transl|ar|DIN|kutuban}}; indefinite genitive {{transl|ar|DIN|kutubun}}; etc. On the other hand, the masculine triptote noun {{transl|ar|DIN|maktab}} "desk, office" has the plural {{transl|ar|DIN|makātib}}, which declines as a singular diptote noun: indefinite nominative {{transl|ar|DIN|makātibu}}; indefinite accusative/genitive {{transl|ar|DIN|makātiba}}; etc.

Generally, the only nouns that have the "masculine" sound plural {{transl|ar|DIN|-ūn/īn-}} are nouns referring to male human beings (e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|muhandis}} "engineer"). On the other hand, the "feminine" sound plural {{transl|ar|DIN|-āt-}} occurs not only on nouns referring to female human beings, but also on many nouns referring to objects, whether masculine or feminine (e.g. masculine اِمْتِحان {{transl|ar|DIN|imtihān}} "exam", feminine {{transl|ar|DIN|sayyārah}} "car"). Note that all inanimate objects take feminine singular agreement in the plural, regardless of their "inherent" gender and regardless of the form of the plural.

Some nouns have two or more plural forms, usually to distinguish between different meanings.

Gender


Arabic has two genders
Grammatical gender
Grammatical gender is defined linguistically as a system of classes of nouns which trigger specific types of inflections in associated words, such as adjectives, verbs and others. For a system of noun classes to be a gender system, every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be...

 (جنس {{transl|ar|DIN|ǧins}}), masculine (مذكر {{transl|ar|DIN|muḏakkar}}) and feminine (مؤنث {{transl|ar|DIN|muʼannaṯ}}). As mentioned above, verbs, adjectives and pronouns must agree in gender with the corresponding noun. Gender in Arabic is logically very similar to a language like Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

: Animate
Animacy
Animacy is a grammatical and/or semantic category of nouns based on how sentient or alive the referent of the noun in a given taxonomic scheme is...

 nouns, such as those referring to people, usually have the grammatical gender corresponding to their natural gender
Gender
Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. Depending on the context, the discriminating characteristics vary from sex to social role to gender identity...

, but for inanimate nouns the grammatical gender is largely arbitrary.

Most feminine nouns end in ـة {{transl|ar|DIN|-at-}}, but some do not (e.g. أم {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼumm}} "mother", أرض {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼarḍ}} "earth"). Most words ending in ـا are also feminine (and are indeclinable).

The letter ـة used for feminine nouns is a special form known as تاء مربوطة {{transl|ar|DIN|tāʼ marbūṭah}} "tied T", which looks like the letter {{transl|ar|DIN|hāʼ}} "H" with the two dots that form part of the letter {{transl|ar|DIN|tāʼ}} "T" written above it. This form indicates that the feminine ending {{transl|ar|DIN|-at-}} is pronounced {{transl|ar|DIN|-ah-}} in pausa
Pausa
In linguistics, pausa is the end of a prosodic unit, such as an utterance. Some sound laws specifically operate in pausa only; for example, certain phonemes may be pronounced differently at the end of a word, when no other word follows within the same prosodic unit, such as in citation form...

 (at the end of an utterance). Note that in writing, the ending ـة never takes the accusative indefinite alif
Alif
ALIF may be an abbreviation for:* Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion, a type of spinal fusionAlif may have more than one meaning:* Aleph, the first letter of many Semitic alphabets* Alif, the eighth consonant of the Thaana abugaida used in Dhivehi...

 marker used in nouns lacking this ending. (In the colloquial variants
Varieties of Arabic
The Arabic language is a Semitic language characterized by a wide number of linguistic varieties within its five regional forms. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. The Arabic of North Africa, for example, is often incomprehensible to an Arabic speaker...

, and in all but the most formal pronunciations of spoken Modern Standard Arabic, the feminine ending {{transl|ar|DIN|-at}} appears only with nouns in the construct state, and the ending is simply pronounced {{transl|ar|DIN|-a}} in all other circumstances.)

State


The grammatical property of state is specific to Arabic and other Semitic languages
Semitic languages
The Semitic languages are a group of related languages whose living representatives are spoken by more than 270 million people across much of the Middle East, North Africa and the Horn of Africa...

. The basic division is between
definite
Definite Article
Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzard's 1996 performance released on VHS. It was recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre...

 and indefinite, corresponding approximately to English nouns preceded, respectively, by the (the definite article) and a/an (the indefinite article). More correctly, a definite noun signals either a particular entity previously referenced or a generic concept, and corresponds to one of the following in English: English nouns preceded by the, this, that, or a possessive adjective
Possessive adjective
Possessive adjectives, also known as possessive determiners, are a part of speech that modifies a noun by attributing possession to someone or something...

 (e.g. my, your); English nouns taken in a generic sense ("Milk is good", "Dogs are friendly"); or proper noun
Proper noun
A proper noun or proper name is a noun representing a unique entity , as distinguished from a common noun, which represents a class of entities —for example, city, planet, person or corporation)...

s (e.g. John or Muhammad). Indefinite nouns refer to entities not previously mentioned, and correspond to either English nouns preceded by a, an or some, or English mass noun
Mass noun
In linguistics, a mass noun is a noun that refers to some entity as an undifferentiated unit rather than as something with discrete subsets. Non-count nouns are best identified by their syntactic properties, and especially in contrast with count nouns. The semantics of mass nouns are highly...

s with no preceding determiner
Determiner
Determiner may refer to:* Determiner , a class of words including articles and demonstratives within the noun phrase* Determiner phrase, a phrase headed by a determiner* Determinative, sometimes called determiners-See also:...

 and not having a generic sense ("We need milk").

Definite nouns are usually marked by a definite article
Definite Article
Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzard's 1996 performance released on VHS. It was recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre...

 prefix
Prefix
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the root of a word. Particularly in the study of languages,a prefix is also called a preformative, because it alters the form of the words to which it is affixed.Examples of prefixes:...

 الـ {{transl|ar|DIN|al-}} (which is reduced to {{transl|ar|DIN|l-}} following vowels, and further assimilates to {{transl|ar|DIN|(a)t-, (a)s-, (a)r-}} etc. preceding certain consonants). Indefinite nouns are usually marked by nunation
Nunation
In some Semitic languages, notably Arabic, nunation is the addition of a final nun to a noun or adjective to indicate that it is fully declinable and syntactically unmarked for definiteness....

 (a following {{transl|ar|DIN|-n}}). Adjectives modifying a noun agree with the noun in definiteness, and take the same markings:
  • كلب كبير {{transl|ar|DIN|kalbun kabīrun}} "a big dog (nom.)"
  • رأيت كلبا كبيرا {{transl|ar|DIN|raʼaytu kalban kabīran}} "I saw a big dog (acc.)"
  • مع كلب كبير {{transl|ar|DIN|maʻa kalbin kabīrin}} "with a big dog (gen.)"
  • الكلب الكبير {{transl|ar|DIN|al-kalbu l-kabīru}} "the big dog (nom.)"
  • كلبها الكبير {{transl|ar|DIN|kalbu-hā l-kabīru}} "her big dog (nom.)" (the definite article does not appear with a suffixed possessive, but the noun is still definite)
  • رأيت صورة جميلة {{transl|ar| ṣūratan ǧamīlatan}} "I saw a nice picture (acc.)"
  • مصر القديمة {{transl|ar|DIN|Miṣru l-qadīmatu}} "Ancient Egypt (nom.)" (proper noun
    Proper noun
    A proper noun or proper name is a noun representing a unique entity , as distinguished from a common noun, which represents a class of entities —for example, city, planet, person or corporation)...

    s do not take the definite article, but are still definite)


A third value for state is construct. Nouns assume the construct state
Status constructus
The construct state or status constructus is a noun form occurring in Afro-Asiatic languages. It is particularly common in Semitic languages , Berber languages, and in the extinct Egyptian language...

 ({{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiḍāfah}}) when they are definite and modified by another noun in a genitive construction
Genitive construction
In grammar, a genitive construction or genitival construction is a type of grammatical construction used to express a relation between two nouns such as the possession of one by another , or some other type of connection...

. For example, in a construction like "the daughter of John", the Arabic word corresponding to "the daughter" is placed in the construct state and is marked neither with a definite article nor with nunation, even though it is semantically definite. Furthermore, no other word can intervene between a construct-state noun and a following genitive, other than in a few exceptional cases. A adjective modifying a construct-state noun is in the definite state and is placed after the modifying genitive. Examples:
  • بنت الملكة {{transl|ar|bintu l-malikati}} "the daughter (nom.) of the queen"
  • بنت الملكة القصيرة {{transl|ar|bintu l-malikati l-qaṣīratu}} "the short daughter (nom.) of the queen"
  • بنت الملكة القصيرة {{transl|ar|bintu l-malikati l-qaṣīrati}} "the daughter (nom.) of the short queen"
  • بنت الملكة القصيرة {{transl|ar|binti l-malikati l-qaṣīrati}} "the short daughter (gen.) of the queen" or "the daughter (gen.) of the short queen"

Note that the adjective must follow the genitive regardless of which of the two nouns it modifies, and only the agreement characteristics (case, gender, etc.) indicate which noun is modified.

The construct state is likewise used for nouns with an attached possessive suffix
Possessive suffix
In linguistics, a possessive affix is a suffix or prefix attached to a noun to indicate its possessor, much in the manner of possessive adjectives. Possessive suffixes are found in some Uralic, Altaic, Semitic, and Indo-European languages...

:
  • بنتها {{transl|ar|DIN|bintu-hā}} "her daughter (nom.)"
  • بنتها {{transl|ar|DIN|binti-hā}} "her daughter (gen.)"
  • بنته {{transl|ar|DIN|bintu-hu}} "his daughter (nom.)"
  • بنته {{transl|ar|DIN|binti-hi}} "his daughter (gen.)"
  • بنتي {{transl|ar|DIN|bint-ī}} "my daughter (nom./acc./gen.)"
  • ملكتها {{transl|ar|DIN|malikati-hā}} "his queen (gen.)"
  • كلبها {{transl|ar|DIN|kalbu-hā}} "her dog (nom.)"
  • كلبها الكبير {{transl|ar|DIN|kalbu-hā l-kabīru}} "her big dog (nom.)"

Note that in writing, the special form {{transl|ar|DIN|tāʼ marbūṭah}} indicating the feminine changes into a regular {{transl|ar|DIN|tāʼ}} before suffixes. This does not affect the formal pronunciation.

When an indefinite noun is modified by another noun, the construct state is not used. Instead, a construction such as بنت للملكة {{transl|ar|bintun li-l-malikati}} lit. "a daughter to the queen" is used.

Note also the following appositional
Apposition
Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to define or modify the other. When this device is used, the two elements are said to be in apposition...

 construction:
  • البيت واسع النوافذ {{transl|ar|DIN|al-baytu wāsiʻu l-nawāfiḏi}} "the house with the wide windows" (lit. "the house wide of windows")

Article


{{main|Al-}}
The article (أداة التعريف {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼadāt ut-taʻrīf}}) الـ {{transl|ar|DIN|al-}} is indeclinable and expresses the definite state of a noun of any gender and number. As mentioned above, it is also prefixed to each of that noun's modifying adjectives. The initial vowel (همزة الوصل {{transl|ar|DIN|hamzat ul-waṣl}}), is volatile in the sense that it disappears in sandhi
Sandhi
Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries . Examples include the fusion of sounds across word boundaries and the alteration of sounds due to neighboring sounds or due to the grammatical function of adjacent words...

, the article becoming mere {{transl|ar|DIN|l-}} (although the {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalif}} is retained in orthography in any case as it is based on pausal pronunciation).

Also, the {{transl|ar|DIN|l}} is assimilated to a number of consonants (dentals and sibilants), so that in these cases, the article in pronunciation is expressed only by geminating
Gemination
In phonetics, gemination happens when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant. Gemination is distinct from stress and may appear independently of it....

 the initial consonant of the noun (while in orthography, the writing الـ {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalif lām}} is retained, and the gemination may be expressed by putting {{transl|ar|DIN|šadda
Sadda
Sadda may refer to:* Sadda, FATA, a town in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of north-western Pakistan* Sadda, Punjab, a town and Union Council of Kasur District in Punjab, Pakistan...

h}} on the following letter).

The consonants causing assimilation (trivially including ل ({{transl|ar|DIN|l}})) are ت ({{transl|ar|DIN|t}}), ث ({{transl|ar|DIN|ṯ}}), د ({{transl|ar|DIN|d}}), ذ ({{transl|ar|DIN|ḏ}}), ر ({{transl|ar|DIN|r}}), ز ({{transl|ar|DIN|z}}), س ({{transl|ar|DIN|s}}), ش ({{transl|ar|DIN|š}}), ص ({{transl|ar|DIN|ṣ}}), ض ({{transl|ar|DIN|ḍ}}), ط ({{transl|ar|DIN|ṭ}}), ظ ({{transl|ar|DIN|ẓ}}), ل ({{transl|ar|DIN|l}}), ن ({{transl|ar|DIN|n}}). These 14 letters are called 'solar letters' (الحروف الشمسية {{transl|ar|DIN|al-ḥurūf aš-šamsiyyah}}), while the remaining 14 are called 'lunar letters' or 'moon letters' (الحروف القمرية {{transl|ar|DIN|al-ḥurūf al-qamariyyah}}). The solar letters all have in common that they are dental, alveolar
Alveolar consonant
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli of the superior teeth...

, and postalveolar
Postalveolar consonant
Postalveolar consonants are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, further back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself, but not as far back as the hard palate...

 consonant
Consonant
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of the tongue; , pronounced in the throat; and ,...

s (all coronals
Coronal consonant
Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. Only the coronal consonants can be divided into apical , laminal , domed , or subapical , as well as a few rarer orientations, because only the front of the tongue has such...

) in the classical language, and the lunar consonants are not. (ج {{transl|ar|DIN|ǧīm}} is pronounced postalveolar in most varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic
The Arabic language is a Semitic language characterized by a wide number of linguistic varieties within its five regional forms. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. The Arabic of North Africa, for example, is often incomprehensible to an Arabic speaker...

 today, but was actually a palatalized
Palatalization
In linguistics, palatalization , also palatization, may refer to two different processes by which a sound, usually a consonant, comes to be produced with the tongue in a position in the mouth near the palate....

 voiced velar plosive
Voiced velar plosive
The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g. Strictly, the IPA symbol is the so-called "opentail G" , though the "looptail G" is...

 in the classical language, and is thus considered a lunar letter; nevertheless, in colloquial Arabic, the ج {{transl|ar|DIN|ǧīm}} is often spoken as if solar.)

Agreement


Adjectives generally agree with their corresponding nouns in gender, number, case and state. Pronouns and verbs likewise agree in person, gender and number. However, there is an important proviso: inanimate plural nouns take feminine-singular agreement. This so-called "deflected agreement" applies to all agreement contexts, whether of adjectives, verbs or pronouns, and applies regardless of both the inherent gender of the noun (as indicated by singular and dual agreement) and the form of the plural of the noun. Note that this does not apply to dual nouns, which always have "strict agreement".

Case


{{main|Iʻrāb}}

There are six basic noun/adjective singular declensions:
  • The normal triptote declension, which includes the majority of nouns and adjectives. The basic property is a three-way case marking distinction -u -a -i. An example is {{transl|ar|DIN|kitāb}} "book", with indefinite declension {{transl|ar|DIN|kitābun, kitāban, kitābin}} and definite declension {{transl|ar|DIN|al-kitābu, al-kitāba, al-kitābi}}. Most feminine nouns have an additional stem -ة ({{transl|ar|DIN|-at-}}), and decline the same way. Some feminine nouns (and a few masculine nouns) have a variant stem -اة ({{transl|ar|DIN|-āt-}}), again with the same declensional endings. Note that there are some cases of nouns (and a few adjectives) whose gender does not match the stem form (in both directions). In addition, some masculine nouns (with and without -ة) have broken plurals in -ة, and likewise some feminine nouns have broken plurals without -ة. This affects the form, but not the inherent gender (or agreement properties) of these nouns.
  • The diptote declension. Diptotes have a different declension only in the singular indefinite state. These words are missing the nunation
    Nunation
    In some Semitic languages, notably Arabic, nunation is the addition of a final nun to a noun or adjective to indicate that it is fully declinable and syntactically unmarked for definiteness....

     (final {{transl|ar|DIN|-n-}}) normally marking the indefinite, and have different case-marking endings. Everywhere but in the singular indefinite, they have endings identical to triptotes. The class of diptote nouns mostly includes certain names, and broken plurals of particular forms (especially those with four stem consonants and three-syllable stems, as in {{transl|ar|DIN|makātib}} "desks, offices". Certain adjectives are also diptotes, such as the form {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼafʻal}} of masculine singular elative
    Elative
    Elative has two slightly differing meanings in the grammar of two language groups:*Elative case, a grammatical case in, e.g., the Finno-Ugric languages*Elative , a category of comparison similar to the superlative in, e.g., the Semitic languages...

     (i.e. comparative/superlative) and color/defect adjectives, as well as the forms {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻlāʼ}} (feminine singular color/defect adjectives) and {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻlān}} (masculine singular "intensive" adjectives expressing emotional concepts such as "angry, thirsty").
  • The "long construct" declension. These are triptotes with long case endings -ū -ā -ī in the singular construct state, and normal triptote endings elsewhere. There are only five nouns in this declension, all very short (see below): {{transl|ar|ʼab}} "father" (e.g. {{transl|ar|ʼabū ḥasan}} "the father of Hasan"); {{transl|ar|ʼaḫ}} "brother"; {{transl|ar|ḥam}} "father-in-law"; {{transl|ar|fam}} "mouth" (which assumes an irregular stem {{transl|ar|f-}} in the construct state, e.g. {{transl|ar|fū}} "the mouth of (nom.)"); and {{transl|ar|ḏū}} "the owner of" (which appears only in construct and has a seriously irregular declension; see under demonstrative pronouns).
  • The -in declension (Arabic {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼism ul-manqūṣ}}). This is used primarily for nouns and adjectives whose final root consonant is {{transl|ar|DIN|-y}} or {{transl|ar|DIN|-w}}, and which would normally have an {{transl|ar|DIN|-i-}} before the last consonant (e.g. the active participles of third-weak verbs). Such words were once declined as normal triptotes, but sound change
    Sound change
    Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation or sound system structures...

     has caused the last stem syllable to collapse together with the ending, leading to an irregular declension. In adjectives, this irregularity occurs only in the masculine; such adjectives have a normal feminine with a stem ending in {{transl|ar|DIN|-iya-}}.
  • The -an declension (Arabic {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼism ul-maqṣūr}}). Like the -in declension, this is used primarily for nouns and adjectives whose final root consonant is {{transl|ar|DIN|-y}} or {{transl|ar|DIN|-w}}, but these are words that would normally have an {{transl|ar|DIN|-a-}} before the last consonant (e.g. the passive participles of third-weak verbs). Again, sound change
    Sound change
    Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation or sound system structures...

     has caused the last stem syllable to collapse together with the ending, and again, in adjectives the irregularity occurs only in the masculine, with regularly-declined feminines having a stem ending in {{transl|ar|DIN|-āh}} (singular/dual) or {{transl|ar|DIN|-ayāt-}} (plural).
  • The invariable {{transl|ar|DIN|-ā}} declension (written either with "tall" {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalif}} or {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalif maqṣūra}}). These words have the same form in all cases, both indefinite and definite. When this declension occurs in adjectives, it generally occurs as either the masculine or feminine singular portion of a complex paradigm with a differently-stemmed diptote conjugation in the other gender. Examples are the feminine singular of elative
    Elative
    Elative has two slightly differing meanings in the grammar of two language groups:*Elative case, a grammatical case in, e.g., the Finno-Ugric languages*Elative , a category of comparison similar to the superlative in, e.g., the Semitic languages...

     (i.e. comparative/superlative) adjectives, such as {{transl|ar|DIN|kubrā}} "bigger/biggest (fem.)", and of "intensive" adjectives in {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻlān}}, e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻaṭšā}} "thirsty (fem.)". Masculine singular elatives and color/defect adjectives from third-weak roots have this declension themselves, e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼaʻmā}} "blind", {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼadnā}} "nearer, lower".


Note that many (but not all) nouns in the -in, -an or -ā declensions originate as adjectives of some sort, or as verbal noun
Verbal noun
In linguistics, the verbal noun turns a verb into a noun and corresponds to the infinitive in English language usage. In English the infinitive form of the verb is formed when preceded by to, e.g...

s of third-weak verbs. Examples: {{transl|ar|DIN|qāḍin}} "judge" (a form-I active participle); {{transl|ar|DIN|mustašfan}} "hospital" (a form-X passive participle in its alternative meaning as a "noun of place"); {{transl|ar|DIN|fusḥā}} "formal Arabic" (originally a feminine elative, lit. "the most eloquent (language)"); {{transl|ar|DIN|dunyā}} "world" (also a feminine elative, lit. "the lowest (place)"). In addition, many broken plurals are conjugated according to one of these declensions.

Note that all dual nouns and adjectives have the same endings {{transl|ar|DIN|-ā(ni)/-ay(ni)}}, differing only in the form of the stem.
Nominative case

The nominative case
Nominative case
The nominative case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments...

 (المرفوع {{transl|ar|DIN|al-marfūʻ}} ) is used for:
  • Subjects of a verbal sentence.
  • Subjects and predicates of an equational (non-verbal) sentence, with some notable exceptions.
  • Certain adverbs retain the nominative marker (although not necessarily representing the nominative case).
  • The citation form of words is (if noted at all) in the nominative case.


For singular nouns and broken plurals, it is marked as a {{transl|ar|DIN|ḍammah}} (-u) for the definite or {{transl|ar|DIN|ḍammah}} + nunation ({{transl|ar|-un}}) for the indefinite. The dual and regular masculine plural are formed by adding {{transl|ar|-āni}} and {{transl|ar|-ūna}} respectively ({{transl|ar|DIN|-ā}} and {{transl|ar|DIN|-ū}} in the construct state). The regular feminine plural is formed by adding {{transl|ar|-ātu}} in the definite and {{transl|ar|-ātun}} in the indefinite.
Accusative case

The accusative case
Accusative case
The accusative case of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of prepositions...

 (المنصوب {{transl|ar|DIN|al-manṣūb}}) is used for:
  • Objects of a verbal sentence.
  • The subject of an equational (non-verbal) sentence, if it is initiated with {{transl|ar|DIN|inna}}, or one of her sisters.
  • The predicate of {{transl|ar|kāna/yakūnu}} "be" and its sisters. Hence, البنت جميلة {{transl|ar|al-bintu ǧamīlatun}} "the girl is beautiful" but البنت كانت جميلة {{transl|ar|al-bintu kānat ǧamīla(tan)}} "the girl was beautiful" (spelling جميلة is not affected here (letter ة) in the unvocalised Arabic). The ending in brackets may not be pronounced in pausa or in informal Arabic.
  • Both the subject and the predicate of {{transl|ar|DIN|ẓanna}} and its sisters in an equational clause.
  • The object of a transitive verb.
  • Most adverbs.
  • Internal object/cognate accusative structure.
  • The accusative of specification/purpose/circumstantial.


For singular nouns and broken plurals, it is marked as a {{transl|ar|DIN|fatḥah}} ({{transl|ar|DIN|-a}}) for the definite or {{transl|ar|DIN|fatḥah}} + nunation ({{transl|ar|-an}}) for the indefinite. For the indefinite accusative, the {{transl|ar|DIN|fatḥah}} + nunation is added to an {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalif}} e.g. ـًا, which is added to the ending of all nouns (e.g. كان تعباناً {{transl|ar|kāna taʻbāna(n)}} "he was tired") not ending with a {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalif}} followed by {{transl|ar|DIN|hamzah}} or a {{transl|ar|DIN|tāʼ marbūṭah}}. The dual and regular masculine plural are formed by adding {{transl|ar|-ayn(i)}} and {{transl|ar|-īn(a)}} (both spelled ـين in Arabic) respectively ({{transl|ar|DIN|-ay}} and {{transl|ar|DIN|-ī}} in the construct state, both spelled ـي in Arabic). The regular feminine plural is formed by adding {{transl|ar|-āt(i)}} in the definite and {{transl|ar|-āt(in)}} in the indefinite, both spelled ـات in Arabic.
Genitive case

The genitive case
Genitive case
In grammar, genitive is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun...

 (المجرور {{transl|ar|DIN|al-maǧrūr}}) is used for:
  • Objects of prepositions.
  • All, but not necessarily the first member (the first nomen regens), of an {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiḍāfah}} (genitive construction) .
  • The object of a locative adverb.
  • Semi-prepositions if preceded by another (true or semi) preposition
  • Objects of أي {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼayy}} "any".
  • Elative (comparative/superlative) adjectives behave similarly: أطول ولد "{{transl|ar|ʼaṭwalu waladin}}" "tallest boy('s)".


For singular nouns and broken plurals, it is marked as a {{transl|ar|DIN|kasrah}} ({{transl|ar|DIN|-i}}) for the definite or {{transl|ar|DIN|kasrah}} + nunation ({{transl|ar|-in}}) for the indefinite. The dual and regular masculine plural are formed by adding {{transl|ar|-ayn(i)}} and {{transl|ar|-īn(a)}} respectively (both spelled ـين in Arabic) ({{transl|ar|DIN|-ay}} and {{transl|ar|DIN|-ī}} in the construct state, both spelled ـي in Arabic). The regular feminine plural is formed by adding {{transl|ar|-āt(i)}} in the definite and {{transl|ar|-āt(in)}} in the indefinite, both spelled ـات in Arabic.
Note: diptotic nouns receive a {{transl|ar|fatḥah}} ({{transl|ar|DIN|-a}}) in the genitive indefinite and are never nunated.

Pronunciation


When speaking or reading aloud, nouns at the end of an utterance are pronounced in a special pausal form
Pausa
In linguistics, pausa is the end of a prosodic unit, such as an utterance. Some sound laws specifically operate in pausa only; for example, certain phonemes may be pronounced differently at the end of a word, when no other word follows within the same prosodic unit, such as in citation form...

 (الوقف {{transl|ar|DIN|al-waqf}}). Final short vowels, as well as short vowels followed by a nunation
Nunation
In some Semitic languages, notably Arabic, nunation is the addition of a final nun to a noun or adjective to indicate that it is fully declinable and syntactically unmarked for definiteness....

, are omitted; but accusative {{transl|ar|DIN|-an}} sounds as {{transl|ar|DIN|-ā}}. The {{transl|ar|DIN|-t-}} in the feminine ending {{transl|ar|DIN|-at-}} sounds as {{transl|ar|DIN|-h-}}.

In writing, all words are written in their pausal form; special diacritics may be used to indicate the case endings and nunation, but are normally only found in books for students and children, in the Quran, and occasionally elsewhere to remove ambiguity. Feminine nouns are indicated using a ة {{transl|ar|DIN|tāʼ marbūṭah}} (technically, the letter for {{transl|ar|DIN|-h-}} with the markings for {{transl|ar|DIN|-t-}} added).

When speaking in less formal registers, words are essentially pronounced in their pausal form
When speaking or reading aloud, the case endings are generally omitted in less formal registers.

Noun and Adjective Inflection (Colloquial Arabic)


{{Expand section|date=August 2011}}

In the colloquial spoken varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic
The Arabic language is a Semitic language characterized by a wide number of linguistic varieties within its five regional forms. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. The Arabic of North Africa, for example, is often incomprehensible to an Arabic speaker...

, much of the inflectional and derivational grammar of Classical Arabic nouns and adjectives is unchanged. The colloquial varieties have all been affected by a change that deleted most final short vowels (also final short vowels followed by a nunation
Nunation
In some Semitic languages, notably Arabic, nunation is the addition of a final nun to a noun or adjective to indicate that it is fully declinable and syntactically unmarked for definiteness....

 suffix -n), and shortened final long vowels.

Loss of case
The largest change is the total lack of any grammatical case
Grammatical case
In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun is an inflectional form that indicates its grammatical function in a phrase, clause, or sentence. For example, a pronoun may play the role of subject , of direct object , or of possessor...

 in the colloquial variants. When case endings were indicated by short vowels, these are simply deleted. Otherwise, the pausal form of the original oblique case
Oblique case
An oblique case in linguistics is a noun case of synthetic languages that is used generally when a noun is the object of a verb or a preposition...

 has been usually generalized to all cases (however, in "long construct" nouns, it is nominative -ū that has been generalized). The original nunation
Nunation
In some Semitic languages, notably Arabic, nunation is the addition of a final nun to a noun or adjective to indicate that it is fully declinable and syntactically unmarked for definiteness....

 ending indicating the indefinite state is also lost in most varieties, and where it persists it has different functions (e.g. in conjunction with a modifier such as an adjective
Adjective
In grammar, an adjective is a 'describing' word; the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified....

 or relative clause
Relative clause
A relative clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun phrase, most commonly a noun. For example, the phrase "the man who wasn't there" contains the noun man, which is modified by the relative clause who wasn't there...

). The distinction between triptote and diptote has vanished, as has the distinction between defective -an and invariable -ā, which are both rendered by -a (shortened from -ā); similarly, defective -in nouns now have an ending -i, shortened from pausal/definite -ī.

Even in Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic , also known as Qur'anic or Koranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times . It is based on the Medieval dialects of Arab tribes...

, grammatical case appears not to have been completely integrated into the grammar. The word order was largely fixed — contrary to the usual freedom of word order in languages with case marking (e.g. Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

, Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

) — and there are few cases in the Koran where omission of case endings would entail significant ambiguity of meaning. As a result, the loss of case entailed relatively little change in the grammar as a whole. In Modern Standard Arabic, case functions almost entirely as an afterthought: Most case endings are not pronounced at all, and even when the correct use of case endings is necessary (e.g. in formal, prepared speeches), the text is composed without consideration of case and later annotated with the correct endings.

Despite the loss of case, the original indefinite accusative ending -an survives in its adverbial usage.

Restriction of the dual number
Dual number
In linear algebra, the dual numbers extend the real numbers by adjoining one new element ε with the property ε2 = 0 . The collection of dual numbers forms a particular two-dimensional commutative unital associative algebra over the real numbers. Every dual number has the form z = a + bε with a and...


The dual number
Dual number
In linear algebra, the dual numbers extend the real numbers by adjoining one new element ε with the property ε2 = 0 . The collection of dual numbers forms a particular two-dimensional commutative unital associative algebra over the real numbers. Every dual number has the form z = a + bε with a and...

 is lost except on nouns, and even then its use is no longer functionally obligatory (i.e. the plural may also be used when referring to two objects, if the "two-ness" of the objects is not being emphasized). In addition, many varieties have two morphologically separate endings inherited from the Classical dual, one used with dual semantics and the other used for certain objects that normally come in pairs (e.g. eyes, ears) but with plural semantics. (It is sometimes suggested that only the latter variety was actually directly inherited, whereas the former variety was a late borrowing from the Classical language.) In some varieties (e.g. Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken in the Arabic-speaking areas of Morocco. For official communications, the government and other public bodies use Modern Standard Arabic, as is the case in most Arabic-speaking countries. A mixture of French and Moroccan Arabic is used in business...

), the former, semantic dual has nearly disappeared, and is used only with a limited number of nouns, especially those referring to cardinal number
Cardinal number
In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalization of the natural numbers used to measure the cardinality of sets. The cardinality of a finite set is a natural number – the number of elements in the set. The transfinite cardinal numbers describe the sizes of infinite...

s and units of measurement
Units of measurement
A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a physical quantity, defined and adopted by convention and/or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same physical quantity. Any other value of the physical quantity can be expressed as a simple multiple of the unit of...

.

Changes to elative
Elative
Elative has two slightly differing meanings in the grammar of two language groups:*Elative case, a grammatical case in, e.g., the Finno-Ugric languages*Elative , a category of comparison similar to the superlative in, e.g., the Semitic languages...

 adjectives
Elative adjectives (those adjectives having a comparative and superlative meaning) are no longer inflected; instead, the masculine singular serves for all genders and numbers. Note that the most common way of saying e.g. "the largest boy" is {{transl|ar|ʼakbar walad}}, with the adjective in the construct state (rather than expected }, with the adjective in its normal position after the noun and agreeing with it in state).

Preservation of remainder of system
Other than the above changes, the system is largely stable. The same system of two genders, sound and broken plurals, and the use of multiple stems to complete the declension of some nouns and adjectives still exists, and is little changed in its particulars.

The singular of feminine nouns is normally marked in -a. Former -in nouns are marked in -i, while former -an and -ā nouns are marked in -a, causing a formal merger in the singular with the feminine (but nouns that were masculine generally remain that way). The former "long feminine" marked with pausal -āh normally is marked with -āt in all circumstances (even outside of the construct state). Sound masculine plurals are marked with -īn, and sound feminine plurals with -āt; duals often use -ēn (< -ayn, still preserved in the occasional variety that has not undergone the changes ay > ē, aw > ō).

The system of three states also still exists. With loss of final -n, the difference between definite and indefinite simply comes down to presence or absence of the article al-. The construct state is distinguished by lack of al-, and in feminines in -a by a separate ending -at (or -it). The "older dual" (used for the plural of certain body parts, e.g. eyes and ears), which is often -ēn (< -ayn), has a separate construct form -ē (which becomes -ayya in combination with clitic
Clitic
In morphology and syntax, a clitic is a morpheme that is grammatically independent, but phonologically dependent on another word or phrase. It is pronounced like an affix, but works at the phrase level...

 suffix -ya "my"). Other duals, as well as sound plurals, do not normally have a construct state, but instead use an analytical genitive construction, using a particle with a meaning of "of" but whose form differs greatly from variant to variant, and which is used in a grammatical construction that exactly parallels the analytical genitive in English constructions such as "the father of the teacher".

Noun and Adjective Derivation


A number of derivational
Derivational morphology
Derivational morphology changes the meaning of words by applying derivations. Derivation is the combination of a word stem with a morpheme, which forms a new word, which is often of a different class...

 processes exist for forming new nouns and adjectives. Most of these processes are non-concatenative, i.e. they involve a specific transformation applied to a root or word of a specific form, and cannot be arbitrarily combined or repeated to form longer and longer words. The only real concatenative derivational process is the nisba adjective -iyy-, which can be added to any noun (or even other adjective) to form an adjective meaning "related to X", and nominalized with the meaning "person related to X" (the same ending occurs in Arabic nationality adjectives borrowed into English such as "Iraqi", "Kuwaiti
Kuwaiti
Kuwaiti may refer to:* Something of, from, or related to the country of Kuwait* A person from Kuwait, or of Kuwaiti descent. For information about the Kuwaiti people, see Demographics of Kuwait and Culture of Kuwait. For specific persons, see List of Kuwaitis.* Note that there is no language called...

"). A secondary concatenative suffix is the feminine -ah, which can be added onto most nouns to make a feminine equivalent. The actual semantics are not very well-defined, but when added onto a noun indicating a man of some sort, they typically either refer to the women or objects with the same characteristics. The feminine nisba adjective -iyyah is commonly used to refer to abstract nouns (e.g. {{transl|ar|ištirākiyyah}} "socialism"), and is sometimes added directly onto foreign nouns (e.g. {{transl|ar|dimuqrātiyyah}} "democracy").

The most productive means of derivational morphology of nouns is actually through the existing system of the participles (active and passive) and verbal nouns that are associated with each verb. These words can be "lexicalized" (made into separate lexical entries, i.e. words with their own specific meanings) by giving them additional semantics, much as the original English gerund
Gerund
In linguistics* As applied to English, it refers to the usage of a verb as a noun ....

 "meeting" and passive participle "loaded" have been lexicalized from their original meanings of "the act of meeting (something)", "being loaded into/onto someone/something", so that (e.g.) "meeting" can mean "a gathering of people to discuss an issue, often business-related" and "loaded" can mean "having lots of money (of a person)", "with a bullet in it (of a gun)", etc.

The system of noun and adjective derivation described below is of Classical Arabic, but the system in the modern colloquial varieties is nearly unchanged. Changes occurring in particular formations are discussed below.

Collective nouns


Certain nouns in Arabic, especially those referring to plants, animals and other inanimate objects that often appear in groups, have a special collective
Collective number
In linguistics, singulative number and collective number are terms used when the grammatical number for multiple items is the unmarked form of a noun, and the noun is specially marked to indicate a single item...

 declension. For those nouns, the formally singular noun has plural semantics, or refers to the objects as an undistinguished mass. In these nouns, the singular is formed by adding the feminine suffix ـة, which forms the so-called singulative (اسم الوحدة {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼism-u l-waḥdah}} lit. "noun of unity"). These singulative nouns in turn can be pluralized, using either the broken plural or the sound feminine plural in {{transl|ar|DIN|-āt}}; this "plural of paucity" is used especially when counting objects between 3 and 10, and sometimes also with the meaning of "different kinds of ...". (When more than 10 objects are counted, Arabic requires the noun to be in the singular.)

Examples:
  • حجر ḥajar "rocks" or "rock" (the material in general); حجرة ḥajarah "a rock"
  • شجر šajar "trees"; شجرة šajarah "a tree"; {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼašǧār}} (3 to 10) "trees"
  • قمح qamḥ "wheat", قمحة qamḥah "a grain of wheat"
  • بقر baqar "cattle"; بقرة baqarah "a cow"


A similar singulative ending ي ī applies to human or other sentient beings:
  • جند jund "army"; جندي jundī "a soldier"
  • جنّ jinn "genies, jinn
    Jinn
    Jinn are supernatural beings in Arab folklore and Islamic teachings.Jinn may also refer to:* Jinn , a Japanese band* Qui-Gon Jinn, a character in the Star Wars universe...

    s"; جنّي jinnī "a genie"
  • زنج zinj "black people" (as a race); زنجى zinjī "a black person"

Nisba {{anchor|nisba}}


{{for|the use of this construction in forming personal names|Nisbat (onomastics)}}
The Nisba (النسبة {{transl|ar|DIN|an-nisbah}}) is a common suffix to form adjectives of relation or pertinence. The suffix is ـي {{transl|ar|DIN|-iyy-}} for masculine and ـية {{transl|ar|DIN|-iyya(t)-}} for feminine gender (in other words, it is {{transl|ar|DIN|-iyy-}} and is inserted before the gender marker).
  • E. g. لبنان {{transl|ar|Lubnān(u)}} "Lebanon",
  • لبناني {{transl|ar|lubnāniyy}} "Lebanese (singular masculine)",
  • لبنانية {{transl|ar|DIN|lubnāniyyah}} "Lebanese (singular feminine)",
  • لبنانيون {{transl|ar|lubnāniyyūn}} "Lebanese (plural masculine)"
  • لبنانيات {{transl|ar|DIN|lubnāniyyāt}} "Lebanese (plural feminine)".


A construct noun and {{transl|ar|DIN|nisbah}}-adjective is often equivalent to nominal composition in English and other languages (solar cell is equivalent to sun cell).

The feminine {{transl|ar|DIN|nisbah}} is often used in Arabic as a noun relating to concepts, most frequently corresponding to ones ending in -ism, with the masculine and feminine {{transl|ar|DIN|nisbah}} being used as adjectival forms of the concept-noun (e.g. -ist) depending on agreement. Thus the feminine {{transl|ar|DIN|nisbah}} of الاشتراك {{transl|ar|DIN|al-ištirāk}} "partnership, cooperation, participation (definite)", الاشتراكية {{transl|ar|DIN|al-ištirākiyyah}} is the Arabic word for "socialism
Socialism
Socialism is an economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and cooperative management of the economy; or a political philosophy advocating such a system. "Social ownership" may refer to any one of, or a combination of, the following: cooperative enterprises,...

," and the word "socialist" (both as an adjective and as the term for one who believes in socialism) is اشتراكي {{transl|ar|ištirākiyy}} in the masculine and {{transl|ar|DIN|ištirākiyyah}} in the feminine.

The Arabic {{transl|ar|DIN|nisbah}} has given rise to English adjectives of nationality for Arabic countries: Iraqi, Kuwaiti, etc.

Participles and verbal nouns


Every verb has associated active and passive participles, as well as a verbal noun
Verbal noun
In linguistics, the verbal noun turns a verb into a noun and corresponds to the infinitive in English language usage. In English the infinitive form of the verb is formed when preceded by to, e.g...

 (مصدر {{transl|ar|DIN|maṣdar}}, lit. "source"). The form of these participles and verbal nouns is largely predictable. For Form I (the basic type of verb), however, numerous possible shapes exist for the verbal noun, and the form of the verbal noun for any given verb is unpredictable. In addition, some verbs have multiple verbal nouns, corresponding to different meanings of the verb.

All of these forms are frequently lexicalized (i.e. they are given additional meanings and become the origin of many lexical item
Lexical item
A Lexical item is a single word or chain of words that forms the basic elements of a language's lexicon . Examples are "cat", "traffic light", "take care of", "by-the-way", and "it's raining cats and dogs"...

s in the vocabulary
Vocabulary
A person's vocabulary is the set of words within a language that are familiar to that person. A vocabulary usually develops with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge...

). In fact, participles and verbal nouns are one of the most productive sources of new vocabulary. A number of Arabic borrowings in English are actually lexicalized verbal nouns, or closely related forms. Examples are jihād
Jihad
Jihad , an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as a noun meaning "struggle". Jihad appears 41 times in the Quran and frequently in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God ". A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is...

 (from the Form III verb {{transl|ar|ǧāhada}} "to strive"); intifāḍa
Intifada
Intifada is an Arabic word which literally means "shaking off", though it is usually translated into English as "uprising" or "resistance" or "rebellion". , not to be confused with the Arabic plural ...

 (lit. "uprising", the feminine of the verbal noun of the Form VIII verb {{transl|ar|intafāḍa}} "to rise up"); Islām
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 (lit. "submission", from a Form IV verb); istiqlāl
Istiqlal
-Political parties:*Istiqlal Party, the Hizb al-istiqlāl or Independence Party, political party in Morocco*Hizb al-Istiqlal, or Independence Party , Arab political party under the British Mandate of Palestine...

 (lit. "independence", from a Form X verb). Many participles are likewise lexicalized, e.g. {{transl|ar|muhandis}} "engineer" (the active participle of the Form I quadriliteral verb {{transl|ar|handasa}} "to engineer").

Occupational nouns


{{Expand section|date=August 2011}}

Occupational nouns can be derived from many verb stems, generally using the form {{transl|ar|faʻʻāl}}, e.g. {{transl|ar|kattāb}} "scribe". Some of these nouns have the meaning of "person who habitually does X" rather than an occupation as such, e.g. {{transl|ar|kaḏḏāb}} "liar".

The active participle can also be used to form occupational nouns, e.g. {{transl|ar|ṭālib}} "student" (from {{transl|ar|ṭalaba}} "to ask"). Sometimes the variant form {{transl|ar|faʻīl}} is seen in place of the normal Form I active participle {{transl|ar|fāʻil}}, e.g. {{transl|ar|wazīr}} "minister", {{transl|ar|safīr}} "ambassador", {{transl|ar|šahīd}} "martyr
Martyr
A martyr is somebody who suffers persecution and death for refusing to renounce, or accept, a belief or cause, usually religious.-Meaning:...

" (cf. {{transl|ar|šāhid}} "witness").

Nouns of place


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A common type of derivational noun is the noun of place, with a form {{transl|ar|mafʻal}} or similar, e.g. {{transl|ar|maktab}}, {{transl|ar|maktaba}} "library" (from {{transl|ar|kataba}} "to write"); {{transl|ar|maṭbaḫ}} "kitchen" (from {{transl|ar|ṭabaḫa}} "to cook"); {{transl|ar|masraḥ}} "theater" (from {{transl|ar|saraḥa}} "to release"). Nouns of place formed from verbs other than Form I have the same form as the passive participle, e.g. {{transl|ar|mustašfan}} "hospital" (from the Form X verb {{transl|ar|istašfā}} "to cure").

Tool nouns


Just as nouns of place are formed using a prefix {{transl|ar|ma-}}, tool nouns (also nouns of usage or nouns of instrument; Arabic {{transl|ar|ʼismu ʼālatin}} lit. "noun of tool") were traditionally formed using a prefix {{transl|ar|mi-}}. Examples are {{transl|ar|miftāḥ}} "key" (from {{transl|ar|fataḥ}} "to open"); {{transl|ar|minhāǧ}} "road" (from {{transl|ar|nahaǧa}} "to pursue"); {{transl|ar|miktal}} "large basket" (from {{transl|ar|katala}} "to gather"); {{transl|ar|mīzān}} "balance (i.e. scales)" (from {{transl|ar|wazana}} "to weigh"); {{transl|ar|miksaḥa}} "broom" (from {{transl|ar|kasaḥa}} "to sweep").

However, the current trend is to use a different form {{transl|ar|faʻʻāla}}. This is in origin a feminine occupational noun (e.g. {{transl|ar|kattāla}} "female scribe"). It has been repurposed in imitation of the English use of -er/or in similar nouns (refrigerator
Refrigerator
A refrigerator is a common household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room...

, freezer, record player, stapler
Stapler
A stapler is a mechanical device that joins sheets of paper or similar material by driving a thin metal staple through the sheets and folding the ends. Staplers are widely used in government, business, offices, and schools....

, etc.) and following the general association in Arabic between the feminine gender and inanimate objects. The majority of modern inventions follow this form, e.g. {{transl|ar|naẓẓārah}} "telescope, eyeglasses" ({{transl|ar|naẓara}} "to look"); {{transl|ar|ṯallāǧah}} "refrigerator" ({{transl|ar|ṯalaǧa}} "to freeze quickly" < {{transl|ar|ṯalǧ}} "snow"); {{transl|ar|dabbāsah}} "stapler"; {{transl|ar|dabbābah}} "tank" ({{transl|ar|dababa}} "to crawl").

Diminutives


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Diminutive
Diminutive
In language structure, a diminutive, or diminutive form , is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment...

s ({{transl|ar|al-ʼismu l-muṣaġġaru}}) usually follow a pattern {{transl|ar|fuʻayl}} or similar ({{transl|ar|fuʻaylil}} if there are four consonants). Examples are {{transl|ar|kulayb}} "little dog" ({{transl|ar|kalb}} "dog"); {{transl|ar|bunayy}} "little son" ({{transl|ar|ibn}} "son"); {{transl|ar|Ḥusayn}} "Hussein
Hussein
Hussein , is an Arabic name which is the diminutive of Hassan, meaning "good", "handsome" or "beautiful"...

" ({{transl|ar|ḥasan}} "good, handsome, beautiful").

Diminutives are relatively unproductive in Modern Standard Arabic, reflecting the fact that they are rare in many modern varieties, e.g. Egyptian Arabic
Egyptian Arabic
Egyptian Arabic is the language spoken by contemporary Egyptians.It is more commonly known locally as the Egyptian colloquial language or Egyptian dialect ....

, where they are nearly nonexistent except for a handful of lexicalized adjectives like {{transl|ar|kuwayyis}} "good", {{transl|ar|ṣuġayyar}} "small" < Classical {{transl|ar|ṣaġīr}} "small". On the other hand, they were extremely productive in some of the spoken dialects in Koranic times, and Wright's Arabic grammar lists a large number of diminutives, including numerous exceptional forms. Furthermore, diminutives are enormously productive in some other modern varieties, e.g. Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken in the Arabic-speaking areas of Morocco. For official communications, the government and other public bodies use Modern Standard Arabic, as is the case in most Arabic-speaking countries. A mixture of French and Moroccan Arabic is used in business...

. In Moroccan Arabic, nearly every noun has a corresponding diminutive, and they are used quite frequently in speech, typically with an affective value ("cute little X", etc.). The typical diminutive has the Moroccan form fʻila, fʻiyyel, fʻilel or similar – always with two initial consonants and a following /i/, which is the regular outcome of Classical {{transl|ar|fuʻay-}}. (fʻila < {{transl|ar|fuʻaylah}}; fʻiyyel < {{transl|ar|fuʻayyal}}; fʻilel < {{transl|ar|fuʻaylil}}.)

Adverb


ظرف {{transl|ar|DIN|ẓarf}}

Adverbials are expressed using adjectives in the indefinite accusative, often written with the ending ـًا (e.g. أيضًا {{transl|ar|DIN|ayḍan}} "also") but pronounced "{{transl|ar|DIN|-an}}" even if it's not written (see accusative), e.g.: قرأ الكتاب قراءة بطيئة {{transl|ar|qaraʼa al-kitāba qirāʼatan baṭīʼatan}}, literally: "he read the book a slow reading"; i.e., "He read the book slowly". This type of construction is known as the "absolute accusative" (cf. absolute ablative in Latin grammar).

Adverbs can be formed from adjectives, ordinal numerals: كثيرًا {{transl|ar|DIN|kaṯīran}} frequently, a lot, often, نادرًا {{transl|ar|DIN|nādiran}} rarely, أولاً {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼawwalan}} firstly or from nouns: عادةً {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻādatan}} usually, جدًا {{transl|ar|DIN|ǧiddan}} very.

The second method to form adverbs is to use a preposition and a noun, e. g. بـ {{transl|ar|DIN|bi-}}, e.g. بسرعةٍ {{transl|ar|bi-surʻa(ti)}} swift, "with speed", بالضبطِ {{transl|ar|bi-ḍ-ḍabṭ(i)}} exactly

Personal pronouns


In Arabic, personal pronoun
Personal pronoun
Personal pronouns are pronouns used as substitutes for proper or common nouns. All known languages contain personal pronouns.- English personal pronouns :English in common use today has seven personal pronouns:*first-person singular...

s have 12 forms: In singular and plural, the 2nd and 3rd persons differentiate gender, while the 1st person does not. In the dual, there is no 1st person, and only a single form for each 2nd and 3rd person. Traditionally, the pronouns are listed in order 3rd, 2nd, 1st.
Person Singular Dual Plural
1st {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼanā}} (أنا) {{transl|ar|DIN|naḥnu}} (نحن)
2nd masculine {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼanta}} (أنت) {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼantumā}} (أنتما) {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼantum}} (أنتم)
feminine {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼanti}} (أنت) {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼantunna}} (أنتنّ)
3rd masculine {{transl|ar|DIN|huwa}} (هو) {{transl|ar|DIN|humā}} (هما) {{transl|ar|DIN|hum}} (هم)
feminine {{transl|ar|DIN|hiya}} (هي) {{transl|ar|DIN|hunna}} (هنّ)


Informal Arabic tends to avoid the dual forms {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼantumā}} أنتما and {{transl|ar|DIN|humā}} هما. The feminine plural forms {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼantunna}} أنتنّ and {{transl|ar|DIN|hunna}} هنّ are likewise avoided, except by speakers of conservative colloquial varieties that still possess separate feminine plural pronouns.

Enclitic pronouns


Enclitic forms of personal pronouns (الضمائر المتصلة {{transl|ar|aḍ-ḍamāʼir ul-muttaṣila(tu)}}) are affixed to various parts of speech, with varying meanings:
  • To the construct state of nouns, where they have the meaning of possessive demonstratives, e.g. "my, your, his"
  • To verbs, where they have the meaning of direct object pronouns, e.g. "me, you, him"
  • To prepositions, where they have the meaning of objects of the prepositions, e.g. "to me, to you, to him"
  • To conjunctions and particles like {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼanna}} "that ...", {{transl|ar|DIN|liʼanna}} "because ...", {{transl|ar|DIN|(wa)lākinna}} "but ...", {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinna}} (topicalizing particle), where they have the meaning of subject pronouns, e.g. "because I ...", "because you ...", "because he ...". (These particles are known in Arabic as {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼaḫawāt ʼinna}} {{lang|ar|أخوات إنّ}} (lit. "sisters of {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinna}}".)

Most of them are clearly related to the full personal pronouns.
Person Singular Dual Plural
1st {{transl|ar|DIN|-nī/-ī/-ya}} ـي {{transl|ar|DIN|-nā}} ـنا
2nd masculine {{transl|ar|DIN|-ka}} ـك {{transl|ar|DIN|-kumā}} ـكما {{transl|ar|DIN|-kum}} ـكم
feminine {{transl|ar|DIN|-ki}} ـك {{transl|ar|DIN|-kunna}} ـكن
3rd masculine {{transl|ar|DIN|-hu/-hi}} ـه {{transl|ar|DIN|-humā/-himā}} ـهما {{transl|ar|DIN|-hum/-him}} ـهم
feminine {{transl|ar|DIN|-hā}} ـها {{transl|ar|DIN|-hunna/-hinna}} ـهن

Variant forms

For all but the first person singular, the same forms are used regardless of the part of speech of the word attached to. In the third person masculine singular, {{transl|ar|DIN|-hu}} occurs after the vowels ending in u or a ({{transl|ar|DIN|-a, -ā, -u, -ū, -aw}}), while {{transl|ar|DIN|-hi}} occurs after vowels ending in i ({{transl|ar|DIN|-i, -ī, -ay}}). The same alternation occurs in the third person dual and plural.

In the first person singular, however, the situation is more complicated. Specifically, {{transl|ar|DIN|-nī}} "me" is attached to verbs, but {{transl|ar|DIN|-ī/-ya}} "my" is attached to nouns. In the latter case, {{transl|ar|DIN|-ya}} is attached to nouns whose construct state ends in a long vowel or diphthong (e.g. in the sound masculine plural and the dual), while {{transl|ar|DIN|-ī}} is attached to nouns whose construct state ends in a short vowel, in which case that vowel is elided (e.g. in the sound feminine plural, as well as the singular and broken plural of most nouns). Furthermore, {{transl|ar|DIN|-ū}} of the masculine sound plural is assimilated to {{transl|ar|DIN|-ī}} before {{transl|ar|DIN|-ya}} (presumably, {{transl|ar|DIN|-aw}} of masculine defective -an plurals is similarly assimilated to {{transl|ar|DIN|-ay}}). Examples:
  • From {{transl|ar|DIN|kitāb}} "book", pl. {{transl|ar|DIN|kutub}}: {{transl|ar|DIN|kitāb-ī}} "my book" (all cases), {{transl|ar|DIN|kutub-ī}} "my books" (all cases), {{transl|ar|DIN|kitābā-ya}} "my two books (nom.)", {{transl|ar|DIN|kitābay-ya}} "my two books (acc./gen.)"
  • From {{transl|ar|DIN|kalimah}} "word", pl. {{transl|ar|DIN|kalimāt}}: {{transl|ar|DIN|kalimat-ī}} "my word" (all cases), {{transl|ar|DIN|kalimāt-ī}} "my words" (all cases)
  • From {{transl|ar|DIN|dunyā}} "world", pl. {{transl|ar|DIN|dunyayāt}}: {{transl|ar|DIN|dunyā-ya}} "my world" (all cases), {{transl|ar|DIN|dunyayāt-ī}} "my worlds" (all cases)
  • From {{transl|ar|DIN|qāḍin}} "judge", pl. {{transl|ar|DIN|quḍāh}}: {{transl|ar|DIN|qāḍiy-ya}} "my judge" (all cases), {{transl|ar|DIN|quḍāt-ī}} "my judges" (all cases)
  • From {{transl|ar|DIN|muʻallim}} "teacher", pl. {{transl|ar|DIN|muʻallimūn}}: {{transl|ar|DIN|muʻallim-ī}} "my teacher" (all cases), {{transl|ar|DIN|muʻallimiy-ya}} "my teachers" (all cases, see above)
  • From {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼab}} "father": {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼabū-ya}} "my father (nom.)" (or is it assimilated?), {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼabā-ya}} "my father (acc.)", {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼabiy-ya}} "my father (gen.)"

Prepositions use {{transl|ar|DIN|-ī/-ya}}, even though in this case it has the meaning of "me" (rather than "my"). The "sisters of {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinna}}" can use either form (e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinna-nī}} or {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinn-ī}}), but the longer form (e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinna-nī}}) is usually preferred.

The second-person masculine plural past tense verb ending {{transl|ar|DIN|-tum}} changes to the variant form {{transl|ar|DIN|-tumū}} before enclitic pronouns, e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|katab-tumū-hu}} "you (masc. pl.) wrote it (masc.)".
With prepositions

Some very common prepositions — including the proclitic preposition {{transl|ar|DIN|li-}} "to" (also used for indirect objects) — have irregular or unpredictable combining forms when the enclitic pronouns are added:
Meaning Independent form With "... me" With "... you" (masc. sg.) With "... him"
"to", indirect object  {{transl|ar|DIN|li-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|lī}} {{transl|ar|DIN|laka}} {{transl|ar|DIN|lahu}}
"in", "with", "by" {{transl|ar|DIN|bi-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|bī}} {{transl|ar|DIN|bika}} {{transl|ar|DIN|bihi}}
"in" {{transl|ar|DIN|fī}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fiyya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fīka}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fīhi}}
"to" {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼilā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼilayya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼilayka}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼilayhi}}
"on" {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻalā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻalayya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻalayka}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻalayhi}}
"with" {{transl|ar|DIN|maʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|maʻāya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|maʻāka}} {{transl|ar|DIN|maʻāhu}}
"from" {{transl|ar|DIN|min}} {{transl|ar|DIN|minnī}} {{transl|ar|DIN|minka}} {{transl|ar|DIN|minhu}}
"on", "about" {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻan}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻannī}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻanka}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻanhu}}


In the above cases, when there are two combining forms, one is used with "... me" and the other with all other person/number/gender combinations. (More correctly, one occurs before vowel-initial pronouns and the other before consonant-initial pronouns, but in Classical Arabic, only {{transl|ar|DIN|-ī}} is vowel-initial. This becomes clearer in the spoken varieties, where various vowel-initial enclitic pronouns exist.)

Note in particular:
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼilā}} "to" and {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻalā}} "on" have irregular combining forms {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼilay-}}, {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻalay-}}; but other pronouns with the same base form are regular, e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|maʻā}} "with".
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|li-}} "to" has an irregular combining form {{transl|ar|DIN|la-}}, but {{transl|ar|DIN|bi-}} "in, with, by" is regular.
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|min}} "from" and {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻan}} double the final n before {{transl|ar|DIN|-ī}}. (This should be interpreted as having an irregular stem with doubled n, rather than unexpected use of {{transl|ar|DIN|-nī}}. This is clear because in the modern spoken varieties, there are other enclitic pronouns beginning with a vowel, and the doubled-n forms occur with them as well, e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|minnak}} "from you (masc. sg.)", {{transl|ar|DIN|minnik}} "from you (fem. sg.)".)

Less formal forms

In a less formal Arabic, as in many spoken dialects, the endings {{transl|ar|DIN|-ka -ki -hu}} are pronounced as {{transl|ar|DIN|-ak -ik -uh}}, swallowing all short case endings. Short case endings are often dropped even before consonant-initial endings, e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|kitāb-ka}} "your book" (all cases), {{transl|ar|DIN|bayt-ka}} "your house" (all cases), {{transl|ar|DIN|kalb-ka}} "your dog" (all cases). When this produces a difficult cluster, either the second consonant is vocalized
Syllabic consonant
A syllabic consonant is a consonant which either forms a syllable on its own, or is the nucleus of a syllable. The diacritic for this in the International Phonetic Alphabet is the under-stroke, ⟨⟩...

, to the extent possible (e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|ism-ka}} "your name", with syllabic m similar to English "bottom"), or an epenthetic
Epenthesis
In phonology, epenthesis is the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word. Epenthesis may be divided into two types: excrescence, for the addition of a consonant, and anaptyxis for the addition of a vowel....

 vowel is inserted (e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|isim-ka}} or {{transl|ar|DIN|ismi-ka}}, depending on the behavior of the speaker's native variety).

Demonstratives


There are two demonstrative
Demonstrative
In linguistics, demonstratives are deictic words that indicate which entities a speaker refers to and distinguishes those entities from others...

s (أسماء الإشارة {{transl|ar|ʼasmāʼ al-ʼišāra(ti)}}), near-deictic
Deixis
In linguistics, deixis refers to the phenomenon wherein understanding the meaning of certain words and phrases in an utterance requires contextual information. Words are deictic if their semantic meaning is fixed but their denotational meaning varies depending on time and/or place...

 ('this') and far-deictic ('that'):
"This, these"
Gender Singular Dual Plural
Masculine nominative {{transl|ar|DIN|hāḏā}} هذا {{transl|ar|hāḏāni}} هذان‎ {{transl|ar|hāʼulāʼ(i)}} هؤلاء
accusative/genitive {{transl|ar|hāḏayni}} هذين
Feminine nominative {{transl|ar|DIN|hāḏih(i)}} هذه {{transl|ar|hātāni}} ‎هتان‎
accusative/genitive {{transl|ar|hātayni}} ‎هتين

"That, those"
Gender Singular Dual Plural
Masculine nominative {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏālik(a)}} ذلك {{transl|ar|hātāni}} هتان‎ {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼulāʼik(a)}} أولئك
accusative/genitive {{transl|ar|hātayni}} هتين
Feminine nominative {{transl|ar|DIN|tilka}} تلك {{transl|ar|tānika}} ‎تانك‎‎
accusative/genitive {{transl|ar|taynika}} ‎تينك


The dual forms are only used in very formal Arabic.

Some of the demonstratives ({{transl|ar|DIN|hāḏā, hāḏihi, hāḏāni, hāḏayni, hātāni, hātayni, hāʼulāʼi, ḏālika}}, and {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼulāʼika}} should be pronounced with a long "{{transl|ar|DIN|ā}}", although the unvocalised script doesn't contain an alif (ا). They have letter ـٰ "dagger {{transl|ar|DIN|alif}}" (ألف خنجرية‎‎ {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalif ḫanǧariyyah}}), which doesn't exist on Arabic keyboards and is seldom written, even in the vocalised Arabic.

Koranic Arabic has another demonstrative, normally followed by a noun in a genitive construct and meaning "owner of":
"Owner of ..."
Gender Singular Dual Plural
Masculine nominative {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏū}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏawā}} {{transl|ar|ḏawū, ʼulū}}
accusative {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏaway}} {{transl|ar|ḏawī, ʼulī}}
genitive {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏī}}
Feminine nominative {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏātu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏawātā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏawātu, ʼulātu}}
accusative {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏāta}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏawātī}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏawāti, ʼulāti}}
genitive {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏāti}}

This form is not used in Modern Standard Arabic.

Note that the demonstrative and relative pronouns were originally built on this word. {{transl|ar|DIN|hāḏā}}, for example, was originally composed from the prefix {{transl|ar|DIN|hā-}} "this" and the masculine accusative singular {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏā}}; similarly, {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏālika}} was composed from {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏā}}, an infixed syllable {{transl|ar|DIN|-li-}}, and the clitic
Clitic
In morphology and syntax, a clitic is a morpheme that is grammatically independent, but phonologically dependent on another word or phrase. It is pronounced like an affix, but works at the phrase level...

 suffix {{transl|ar|DIN|-ka}} "you". These combinations had not yet become completely fixed in Koranic Arabic and other combinations sometimes occurred, e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏāka}}, {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏālikum}}. Similarly, the relative pronoun {{transl|ar|DIN|al-laḏī}} was originally composed based on genitive singular {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏī}}, and the old Arab grammarians noted the existence of a separate nominative plural form {{transl|ar|DIN|al-laḏūna}} in the speech of the Huḏayl
Banu Hothail
Banu Hothail are an Adnanite tribe of western Saudi Arabia in Hijjaz. They are descended from Hothail, who was a grandson of Ilyas who was named after the prophet Elijah.- Ancestry :...

 tribe in Koranic times.

This word also shows up in Hebrew
Hebrew language
Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family. Culturally, is it considered by Jews and other religious groups as the language of the Jewish people, though other Jewish languages had originated among diaspora Jews, and the Hebrew language is also used by non-Jewish groups, such...

, e.g. masculine zeh < {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏī}}, feminine masculine zot < {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏāt-}}, plural ʼeleh < {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼulī}}.

Relative pronoun


The relative pronoun
Relative pronoun
A relative pronoun is a pronoun that marks a relative clause within a larger sentence. It is called a relative pronoun because it relates the relative clause to the noun that it modifies. In English, the relative pronouns are: who, whom, whose, whosever, whosesoever, which, and, in some...

 is conjugated as follows:
Relative pronoun ("who, that, which")
Gender Singular Dual Plural
Masculine nominative {{transl|ar|DIN|al-laḏī}} الّذي {{transl|ar|al-laḏāni}} اللّذان {{transl|ar|al-laḏīn(a)}} الّذين
accusative/genitive {{transl|ar|al-laḏayni}} اللّذين
Feminine nominative {{transl|ar|DIN|al-latī}} الّتي {{transl|ar|al-latāni}} اللّتان {{transl|ar|DIN|al-lātī}} اللّاتي
accusative/genitive {{transl|ar|al-latayni}} اللّتين


Note that the relative pronoun agrees in gender, number and case with the noun it modifies — as opposed to the normal situation in inflected languages such as Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 and German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

, where the gender and number agreement is with the modified noun, but the case marking follows the usage of the relative pronoun in the embedded clause (as in formal English "the man who saw me" vs. "the man whom I saw").

When the relative pronoun serves a function other than the subject of the embedded clause, a resumptive pronoun
Resumptive pronoun
A resumptive pronoun is a pronoun in a relative clause which refers to the antecedent of the main clause. The slight majority of world languages use resumptive pronouns instead of gaps in relative clauses...

 is required (e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|ar-raǧulu l-laḏī tatakallamtu maʻā-hu}}, literally "the man who I spoke with him").

The relative pronoun is normally omitted entirely when an indefinite noun is modified by a relative clause.

Colloquial varieties


The above system is mostly unchanged in the colloquial varieties, other than the loss of the dual forms and (for most varieties) of the feminine plural. Some of the more notable changes:
  • The third-person {{transl|ar|-hi, -him}} variants disappear. On the other hand, the first person {{transl|ar|-nī/-ī/-ya}} variation is preserved exactly (including the different circumstances in which these variants are used), and new variants appear for many forms. For example, in Egyptian Arabic
    Egyptian Arabic
    Egyptian Arabic is the language spoken by contemporary Egyptians.It is more commonly known locally as the Egyptian colloquial language or Egyptian dialect ....

    , the second person feminine singular appears either as {{transl|ar|-ik}} or {{transl|ar|-ki}} depending on various factors (e.g. the phonology of the preceding word); likewise, the third person masculine singular appears variously as {{transl|ar|-u}}, {{transl|ar|-hu}}, or {{transl|ar|-}} (no ending, but stress is moved onto the preceding vowel, which is lengthened).
  • In many varieties, the indirect object forms, which appear in Classical Arabic as separate words (e.g. {{transl|ar|lī}} "to me", {{transl|ar|lahu}} "to him"), become fused onto the verb, following a direct object. These same varieties generally develop a circumfix
    Circumfix
    A circumfix is an affix, a morpheme that is placed around another morpheme. Circumfixes contrast with prefixes, attached to the beginnings of words; suffixes, that are attached at the end; and infixes, inserted in the middle. See also epenthesis...

     /ma-...-ʃ(i)/ for negation (from Classical {{transl|ar|mā ... šayʼ}} "not ... a thing", composed of three separate words). This can lead to complicated agglutinative constructs, such as Egyptian Arabic
    Egyptian Arabic
    Egyptian Arabic is the language spoken by contemporary Egyptians.It is more commonly known locally as the Egyptian colloquial language or Egyptian dialect ....

     /ma-katab-ha-ˈliː-ʃ/ "he didn't write it (fem.) to me". (Egyptian Arabic in particular has many variant pronominal affixes used in different circumstances, and very intricate morphophonemic rules leading to a large number of complex alternations, depending on the particular affixes involved, the way they are put together, and whether the preceding verb ends in a vowel, a single consonant, or two consonants.)
  • Other varieties instead use a separate Classical pseudo-pronoun {{transl|ar|iyyā-}} for direct objects (but in Hijazi Arabic the resulting construct fuses with a preceding verb).
  • Affixation of dual and sound plural nouns has largely vanished. Instead, all varieties possess a separate preposition with the meaning of "of", which replaces certain uses of the construct genitive (to varying degrees, depending on the particular variety). In Moroccan Arabic
    Moroccan Arabic
    Moroccan Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken in the Arabic-speaking areas of Morocco. For official communications, the government and other public bodies use Modern Standard Arabic, as is the case in most Arabic-speaking countries. A mixture of French and Moroccan Arabic is used in business...

    , the word is dyal (also d- before a noun), e.g. l-kitab dyal-i "my book", since the construct-state genitive is mostly unproductive. Egyptian Arabic
    Egyptian Arabic
    Egyptian Arabic is the language spoken by contemporary Egyptians.It is more commonly known locally as the Egyptian colloquial language or Egyptian dialect ....

     has bitāʻ, which agrees in gender and number with the preceding noun (feminine bitāʻit/bitaʻt, plural bitūʻ). In Egyptian Arabic, the construct-state genitive is still productive, hence either kitāb-i or il-kitāb bitāʻ-i can be used for "my book", but only il-muʻallimūn bitūʻ-i "my teachers".
  • The declined relative pronoun has vanished. In its place is an indeclinable particle, usually illi or similar.
  • Various forms of the demonstrative pronouns occur, usually shorter than the Classical forms. For example, Moroccan Arabic uses ha l- "this", dak l-/dik l-/duk l- "that" (masculine/feminine/plural). Egyptian Arabic is unusual in that the demonstrative follows the noun, e.g. il-kitāb da "this book", il-binti di "this girl".
  • Some of the independent pronouns have slightly different forms compared with their Classical forms. For example, usually forms similar to inta, inti "you (masc./fem. sg.)" occur in place of {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼanta, ʼanti}}, and (n)iḥna "we" occurs in place of {{transl|ar|DIN|naḥnu}}.

Cardinal numerals


Numbers behave in a quite complicated fashion. "{{transl|ar|DIN|wāḥid-}}" "one" and "{{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiṯnān-}}" "two" are adjectives, following the noun and agreeing with it. "{{transl|ar|DIN|ṯalāṯat-}}" "three" through "{{transl|ar|DIN|ʻašarat-}}" "ten" require a following noun in the genitive plural, but agree with the noun in gender, while taking the case required by the surrounding syntax. "{{transl|ar|DIN|ʼaḥada ʻašarah}}" "eleven" through "{{transl|ar|DIN|tisʻata ʻašarah}}" "nineteen" require a following noun in the accusative singular, agree with the noun in gender, and are invariable for case, except for "{{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiṯnā ʻašarah/ʼiṯnay ʻašara}}" "twelve".

The formal system of cardinal numerals, as used in Classical Arabic, is extremely complex. The system of rules is presented below. In reality, however, this system is never used: Large numbers are always written as numerals rather than spelled out, and are pronounced using a simplified system, even in formal contexts.

Example:
Formal: {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalfāni wa-tisʻu miʼatin wa-ṯnatā ʻašratan sanatan}} "2,912 years"
Formal: {{transl|ar|DIN|baʻda ʼalfayni wa-tisʻi miʼatin wa-ṯnatay ʻašratan sanatan}} "after 2,912 years"
Spoken: {{transl|ar|DIN|(baʻda) ʼalfayn wa-tisʻ miyya wa-ʼiṯnaʻšar sana(tan)}} "(after) 2,912 years"


Cardinal numerals (الأعداد الأصليّة {{transl|ar|DIN|al-ʼaʻdād al-ʼaṣliyyah}}) from 0-10. Naught is ṣifr, from which the words "cipher
Cipher
In cryptography, a cipher is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption — a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. An alternative, less common term is encipherment. In non-technical usage, a “cipher” is the same thing as a “code”; however, the concepts...

" and "zero
0 (number)
0 is both a numberand the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.It fulfills a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers, and many other algebraic structures. As a digit, 0 is used as a placeholder in place value systems...

" are ultimately derived.
  • 0 ٠ {{transl|ar|DIN|ṣifr}} (صفر)
  • 1 ١ {{transl|ar|wāḥid(un)}} (واحدٌ)
  • 2 ٢ {{transl|ar|ʼiṯnān(i)}} (إثنانِ)
  • 3 ٣ {{transl|ar|ṯalāṯa(tun)}} (ثلاثةٌ)
  • 4 ٤ {{transl|ar|ʼarbaʻa(tun)}} (أربعةٌ)
  • 5 ٥ {{transl|ar|ḫamsa(tun)}} (خمسةٌ)
  • 6 ٦ {{transl|ar|sitta(tun)}} (ستّةٌ)
  • 7 ٧ {{transl|ar|sabʻa(tun)}} (سبعةٌ)
  • 8 ٨ {{transl|ar|ṯamāniya(tun)}} (ثمانيّةٌ)
  • 9 ٩ {{transl|ar|tisʻa(tun)}} (تسعةٌ)
  • 10 ١٠ {{transl|ar|ʻašara(tun)}} (عشرةٌ)


The endings in brackets are dropped in less formal Arabic and in pausa. Note that ة ({{transl|ar|DIN|tāʼ marbūṭah}}) is pronounced as simple /a/ in this cases. There are cases when {{transl|ar|DIN|-t}} in ة must be pronounced but not the rest of the ending.

إثنان ({{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiṯnān(i)}}) is changed to إثنين ({{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiṯnayn(i)}}) in oblique cases. This form is also commonly used in a less formal Arabic in the nominative case.

The numerals 1 and 2 are adjectives. Thus they follow the noun and agree with gender.

Numerals 3–10 have a peculiar rule of agreement known as polarity: A feminine referrer agrees with a numeral in masculine gender and vice versa, e.g. {{transl|ar|ṯalāṯu fatayātin}} (ثلاثُ فتياتٍ) 'three girls'. The noun counted takes indefinite genitive plural (as the attribute in a genitive construct).

Numerals 11 and 13–19 are indeclinable for case, perpetually in the indefinite accusative. Numbers 11 and 12 show gender agreement in the ones, and 13-19 show polarity in the ones. Number 12 also shows case agreement, reminiscent of the dual. The gender of عشر in numbers 11-19 agrees with the counted noun (unlike the standalone numeral 10 which shows polarity). The counted noun takes indefinite accusative singular.
Number Informal Masculine nominative Masculine oblique Feminine nominative Feminine oblique
11 ‪{{transl|ar|DIN|ʼaḥada ʻašar}}‬ (أحدَ عشر) {{transl|ar|DIN|‪ʼaḥada‬ ʻašara}} {{transl|ar|DIN|‪ʼiḥdā ʻašratan‬}}
12 {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiṯnā ʻašar}} (إثنا عشر) {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiṯnā ʻašara}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiṯnay ʻašara}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiṯnatā ʻašratan}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiṯnatay ʻašratan}}
13 {{transl|ar|DIN|ṯalāṯata ʻašar}} (ثلاثةَ عشر) {{transl|ar|DIN|ṯalāṯata ʻašara}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ṯalāṯa ʻašratan}}


Unitary numbers from 20 on (i.e. 20, 30, ... 90, 100, 1000, 1000000, etc.) behave entirely as nouns, showing case agreement as required by the surrounding syntax, no gender agreement, and a following noun in a fixed case. 20 through 90 require the accusative singular; 100 and up require the genitive singular. The unitary numbers themselves decline in various fashions:
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻišrūna}} "20" through {{transl|ar|DIN|tisʻūna}} "90" decline as masculine plural nouns
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|miʼat-}} "100" (مئة, formerly مائة) declines as a feminine singular noun
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalf-}} "1000" (ألف) declines as a masculine singular noun


The numbers 20-99 are expressed with the units preceding the tens. There is agreement in gender with the numerals 1 and 2, and polarity for numerals 3–9. The whole construct is followed by the accusative singular indefinite.
  • 20 {{transl|ar|ʻišrūn(a)}} (عشرون) (dual of 10)
  • 21 {{transl|ar|wāḥidun wa-ʻišrūn(a)}} (واحد وعشرون)
  • 22 {{transl|ar|ʼiṯnāni wa-ʻišrūn(a)}} (إثنان وعشرون)
  • 23 {{transl|ar|ṯalāṯatu wa-ʻišrūn(a)}} (ثلاثة وعشرون)
  • 30 {{transl|ar|ṯalāṯūn(a)}} (ثلاتون)
  • 40 {{transl|ar|ʼarbaʻūn(a)}} (أربعون)


{{transl|ar|DIN|miʼat-}} "100" and {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalf-}} "1000" can themselves be modified by numbers (to form numbers such as 200 or 5,000) and will be declined appropriately. For example, {{transl|ar|DIN|miʼatāni}} "200" and {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalfāni}} "2,000" with dual endings; {{transl|ar|DIN|ṯalāṯatu ʼālāfin}} "3,000" with {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalf}} in the plural genitive, but {{transl|ar|DIN|ṯalāṯu miʼatin}} "300" since {{transl|ar|DIN|miʼat-}} appears to have no plural.

In compound numbers, the last number dictates the declension of the associated noun. Large compound numbers can be extremely complicated, e.g.:
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalfun wa-tisʻu miʼatin wa-tisʻu sinīn(a)}} "1,909 years"
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|baʻda ʼalfin wa-tisʻi miʼatin wa-tisʻi sinīn(a)}} "after 1,909 years"
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼarbaʻatun wa-tisʻūna ʼalfan wa-ṯamānī-miʼatin wa-ṯalāṯun wa-sittūna sanat(an)}} "94,863 years"
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|baʻda ʼarbaʻatin wa-tisʻīna ʼalfan wa-ṯamānī-miʼatin wa-ṯalāṯin wa-sittīna sanat(an)}} "after 94,863 years"
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiṯnā ʻašara ʼalfan wa-miʼatāni wa-ṯnatāni wa-ʻišrūna sanat(an)}} "12,222 years"
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|baʻda ṯnay ʻašara ʼalfan wa-miʼatayni wa-ṯnatayni wa-ʻišrīna sanat(an)}} "after 12,222 years"
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiṯnā ʻašara ʼalfan wa-miʼatāni wa-sanatān(i)}} "12,202 years"
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|baʻda ṯnay ʻašara ʼalfan wa-miʼatayni wa-sanatayn(i)}} "after 12,202 years"


Note also the special construction when the final number is 1:
  • {{transl|ar|ʼalfu laylatin wa-laylat(un)}} (1001 nights) ألف ليلة وليلة


Fractions of a whole smaller than "half" are expressed by the structure sg. {{transl|ar|DIN|fiʻl}} (فعل), pl. {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼafʻāl}} (أفعال).
  • half {{transl|ar|niṣf(un)}}(نصف)
  • one-third {{transl|ar|ṯulṯ(un)}}(ثلث)
  • two-thirds {{transl|ar|ṯulṯān(i)}}(ثلثان)
  • one-fourth {{transl|ar|rubʻ(un)}}(ربع)
  • three-fourths {{transl|ar|ṯalaṯatu arbāʻ(in)}} (ثلاثة أرباع)
  • etc.

Ordinal numerals


Ordinal numerals (الأعداد الترتيبية {{transl|ar|al-ʼaʻdād at-tartiyabiyyah}}) higher than "second" are formed using the structure {{transl|ar|fāʻil(un)}}, {{transl|ar|DIN|fāʻila(tun)}}:
  • m. أول {{transl|ar|ʼawwal(u)}}, f. أولى {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼūlā}} "first"
  • m. ثانٍ {{transl|ar|DIN|ṯānin}} (definite form: الثاني {{transl|ar|aṯ-ṯāniyy}}), f. ثانية {{transl|ar|DIN|ṯāniyya(tun)}} "second"
  • m. ثالث {{transl|ar|ṯāliṯ(un)}}, f. ثالثة {{transl|ar|ṯāliṯa(tun)}} "third"
  • m. رابع {{transl|ar|rābiʻ(un)}}, f. رابعة {{transl|ar|rābiʻa(tun)}} "fourth"
  • m. خامس {{transl|ar|ḫāmis(un)}}, f. خامسة {{transl|ar|ḫāmisa(tun)}} "fifth"
  • m. سادس {{transl|ar|sādis(un)}}, f. سادسة {{transl|ar|sādisa(tun)}} "sixth"
  • m. سابع {{transl|ar|sābiʻ(un)}}, f. سابعة {{transl|ar|sābiʻa(tun)}} "seventh"
  • m. ثامن {{transl|ar|ṯāmin(un)}}, f. ثامنة {{transl|ar|ṯāmina(tun)}} "eighth"
  • m. تاسع {{transl|ar|tāsiʻ(un)}}, f. تاسعة {{transl|ar|tāsiʻa(tun)}} "ninth"
  • m. عاشر {{transl|ar|ʻāšir(un)}}, f. عاشرة {{transl|ar|ʻāšira(tun)}} "tenth"

etc.

They are adjectives, hence, there is agreement in gender with the noun, not polarity as with the cardinal numbers. Note that "sixth" uses a different, older root than the number six.

Introduction


The verb in Arabic (فعل {{transl|ar|DIN|fiʻl}}), as in other Semitic languages
Semitic languages
The Semitic languages are a group of related languages whose living representatives are spoken by more than 270 million people across much of the Middle East, North Africa and the Horn of Africa...

, is extremely complicated. Verbs in Arabic are based on a root
Root (linguistics)
The root word is the primary lexical unit of a word, and of a word family , which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents....

 made up of three or four consonants (a so-called triliteral
Triliteral
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals"...

 or quadriliteral root, respectively). The set of consonants communicates the basic meaning of a verb, e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|k-t-b}} "write", {{transl|ar|DIN|q-r-ʼ}} "read", {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼ-k-l}} "eat". Changes to the vowels in between the consonants, along with prefixes and/or suffixes, specify grammatical functions such as tense, person and number, in addition to changes in the meaning of the verb that embody grammatical concepts such as mood
Grammatical mood
In linguistics, grammatical mood is a grammatical feature of verbs, used to signal modality. That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying...

 (e.g. indicative, subjunctive, imperative
Imperative mood
The imperative mood expresses commands or requests as a grammatical mood. These commands or requests urge the audience to act a certain way. It also may signal a prohibition, permission, or any other kind of exhortation.- Morphology :...

); voice (active
Active voice
Active voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. It is the unmarked voice for clauses featuring a transitive verb in nominative–accusative languages, including English and most other Indo-European languages....

 or passive
Passive voice
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. Passive is used in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb. That is, the subject undergoes an action or has its state changed. A sentence whose theme is marked as grammatical subject is...

); causative
Causative
In linguistics, a causative is a form that indicates that a subject causes someone or something else to do or be something, or causes a change in state of a non-volitional event....

; intensive
Intensive
In grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger or more forceful action relative to the root on which the intensive is built. Intensives are usually lexical formations, but there may be a regular process for forming intensives from a root...

; or reflexive
Reflexive
Reflexive may refer to:In fiction:*MetafictionIn grammar:*Reflexive pronoun, a pronoun with a reflexive relationship with its self-identical antecedent*Reflexive verb, where a semantic agent and patient are the same...

. Example from the root {{transl|ar|DIN|k-t-b}} "write":
Active |Passive
Past Present Imperative Past Present
{{transl|ar|kataba}} "he wrote" {{transl|ar|yaktubu}} "he writes" {{transl|ar|ʼiktub}} "write! (sg.)" {{transl|ar|kutiba}} "it was written" {{transl|ar|yuktabu}} "it is written"
{{transl|ar|kattaba}} "he caused to write" {{transl|ar|yukattibu}} "he causes to write" {{transl|ar|kattib}} "cause to write! (sg.)" {{transl|ar|kuttiba}} "he was made to write" {{transl|ar|yukattabu}} "he is made to write"
{{transl|ar|takātaba}} "he corresponded (with someone, mutually)" {{transl|ar|yatakātabu}} "he corresponds (with someone, mutually)" {{transl|ar|takātab}} "correspond (with someone, mutually)! (sg.)" {{transl|ar|tukūtiba}} "he was corresponded (with)" {{transl|ar|yutakātabu}} "he is corresponded (with)"


The various verbal categories marked on verbs are as follows:
  • person
    Grammatical person
    Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to a participant in an event; such as the speaker, the addressee, or others. Grammatical person typically defines a language's set of personal pronouns...

     (first, second, third)
  • number
    Grammatical number
    In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions ....

     (singular, dual, plural)
  • gender
    Grammatical gender
    Grammatical gender is defined linguistically as a system of classes of nouns which trigger specific types of inflections in associated words, such as adjectives, verbs and others. For a system of noun classes to be a gender system, every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be...

     (masculine, feminine)
  • tense
    Grammatical tense
    A tense is a grammatical category that locates a situation in time, to indicate when the situation takes place.Bernard Comrie, Aspect, 1976:6:...

     (non-past, past; future indicated by a prefix {{transl|ar|sa-}} or {{transl|ar|sawfa}})
  • voice (active, passive)
  • mood
    Grammatical mood
    In linguistics, grammatical mood is a grammatical feature of verbs, used to signal modality. That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying...

    , in the non-past only (indicative, subjunctive, jussive, imperative, shorter energetic, longer energetic)
  • Form, a derivational system (triliteral Form I through XV, with XII-XV rare; quadriliteral Form I through IV, with III-IV rare), indicating derivative concepts such as intensive
    Intensive
    In grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger or more forceful action relative to the root on which the intensive is built. Intensives are usually lexical formations, but there may be a regular process for forming intensives from a root...

    , causative
    Causative
    In linguistics, a causative is a form that indicates that a subject causes someone or something else to do or be something, or causes a change in state of a non-volitional event....

    , reflexive
    Reflexive
    Reflexive may refer to:In fiction:*MetafictionIn grammar:*Reflexive pronoun, a pronoun with a reflexive relationship with its self-identical antecedent*Reflexive verb, where a semantic agent and patient are the same...

  • Weakness, an inherent property of a given verb determined by the particular consonants of the verb root (corresponding to a verb conjugation in Classical Latin
    Classical Latin
    Classical Latin in simplest terms is the socio-linguistic register of the Latin language regarded by the enfranchised and empowered populations of the late Roman republic and the Roman empire as good Latin. Most writers during this time made use of it...

     and other European languages), with five main types of weakness and two or three subtypes of each type


For each form, there is in addition an active participle (an adjective, declined through the full paradigm of gender/number/case/state); a passive participle (also an adjective, declined likewise); and a verbal noun
Verbal noun
In linguistics, the verbal noun turns a verb into a noun and corresponds to the infinitive in English language usage. In English the infinitive form of the verb is formed when preceded by to, e.g...

 (declined for case; also, when lexicalized, may be declined for number).

Arabic grammarians typically use the root {{transl|ar|DIN|f-ʻ-l}} to indicate the particular shape of any given element of a verbal paradigm. As an example, the form {{transl|ar|yutakātabu}} "he is corresponded (with)" would be listed generically as {{transl|ar|yutafāʻalu}}, specifying the generic shape of a strong Form VI passive verb, third-person masculine singular present indicative.

The maximum possible total number of verb forms derivable from a root — not counting participles and verbal nouns — is approximately 13 person/number/gender forms; times 7.385 tense/mood combinations, counting the {{transl|ar|sa-}} future (since the moods are active only in the present tense, and the imperative has only 5 of the 13 paradigmatic forms); times 17 form/voice combinations (since forms IX, XI-XV exist only for a small number of stative roots, and form VII cannot normally form a passive), for a total of 1,632. Each of these has its own stem form, and each of these stem forms itself comes in numerous varieties, according to the weakness (or lack thereof) of the underlying root.

Inflectional categories


Each particular lexical verb is specified by four stems, two each for the active
Active voice
Active voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. It is the unmarked voice for clauses featuring a transitive verb in nominative–accusative languages, including English and most other Indo-European languages....

 and passive voice
Passive voice
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. Passive is used in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb. That is, the subject undergoes an action or has its state changed. A sentence whose theme is marked as grammatical subject is...

s. In a particular voice, one stem (the past stem) is used for the past tense, and the other (the non-past stem) is used for the present
Present tense
The present tense is a grammatical tense that locates a situation or event in present time. This linguistic definition refers to a concept that indicates a feature of the meaning of a verb...

 and future tense
Future tense
In grammar, a future tense is a verb form that marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future , or to happen subsequent to some other event, whether that is past, present, or future .-Expressions of future tense:The concept of the future,...

s, along with non-indicative mood
Grammatical mood
In linguistics, grammatical mood is a grammatical feature of verbs, used to signal modality. That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying...

s, e.g. subjunctive
Subjunctive mood
In grammar, the subjunctive mood is a verb mood typically used in subordinate clauses to express various states of irreality such as wish, emotion, possibility, judgment, opinion, necessity, or action that has not yet occurred....

 and imperative
Imperative mood
The imperative mood expresses commands or requests as a grammatical mood. These commands or requests urge the audience to act a certain way. It also may signal a prohibition, permission, or any other kind of exhortation.- Morphology :...

. The past and non-past stems are sometimes also called the perfective stem and imperfective stem, respectively, imperfective stem, based on a traditional misinterpretation of Arabic stems as representing grammatical aspect
Grammatical aspect
In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb is a grammatical category that defines the temporal flow in a given action, event, or state, from the point of view of the speaker...

 rather than grammatical tense
Grammatical tense
A tense is a grammatical category that locates a situation in time, to indicate when the situation takes place.Bernard Comrie, Aspect, 1976:6:...

. (Although there is still some disagreement about the interpretation of the stems as tense or aspect, the dominant current view is that the stems simply represent tense, sometimes of a relative rather than absolute nature. There are some unusual usages of the stems in certain contexts that were once interpreted as indicating aspectual distinctions, but are now thought to simply be idiosyncratic constructions that do not neatly fit into any aspectual paradigm.)

To the past stem, suffixes are added to mark the verb for person, number and gender, while to the non-past stem, a combination of prefixes and suffixes are added. (Very approximately, the prefixes specify the person and the suffixes indicate number and gender.) A total of 13 forms exist for each of the two stems, specifying person (first, second or third); number (singular, dual or plural); and gender (masculine or feminine).

There are five separate moods in the non-past: indicative, imperative
Imperative mood
The imperative mood expresses commands or requests as a grammatical mood. These commands or requests urge the audience to act a certain way. It also may signal a prohibition, permission, or any other kind of exhortation.- Morphology :...

, subjunctive, jussive and energetic. The energetic mood actually has two separate sets of forms, a longer and a shorter form, with equivalent meaning. The moods are generally marked by suffixes. When no number suffix is present, the endings are {{transl|ar|-u}} for indicative, {{transl|ar|-a}} for subjunctive, no ending for imperative and jussive, {{transl|ar|-an}} for shorter energetic, {{transl|ar|-anna}} for longer energetic. When number suffixes are present, the moods are either distinguished by different forms of the suffixes (e.g. {{transl|ar|-ūna}} for masculine plural indicative vs. {{transl|ar|-ū}} for masculine plural subjunctive/imperative/jussive), or not distinguished at all. The imperative exists only in the second person and is distinguished from the jussive by the lack of the normal second-person prefix {{transl|ar|ta-/tu-}}.

The third person masculine singular past tense form serves as the "dictionary form" used to identify a verb, similar to the infinitive
Infinitive
In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. In the usual description of English, the infinitive of a verb is its basic form with or without the particle to: therefore, do and to do, be and to be, and so on are infinitives...

 in English. (Arabic has no infinitive.) For example, the verb meaning "write" is often specified as {{transl|ar|kataba}}, which actually means "he wrote". This indicates that the past-tense stem is {{transl|ar|katab-}}; the corresponding non-past stem is {{transl|ar|-ktub-}}, as in {{transl|ar|yaktubu}} "he writes".

Derivational categories, conjugations


The system of verb conjugations in Arabic is quite complicated, and is formed along two axes. One axis, known as the form (described as "Form I", "Form II", etc.) is used to specify grammatical concepts such as causative
Causative
In linguistics, a causative is a form that indicates that a subject causes someone or something else to do or be something, or causes a change in state of a non-volitional event....

, intensive
Intensive
In grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger or more forceful action relative to the root on which the intensive is built. Intensives are usually lexical formations, but there may be a regular process for forming intensives from a root...

, passive
Passive voice
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. Passive is used in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb. That is, the subject undergoes an action or has its state changed. A sentence whose theme is marked as grammatical subject is...

 or reflexive
Reflexive
Reflexive may refer to:In fiction:*MetafictionIn grammar:*Reflexive pronoun, a pronoun with a reflexive relationship with its self-identical antecedent*Reflexive verb, where a semantic agent and patient are the same...

, and involves varying the stem form. The other axis, known as the weakness, is determined by the particular consonants making up the root. For example, defective (or third-weak) verbs have a {{transl|ar|w}} or {{transl|ar|y}} as the last root consonant (e.g. {{transl|ar|r-m-y}} "throw", {{transl|ar|d-ʻ-w}} "call"), and doubled verbs have the second and third consonants the same (e.g. {{transl|ar|m-d-d}} "extend"). These "weaknesses" have the effect of inducing various irregularities in the stems and endings of the associated verbs.

Examples of the different forms of a sound verb (i.e. with no root weaknesses), from the root {{transl|ar|k-t-b}} "write" (using {{transl|ar|ḥ-m-r}} "red" for Form IX, which is limited to colors and physical defects):
Form Past Meaning Non-past Meaning
I {{transl|ar|kataba}} "he wrote" {{transl|ar|yaktubu}} "he writes"
II {{transl|ar|kattaba}} "he made (someone) write" {{transl|ar|yukattibu}} "he makes (someone) write"
III {{transl|ar|kātaba}} "he corresponded with, wrote to (someone)" {{transl|ar|yukātibu}} "he corresponds with, writes to (someone)"
IV {{transl|ar|ʼaktaba}} "he dictated" {{transl|ar|yuktibu}} "he dictates"
V {{transl|ar|takattaba}} nonexistent {{transl|ar|yatakattabu}} nonexistent
VI {{transl|ar|takātaba}} "he corresponded (with someone, esp. mutually)" {{transl|ar|yatakātabu}} "he corresponds (with someone, esp. mutually)"
VII {{transl|ar|inkataba}} "he subscribed" {{transl|ar|yankatibu}} "he subscribes"
VIII {{transl|ar|iktataba}} "he copied" {{transl|ar|yaktatibu}} "he copies"
IX {{transl|ar|iḥmarra}} "he turned red" {{transl|ar|yaḥmarru}} "he turns red"
X {{transl|ar|istaktaba}} "he asked (someone) to write" {{transl|ar|yastaktibu}} "he asks (someone) to write"


The main types of weakness are as follows:
Main weakness varieties for Form I, with verbs in the active indicative
Weakness Root Past, 3Sg Masc Past, 1Sg Present, 3Sg Masc Present, 3Pl Fem
Sound (Non-Weak) {{transl|ar|k-t-b}} "to write" {{transl|ar|kataba}} {{transl|ar|katabtu}} {{transl|ar|yaktubu}} {{transl|ar|yaktubna}}
Assimilated (First-Weak), W {{transl|ar|w-ǧ-d}} "to find" {{transl|ar|waǧada}} {{transl|ar|waǧadtu}} {{transl|ar|yaǧidu}} {{transl|ar|yaǧidna}}
Assimilated (First-Weak), Y {{transl|ar|y-b-s}} "to dry" {{transl|ar|yabisa}} {{transl|ar|yabistu}} {{transl|ar|yaybasu}} {{transl|ar|yaybasna}}
Hollow (Second-Weak), W {{transl|ar|q-w-l}} "to say" {{transl|ar|qāla}} {{transl|ar|qultu}} {{transl|ar|yaqūlu}} {{transl|ar|yaqulna}}
Hollow (Second-Weak), Y {{transl|ar|s-y-r}} "to travel, go" {{transl|ar|sāra}} {{transl|ar|sirtu}} {{transl|ar|yasīru}} {{transl|ar|yasirna}}
Defective (Third-Weak), W {{transl|ar|d-ʻ-w}} "to call" {{transl|ar|daʻā}} {{transl|ar|daʻawtu}} {{transl|ar|yadʻū}} {{transl|ar|yadʻūna}}
Defective (Third-Weak), Y {{transl|ar|r-m-y}} "to throw" {{transl|ar|ramā}} {{transl|ar|ramaytu}} {{transl|ar|yarmī}} {{transl|ar|yarmīna}}
Doubled {{transl|ar|m-d-d}} "to extend" {{transl|ar|madda}} {{transl|ar|madadtu}} {{transl|ar|yamuddu}} {{transl|ar|yamdudna}}

Conjugation, prefixes and suffixes


In Arabic the grammatical person
Grammatical person
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to a participant in an event; such as the speaker, the addressee, or others. Grammatical person typically defines a language's set of personal pronouns...

 and number
Grammatical number
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions ....

 as well as the mood
Grammatical mood
In linguistics, grammatical mood is a grammatical feature of verbs, used to signal modality. That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying...

 is designated by a variety of prefixes and suffixes. The following table shows the paradigm of a regular sound Form I verb, {{transl|ar|DIN|kataba}} (كتب) "to write". Final short vowels that are part of the formal paradigm but often omitted in speech are given in parentheses. This includes most final short vowels; but not in feminine plural {{transl|ar|DIN|-na}}, and not normally in past tense second person feminine singular {{transl|ar|DIN|-ti}}. (The energetic mood is a purely Koranic form and not normally used at all in speech.)

Paradigm of a regular Form I Arabic verb, {{transl|ar|kataba (yaktubu)}} "to write"
Past Present
Indicative
Future
Indicative
Subjunctive Jussive
Jussive mood
The jussive is a grammatical mood of verbs for issuing orders, commanding, or exhorting . English verbs are not marked for this mood...

Long
Energetic
Short
Energetic
Imperative
Imperative mood
The imperative mood expresses commands or requests as a grammatical mood. These commands or requests urge the audience to act a certain way. It also may signal a prohibition, permission, or any other kind of exhortation.- Morphology :...

Active Singular
1st katab{{transl|ar|-t(u)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼa-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(u)}} {{transl|ar|sa-ʼa-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(u)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼa-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(a)}}
}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼa-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-anna}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼa-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-an}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كَتَبْتُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|أَكْتُبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|سَأَكْتُبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|أَكْتُبَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar| أَكْتُبْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|أَكْتُبَنَّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|أَكْتُبَنْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
! rowspan="4" | 2nd
! rowspan="2"|masculine
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | katab{{transl|ar|-t(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(u)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(u)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-anna}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-an}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|u-}}ktub{{transl|ar|}}
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كَتَبْتَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar| تَكْتُبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|سَتَكْتُبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|تَكْتُبْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَنَّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَنّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|اُكْتُبْ}}
|-
! rowspan="2" | feminine
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | katab{{transl|ar|-ti}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-īn(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-īn(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ī}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ī}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-inna}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-in}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|u-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ī}}
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كَتَبْتِ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبِينَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|سَتَكْتُبِينَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبِي}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبِي}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبِنَّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|تَكْتُبِنْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|اُكْتُبِي}}
|-
! rowspan="4" | 3rd
! rowspan="2"|masculine
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | katab{{transl|ar|-(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(u)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(u)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-anna}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-an}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كَتَبَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|يَكْتُبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|سَيَكْتُبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|يَكْتُبَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|يَكْتُبْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|يَكْتُبَنَّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|يَكْتُبَنْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
! rowspan="2" | feminine
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | katab{{transl|ar|-at}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(u)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(u)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-anna}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-an}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كَتَبَتْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|تَكْتُبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|تَكْتُبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|تَكْتُبْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَنَّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَنْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
! width="100%" colspan="10" | Dual
|-
! rowspan="2" | 2nd
! rowspan="2" | masculine
& feminine

| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | katab{{transl|ar|-tumā}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ān(i)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ān(i)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ā}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ā}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ānni}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|u-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ā}}
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كَتَبْتُمَا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَانِ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|سَتَكْتُبَانِ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَانِّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|اُكْتُبَا}}
|-
! rowspan="4" | 3rd
! rowspan="2" | masculine
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | katab{{transl|ar|-ā}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ān(i)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ān(i)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ā}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ā}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ānni}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كَتَبَا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|يَكْتُبَانِ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|سَيَكْتُبَانِ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|يَكْتُبَا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|يَكْتُبَا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|يَكْتُبَانِّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
! rowspan="2" | feminine
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | katab{{transl|ar|-atā}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ān(i)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ān(i)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ā}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ā}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ānni}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كَتَبَتَا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَانِ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|سَتَكْتُبَانِ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبَانِّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
! width="100%" colspan="10" | Plural
|-
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| 1st
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | katab{{transl|ar|-nā}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|na-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(u)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-na-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(u)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|na-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|na-}}ktub{{transl|ar|}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|na-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-anna}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|na-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-an}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كَتَبْنَا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|نَكْتُبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|سَنَكْتُبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|نَكْتُبَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|نَكْتُبْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|نَكْتُبَنَّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|نَكْتُبَنْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
! rowspan="4" | 2nd
! rowspan="2" | masculine
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | katab{{transl|ar|-tum}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ūn(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ūn(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ū}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ū}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-unna}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-un}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|u-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ū}}
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كَتَبْتُمْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبُونَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|سَتَكْتُبُونَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبُوا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبُوا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبُنَّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|تَكْتُبُنْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|اُكْتُبُوا}}
|-
! rowspan="2" | feminine
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | katab{{transl|ar|-tunna}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-na}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-na}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-na}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-na}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ta-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-nānni}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|u-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-na}}
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كَتَبْتُنَّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبْنَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|سَتَكْتُبْنَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبْنَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبْنَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تَكْتُبْنَانِّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|اُكْتُبْنَ}}
|-
! rowspan="4" | 3rd
! rowspan="2" | masculine
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | katab{{transl|ar|-ū}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ūn(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ūn(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ū}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-ū}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-unna}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-un}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كَتَبُوا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|يَكْتُبُونَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|سَيَكْتُبُونَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|يَكْتُبُوا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|يَكْتُبُوا}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|يَكْتُبُنَّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|يَكْتُبُنْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
! rowspan="2" | feminine
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | katab{{transl|ar|-na}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-na}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-na}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-na}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-na}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|ya-}}ktub{{transl|ar|-nānni}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كَتَبْنَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|يَكْتُبْنَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|سَيَكْتُبْنَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|يَكْتُبْنَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|يَكْتُبْنَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|يَكْتُبْنَانِّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
! rowspan="8" | Passive
! width="100%" colspan="10" | Singular
|-
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| 1st
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | kutib{{transl|ar|-t(u)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-(u)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-ʼu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-(u)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-anna}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-an}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كُتِبْتُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|أُكْتَبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|سَأُكْتَبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|أُكْتَبَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|أُكْتَبْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|أُكْتَبَنَّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|أُكْتَبَنْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
! rowspan="4" | 2nd
! rowspan="2"|masculine
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | kutib{{transl|ar|-t(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|tu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-(u)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-tu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-(u)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|tu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|tu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|tu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-anna}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|tu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-an}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كُتِبْتَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|تُكْتَبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar| سَتُكْتَبُ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar| تُكْتَبَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar| تُكْتَبْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تُكْتَبَنَّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar| تُكْتَبَنْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
! rowspan="2" | feminine
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | kutib{{transl|ar|-ti}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|tu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-īn(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|sa-tu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-īn(a)}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|tu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-ī}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|tu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-ī}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|tu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-inna}}
| style="font-size: 110%; line-height: 150%;" | {{transl|ar|tu-}}ktab{{transl|ar|-in}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|كُتِبْتِ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تُكْتَبِينَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|سَتُكْتَبِينَ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تُكْتَبِي}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تُكْتَبِي}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | {{lang|ar|تُكْتَبِنَّ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" |{{lang|ar|تُكْتَبِنْ}}
| style="font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%;" | –
|-
! width="100%" colspan="10" | etc.
|-
! rowspan=3|Nominal
! colspan=4|Active Participle
! colspan=3|Passive Participle
! colspan=3|Verbal Noun
|-
| colspan=4 style="text-align: center;" |{{transl|ar|kātib}}
| colspan=3 style="text-align: center;" |{{transl|ar|maktūb}}
| colspan=3 style="text-align: center;" |{{transl|ar|katb, kitbah, kitābah}}
|-
| colspan=4 style="text-align: center;" |{{lang|ar|كَاتِب}}
| colspan=3 style="text-align: center;" |{{lang|ar|مَكْتُوب}}
| colspan=3 style="text-align: center;" |{{lang|ar|كَتْب، كِتْبَة، كِتَابَة}}
|-
|}

Note that the initial vowel in the imperative (which is elidable) varies from verb to verb, as follows:
  • The initial vowel is {{transl|ar|DIN|u}} if the stem begins with two consonants and the next vowel is {{transl|ar|DIN|u}} or {{transl|ar|DIN|ū}}.
  • The initial vowel is {{transl|ar|DIN|i}} if the stem begins with two consonants and the next vowel is anything else.
  • There is no initial vowel if the stem begins with one consonant.

In unvocalised Arabic, {{transl|ar|DIN|katabtu}}, {{transl|ar|DIN|katabta}}, {{transl|ar|DIN|katabti}} and {{transl|ar|DIN|katabat}} are all written the same: كتبت. Forms {{transl|ar|DIN|katabtu}} and {{transl|ar|DIN|katabta}} (and sometimes even {{transl|ar|DIN|katabti}}) can be abbreviated to {{transl|ar|DIN|katabt}} in spoken Arabic and in pausa, making them also sound the same.

ا ({{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalif}}) in final ـوا ({{transl|ar|DIN|-ū}}) is silent.

Tense


The main tenses in Arabic are the past tense (الماضي {{transl|ar|DIN|al-māḍī}}) and the present tense (المضارع {{transl|ar|DIN|al-muḍāriʻ}}). The future tense in Classical Arabic is formed by adding either the prefix سـ {{transl|ar|DIN|sa-}} or the separate word سوف {{transl|ar|DIN|sawfa}} onto the beginning of the present tense verb, e.g. سيكتب {{transl|ar|DIN|sa-yaktubu}} or سوف يكتب {{transl|ar|DIN|sawfa yaktubu}} "he will write".

In some contexts, the tenses represent aspectual
Grammatical aspect
In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb is a grammatical category that defines the temporal flow in a given action, event, or state, from the point of view of the speaker...

 distinctions rather than tense distinctions. The usage of Arabic tenses is as follows:
  • The past tense often (but not always) specifically has the meaning of a past perfective, i.e. it expresses the concept of "he did" as opposed to "he was doing". The latter can be expressed using the combination of the past tense of the verb {{transl|ar|DIN|kāna}} "to be" with the present tense or active participle, e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|kāna yaktubu}} or {{transl|ar|DIN|kāna kātibun}} "he was writing".
  • The two tenses can be used to express relative tense (or in an alternative view, grammatical aspect) when following other verbs in a serial verb construction. In such a construction, the present tense indicates time simultaneous with the main verb, while the past tense indicates time prior to the main verb. (Or alternatively, the present tense indicates the imperfective aspect
    Imperfective aspect
    The imperfective is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with internal structure, such as ongoing, habitual, repeated, and similar semantic roles, whether that situation occurs in the past, present, or future...

     while the past tense indicates the perfective aspect
    Perfective aspect
    The perfective aspect , sometimes called the aoristic aspect, is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed as a simple whole, whether that situation occurs in the past, present, or future. The perfective aspect is equivalent to the aspectual component of past perfective forms...

    .)


In all but Form I, there is only one possible shape for each of the past and non-past stems for a given root. In Form I, however, different verbs have different shapes. Examples:
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|kataba yaktubu}} "write"
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|kasaba yaksibu}} "earn"
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|qaraʼa yaqraʼu}} "read"
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|qadima yaqdamu}} "turn"
  • {{transl|ar|DIN|kabura yakburu}} "become big, grow up"

Notice that the second vowel can be any of {{transl|ar|DIN|a i u}} in both past and non-past stems. The vowel {{transl|ar|DIN|a}} occurs in most past stems, while {{transl|ar|DIN|i}} occurs in some (especially intransitive) and {{transl|ar|DIN|u}} occurs only in a few stative verbs (i.e. whose meaning is "be X" or "become X" where X is an adjective). The most common patterns are:
  • past: {{transl|ar|DIN|a}}; non-past: {{transl|ar|DIN|u}} or {{transl|ar|DIN|i}}
  • past: {{transl|ar|DIN|a}}, non-past: {{transl|ar|DIN|a}} (when the second or third root consonant is a "guttural", i.e. one of {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼ ʻ h ḥ}}
  • past: {{transl|ar|DIN|i}}; non-past: {{transl|ar|DIN|a}}
  • past: {{transl|ar|DIN|u}}; non-past: {{transl|ar|DIN|u}}

Mood


حالة {{transl|ar|DIN|ḥālah}}

Modal
Grammatical mood
In linguistics, grammatical mood is a grammatical feature of verbs, used to signal modality. That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying...

 forms can be derived from the imperfective stem: the subjunctive (منصوب {{transl|ar|DIN|manṣūb}}) by (roughly speaking) replacing the final vowel by {{transl|ar|DIN|a}}, the jussive (مجزوم {{transl|ar|DIN|maǧzūm}}) by dropping this {{transl|ar|DIN|a}} of the subjunctive. In a less formal Arabic and in spoken dialects, verbs in the indicative mood (مرفوع {{transl|ar|DIN|marfūʻ}} ) have shortened endings, identical to subjunctive and jussive.

The imperative
Imperative mood
The imperative mood expresses commands or requests as a grammatical mood. These commands or requests urge the audience to act a certain way. It also may signal a prohibition, permission, or any other kind of exhortation.- Morphology :...

 (صيغة الأمر {{transl|ar|ṣīġat ul-ʼamr(i)}}) (positive, only 2nd person) is formed by dropping the verbal prefix from the imperfective jussive stem, e.g. قدم {{transl|ar|DIN|qaddim}} "present!". If the result starts with two consonants followed by a vowel ("{{transl|ar|DIN|a}}" or "{{transl|ar|DIN|i}}"), an elidible {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalif}} is added to the beginning of the word, usually pronounced as "{{transl|ar|DIN|i}}", e.g. اغسل {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiġsil}} "wash!" or افعل {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻal}} "do!" if the present form vowel is "{{transl|ar|DIN|u}}", then the alif is also pronounced as "{{transl|ar|DIN|u}}", e.g. أكتب {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼuktub}} "write!". Negative imperatives are formed from jussive.

Note: the exception to the above rule is the form (or stem) IV verbs. In these verbs a non-elidible alif pronounced as "{{transl|ar|DIN|a}}" is always prefixed to the imperfect jussive form, e.g. أرسل {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼarsil}} "send!", أضف {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼaḍif}} "add!".

The subjunctive is used in subordinate clauses after certain conjunctions. The jussive is used in negation, in negative imperatives, and in the hortative {{transl|ar|DIN|li}}+jussive. For example: 2. sg. m.:
  • imperfect indicative {{transl|ar|DIN|tafʻalu}} 'you are doing'
  • subjunctive {{transl|ar|DIN|an tafʻala}} 'that you do'
  • jussive {{transl|ar|DIN|lā tafʻal}} 'do not!'
  • energic {{transl|ar|DIN|tafʻalanna}}
  • imperative {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻal}} 'do!'.

Voice


صيغة {{transl|ar|DIN|ṣīġah}}

Arabic has two verbal voices, active
Active voice
Active voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. It is the unmarked voice for clauses featuring a transitive verb in nominative–accusative languages, including English and most other Indo-European languages....

 (صيغة المعلوم {{transl|ar|DIN|ṣīġat ul-maʻlūm}}), and passive (صيغة المجهول {{transl|ar|DIN|ṣīġat ul-maǧhūl}}). The passive voice is expressed by a change in vocalization. For example:
  • active فعل {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻala}} 'he did', يفعل {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻalu}} 'he is doing' فَعَلَ
  • passive فعل {{transl|ar|DIN|fuʻila}} 'it was done', يفعل {{transl|ar|DIN|yufʻalu}} 'it is being done' فُعِلَ


Notice that active and passive forms are spelled identically in Arabic.

Weak roots


Roots containing one or two of the radicals {{transl|ar|DIN|w}} ({{transl|ar|DIN|wāw}}), {{transl|ar|DIN|y}} ({{transl|ar|DIN|yāʼ}} ) or {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼ}} ({{transl|ar|DIN|hamzah}}) often lead to verbs with special phonological rules because these radicals can be influenced by their surroundings. Such verbs are called 'weak' (verba infirma, 'weak verbs') and their paradigms must be given special attention. In the case of {{transl|ar|DIN|hamzah}}, these peculiarities are mainly orthographical, since {{transl|ar|DIN|hamzah}} is not subject to elision (the orthography of {{transl|ar|DIN|hamzah}} and {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼalif}} is unsystematic due to confusion in early Islamic times). According to the position of the weak radical in the root, the root can be classified into four classes: first weak, second weak, third weak and doubled, where both the second and third radicals are identical. Some roots fall into more than one category at once.

Doubled roots


The following shows a paradigm of a typical Form I doubled verb {{transl|ar|madda (yamuddu)}} "to extend", parallel to verbs of the {{transl|ar|faʻala (yafʻulu)}} type. See notes following the table for explanation.
Paradigm of a form I doubled Arabic verb, {{transl|ar|madda (yamuddu)}} "to extend"
Past Present
Indicative
Subjunctive Jussive
Jussive mood
The jussive is a grammatical mood of verbs for issuing orders, commanding, or exhorting . English verbs are not marked for this mood...

Long
Energetic
Short
Energetic
Imperative
Imperative mood
The imperative mood expresses commands or requests as a grammatical mood. These commands or requests urge the audience to act a certain way. It also may signal a prohibition, permission, or any other kind of exhortation.- Morphology :...

Singular
1st madad-tu ʼa-mudd-u ʼa-mudd-a ʼa-mudd-a, ʼa-mudd-i, ʼa-mdud ʼa-mudd-anna ʼa-mudd-an
مَدَدْتُ أَمُدُّ أَمُدَّ أَمْدُدْ ,أَمُدِّ ,أَمُدَّ أَمُدَّنَّ ْأَمُدَّن
2nd masculine madad-ta ta-mudd-u ta-mudd-a ta-mudd-a, ta-mudd-i, ta-mdud ta-mudd-anna ta-mudd-an mudd-a, mudd-i, u-mdud
مَدَدْتَ تَمُدُّ تَمُدَّ تَمْدُدْ ,تَمُدِّ ,تَمُدَّ تَمُدَّنَّ ْتَمُدَّن اُمْدُدْ ,مُدِّ ,مُدَّ
feminine madad-ti ta-mudd-īna ta-mudd-ī ta-mudd-ī ta-mudd-inna ta-mudd-in mudd-ī
مَدَدْتِ تَمُدِّينَ تَمُدِّي تَمُدِّي تَمُدِّنَّ ْتَمُدِّن مُدِّي
3rd masculine madd-a ya-mudd-u ya-mudd-a ya-mudd-a, ya-mudd-i, ya-mdud ya-mudd-anna ya-mudd-an
مَدَّ يَمُدُّ يَمُدَّ يَمْدُدْ ,يَمُدِّ ,يَمُدَّ يَمُدَّنَّ ْيَمُدَّن
feminine madd-at ta-mudd-u ta-mudd-a ta-mudd-a, ta-mudd-i, ta-mdud ta-mudd-anna ta-mudd-an
مَدَّتْ تَمُدُّ تَمُدَّ تَمْدُدْ ,تَمُدِّ ,تَمُدَّ تَمُدَّنَّ ْتَمُدَّن
Dual
2nd masculine
& feminine
madad-tumā ta-mudd-āni ta-mudd-ā ta-mudd-ā ta-mudd-ānni mudd-ā
مَدَدْتُمَا تَمُدَّانِ تَمُدَّا تَمُدَّا تَمُدَّانِّ مُدَّا
3rd masculine madd-ā ya-mudd-āni ya-mudd-ā ya-mudd-ā ya-mudd-ānni
مَدَّا يَمُدَّانِ يَمُدَّا يَمُدَّا يَمُدَّانِّ
feminine madd-atā ta-mudd-āni ta-mudd-ā ta-mudd-ā ta-mudd-ānni
مَدَّتَا تَمُدَّانِ تَمُدَّا تَمُدَّا تَمُدَّانِّ
Plural
1st madad-nā na-mudd-u na-mudd-a na-mudd-a, na-mudd-i, na-mdud na-mudd-anna na-mudd-an
مَدَدْنَا نَمُدُّ نَمُدَّ نَمْدُدْ ,نَمُدِّ ,نَمُدَّ نَمُدَّنَّ ْنَمُدَّن
2nd masculine madad-tum ta-mudd-ūna ta-mudd-ū ta-mudd-ū ta-mudd-unna ta-mudd-un mudd-ū
مَدَدْتُمْ تَمُدُّونَ تَمُدُّوا تَمُدُّوا تَمُدُّنَّ ْتَمُدُّن مُدُّوا
feminine madad-tunna ta-mdud-na ta-mdud-na ta-mdud-na ta-mdud-nānni umdud-na
مَدَدْتُنَّ تَمْدُدْنَ تَمْدُدْنَ تَمْدُدْنَ تَمْدُدْنَانِّ اُمْدُدْنَ
3rd masculine madd-ū ya-mudd-ūna ya-mudd-ū ya-mudd-ū ya-mudd-unna ya-mudd-un
مَدُّوا يَمُدُّونَ يَمُدُّوا يَمُدُّوا يَمُدُّنَّ ْيَمُدُّن
feminine madad-na ya-mdud-na ya-mdud-na ya-mdud-na ya-mdud-nānni
مَدَدْنَ يَمْدُدْنَ يَمْدُدْنَ يَمْدُدْنَ يَمْدُدْنَانِّ


All doubled verbs are conjugated in a parallel fashion. The endings are for the most part identical to strong verbs, but there are two stems (a regular and a modified) in each of the past and non-past. The regular stems are identical to the stem forms of sound verbs, while the modified stems have the two identical consonants pulled together into a geminate consonant and the vowel between moved before the geminate. In the above verb {{transl|ar|madda (yamuddu)}} "to extend (s.th.)", the past stems are {{transl|ar|madad-}} (regular), {{transl|ar|madd-}} (modified), and the non-past stems are {{transl|ar|mdud-}} (regular), {{transl|ar|mudd-}} (modified). In the table, places where the regular past stem occurs are in silver, and places where the regular non-past stem occurs are in gold; everywhere else, the modified stem occurs.

Note also that no initial vowel is needed in (most of) the imperative forms because the modified non-past stem does not begin with two consonants.

The concept of having two stems for each tense, one for endings beginning with vowels and one for other endings, occurs throughout the different kinds of weaknesses.

Following the above rules, endingless jussives would have a form like {{transl|ar|tamdud}}, while the corresponding indicates and subjunctives would have forms like {{transl|ar|tamuddu}}, {{transl|ar|tamudda}}. As a result, for the doubled verbs in particular, there is a tendency to harmonize these forms by adding a vowel to the jussives, usually {{transl|ar|a}}, sometimes {{transl|ar|i}}. These are the only irregular endings in these paradigms, and have been indicated in boldface. The masculine singular imperative likewise has multiple forms, based on the multiple forms of the jussive.

The are various types of doubled Form I verbs:
Modified past stem
(3rd sing. masc.)
Regular past stem
(3rd plur. fem.)
Modified non-past stem
(3rd sing. masc.)
Regular past stem
(3rd plur. fem.)
Meaning Sound verb parallel
{{transl|ar|madd-a}} {{transl|ar|madad-na}} {{transl|ar|ya-mudd-u}} {{transl|ar|ya-mdud-na}} "to extend" {{transl|ar|faʻala (yafʻulu)}}
{{transl|ar|tamm-a}} {{transl|ar|tamam-na}} {{transl|ar|ya-timm-u}} {{transl|ar|ya-tmim-na}} "to finish" {{transl|ar|faʻala (yafʻilu)}}
{{transl|ar|ẓall-a}} {{transl|ar|ẓalil-na}} {{transl|ar|ya-ẓall-u}} {{transl|ar|ya-ẓlal-na}} "to remain" {{transl|ar|faʻila (yafʻalu)}}

Assimilated (first-weak) roots


Most first-weak verbs have a {{transl|ar|w}} as their first root. These verbs are entirely regular in the past tense. In the non-past, the {{transl|ar|w}} drops out, leading to a shorter stem (e.g. {{transl|ar|waǧada (yaǧidu)}} "to find"), where the stem is {{transl|ar|-ǧid-}} in place of a longer stem like {{transl|ar|-ǧlid-}} from the verb {{transl|ar|ǧalada (yaǧlidu)}} "to whip, flog". This same stem is used throughout, and there are no other irregularities except for the imperative, which has no initial vowel, consistent with the fact that the stem for the imperative begins with only one consonant.

The are various types of assimilated (first-weak) Form I verbs:
Past stem
(3rd sing. masc.)
Non-past stem
(3rd sing. masc.)
Imperative
(masc. sing.)
Meaning Sound verb parallel
{{transl|ar|waǧad-a}} {{transl|ar|yaǧid-u}} {{transl|ar|ǧid}} "to find" {{transl|ar|faʻala (yafʻilu)}}
{{transl|ar|wariṯ-a}} {{transl|ar|yariṯ-u}} {{transl|ar|riṯ}} ? {{transl|ar|faʻila (yafʻilu)}}
(rare normally, but in assimilated verbs,
rather more common than {{transl|ar|faʻila (yafʻalu)}})
{{transl|ar|waḍaʻ-a}} {{transl|ar|yaḍaʻ-u}} {{transl|ar|ḍaʻ}} "to put" {{transl|ar|faʻala (yafʻalu)}}
{{transl|ar|waǧil-a}} {{transl|ar|yawǧal-u}} {{transl|ar|īǧal}} ? {{transl|ar|faʻila (yafʻalu)}}
(rare case where {{transl|ar|w}} is preserved
in non-past)
{{transl|ar|yasar-a}} {{transl|ar|yaysir-u}} {{transl|ar|īsir}} ? {{transl|ar|faʻala (yafʻilu)}}
({{transl|ar|y}} is normally preserved
in non-past)
{{transl|ar|yabis-a}} {{transl|ar|yaybas-u}} {{transl|ar|ības}} "to be/become dry" {{transl|ar|faʻila (yafʻalu)}}
({{transl|ar|y}} is normally preserved
in non-past)
{{transl|ar|wadd-a (wadid-tu)}} {{transl|ar|yadd-u}} {{transl|ar|īdad}} ? {{transl|ar|faʻila (yafʻalu)}}
(also a doubled verb)
{{transl|ar|waliy-a}} {{transl|ar|yalī}} {{transl|ar|li}} "to protect" {{transl|ar|faʻila (yafʻilu)}}
(also a defective verb)

Hollow (second-weak) roots


The following shows a paradigm of a typical Form I hollow (second-weak) verb {{transl|ar|qāla (qultu, yaqūlu)}} "to say", parallel to verbs of the {{transl|ar|faʻala (yafʻulu)}} type. See notes following the table for explanation.
Paradigm of a hollow (second-weak) Arabic verb, {{transl|ar|qāla (qultu, yaqūlu)}} "to say"
Past Present
Indicative
Subjunctive Jussive
Jussive mood
The jussive is a grammatical mood of verbs for issuing orders, commanding, or exhorting . English verbs are not marked for this mood...

Long
Energetic
Short
Energetic
Imperative
Imperative mood
The imperative mood expresses commands or requests as a grammatical mood. These commands or requests urge the audience to act a certain way. It also may signal a prohibition, permission, or any other kind of exhortation.- Morphology :...

Singular
1st qul-tu ʼa-qūl-u ʼa-qūl-a ʼa-qul ʼa-qūl-anna ʼa-qūl-an
قُلْتُ ُأَقُول َأَقُول ْأَقُل أَقُولَنَّ ْأَقُولَن
2nd masculine qul-ta ta-qūl-u ta-qūl-a ta-qul ta-qūl-anna ta-qūl-an qul
قُلْتَ ُتَقُول َتَقُول ْتَقُل تَقُولَنَّ ْتَقُولَن قُلْ
feminine qul-ti ta-qūl-īna ta-qūl-ī ta-qūl-ī ta-qūl-inna ta-qūl-in qūl-ī
قُلْتِ تَقُولِينَ تَقُولِي تَقُولِي تَقُولِنَّ ْتَقُولِن قُولِي
3rd masculine qāl-a ya-qūl-u ya-qūl-a ya-qul ya-qūl-anna ya-qūl-an
قَالَ ُيَقُول َيَقُول ْيَقُل يَقُولَنَّ ْيَقُولَن
feminine qāl-at ta-qūl-u ta-qūl-a ta-qul ta-qūl-anna ta-qūl-an
قَالَتْ ُتَقُول َتَقُول ْتَقُل تَقُولَنَّ ْتَقُولَن
Dual
2nd masculine
& feminine
qul-tumā ta-qūl-āni ta-qūl-ā ta-qūl-ā ta-qūl-ānni qūl-ā
قُلْتُمَا تَقُولَانِ تَقُولَا تَقُولَا تَقُولَانِّ قُولَا
3rd masculine qāl-ā ya-qūl-āni ya-qūl-ā ya-qūl-ā ya-qūl-ānni
قَالَا يَقُولَانِ يَقُولَا يَقُولَا يَقُولَانِّ
feminine qāl-atā ta-qūl-āni ta-qūl-ā ta-qūl-ā ta-qūl-ānni
قَالَتَا تَقُولَانِ تَقُولَا تَقُولَا تَقُولَانِّ
Plural
1st qul-nā na-qūl-u na-qūl-a na-qul na-qūl-anna na-qūl-an
قُلْنَا ُنَقُول َنَقُول ْنَقُل نَقُولَنَّ ْنَقُولَن
2nd masculine qul-tum ta-qūl-ūna ta-qūl-ū ta-qūl-ū ta-qūl-unna ta-qūl-un qūl-ū
قُلْتُمْ تَقُولُونَ تَقُولُوا تَقُولُوا تَقُولُنَّ ْتَقُولُن قُولُوا
feminine qul-tunna ta-qul-na ta-qul-na ta-qul-na ta-qul-nānni qul-na
قُلْتُنَّ تَقُلْنَ تَقُلْنَ تَقُلْنَ تَقُلْنَانِّ قُلْنَ
3rd masculine qāl-ū ya-qūl-ūna ya-qūl-ū ya-qūl-ū ya-qūl-unna ya-qūl-un
قَالُوا يَقُولُونَ يَقُولُوا يَقُولُوا يَقُولُنَّ ْيَقُولُن
feminine qul-na ya-qul-na ya-qul-na ya-qul-na ya-qul-nānni
قُلْنَ يَقُلْنَ يَقُلْنَ يَقُلْنَ يَقُلْنَانِّ


All hollow (second-weak) verbs are conjugated in a parallel fashion. The endings are identical to strong verbs, but there are two stems (a longer and a shorter) in each of the past and non-past. The longer stem is consistently used whenever the ending begins with a vowel, and the shorter stem is used in all other circumstances. The longer stems end in a long vowel plus consonant, while the shorter stems end in a short vowel plus consonant. The shorter stem is formed simply by shortening the vowel of the long stem in all paradigms other than the active past of Form I verbs. In the active past paradigms of Form I, however, the longer stem always has an {{transl|ar|ā}} vowel, while the shorter stem has a vowel {{transl|ar|u}} or {{transl|ar|i}} corresponding to the actual second root consonant of the verb.

Note also that no initial vowel is needed in the imperative forms because the non-past stem does not begin with two consonants.

There are various types of Form I hollow verbs:
  • {{transl|ar|qāla qulna (yaqūlu yaqulna)}} "to say", formed from verbs with {{transl|ar|w}} as their second root consonant and parallel to verbs of the {{transl|ar|faʻala (yafʻulu)}} type
  • {{transl|ar|sāra sirna (yasīru yasirna)}} "to say", formed from verbs with {{transl|ar|y}} as their second root consonant and parallel to verbs of the {{transl|ar|faʻala (yafʻilu)}} type
  • {{transl|ar|ḫāfa ḫufna (yaḫāfu yaḫafna)}} "to fear", formed from verbs with {{transl|ar|w}} as their second root consonant and parallel to verbs of the {{transl|ar|faʻila (yafʻalu)}} type
  • {{transl|ar|nāma nimna (yanāmu yanamna)}} "to sleep", formed from verbs with {{transl|ar|y}} as their second root consonant and parallel to verbs of the {{transl|ar|faʻila (yafʻalu)}} type


The passive paradigm of all Form I hollow verbs is as follows:
  • {{transl|ar|qīla qilna (yuqālu yuqalna)}} "to be said"

{{transl|ar|faʻā (yafʻī)}}

The following shows a paradigm of a typical Form I defective (third-weak) verb {{transl|ar|ramā (yarmī)}} "to throw", parallel to verbs of the {{transl|ar|faʻala (yafʻilu)}} type. See notes following the table for explanation.
Paradigm of a defective (third-weak) {{transl|ar|y}} Arabic verb, {{transl|ar|ramā (yarmī)}} "to throw"
Past Present
Indicative
Subjunctive Jussive
Jussive mood
The jussive is a grammatical mood of verbs for issuing orders, commanding, or exhorting . English verbs are not marked for this mood...

Long
Energetic
Short
Energetic
Imperative
Imperative mood
The imperative mood expresses commands or requests as a grammatical mood. These commands or requests urge the audience to act a certain way. It also may signal a prohibition, permission, or any other kind of exhortation.- Morphology :...

Singular
1st ramay-tu ʼa-rmī ʼa-rmiy-a ʼa-rmi ʼa-rmiy-anna ʼa-rmiy-an
رَمَيْتُ أَرْمِي َأَرْمِي أَرْمِ َأَرْمِيَنَّ ْأَرْمِيَن
2nd masculine ramay-ta ta-rmī ta-rmiy-a ta-rmi ta-rmiy-anna ta-rmiy-an i-rmi
رَمَيْتَ تَرْمِي َتَرْمِي تَرْمِ َتَرْمِيَنَّ ْتَرْمِيَن اِرْمِ
feminine ramay-ti ta-rm-īna ta-rm-ī ta-rm-ī ta-rm-inna ta-rm-in i-rm-ī
رَمَيْتِ تَرْمِينَ تَرْمِي تَرْمِي َتَرْمِنَّ ْتَرْمِن اِرْمِي
3rd masculine ram-ā ya-rmī ya-rmiy-a ya-rmi ya-rmiy-anna ya-rmiy-an
رَمَی يَرْمِي َيَرْمِي يَرْمِ َيَرْمِيَنَّ ْيَرْمِيَن
feminine ram-at ta-rmī ta-rmiy-a ta-rmi ta-rmiy-anna ta-rmiy-an
رَمَتْ تَرْمِي َتَرْمِي تَرْمِ َتَرْمِيَنَّ ْتَرْمِيَن
Dual
2nd masculine
& feminine
ramay-tumā ta-rmiy-āni ta-rmiy-ā ta-rmiy-ā ta-rmiy-ānni i-rmiy-ā
رَمَيْتُمَا تَرْمِيَانِ تَرْمِيَا تَرْمِيَا تَرْمِيَانِّ اِرْمِيَا
3rd masculine ramay-ā ya-rmiy-āni ya-rmiy-ā ya-rmiy-ā ya-rmiy-ānni
رَمَيَا يَرْمِيَانِ يَرْمِيَا يَرْمِيَا يَرْمِيَانِّ
feminine ram-atā ta-rmiy-āni ta-rmiy-ā ta-rmiy-ā ta-rmiy-ānni
رَمَتَا تَرْمِيَانِ تَرْمِيَا تَرْمِيَا تَرْمِيَانِّ
Plural
1st ramay-nā na-rmī na-rmiy-a na-rmi na-rmiy-anna na-rmiy-an
رَمَيْنَا نَرْمِي َنَرْمِي نَرْمِ َنَرْمِيَنَّ ْنَرْمِيَن
2nd masculine ramay-tum ta-rm-ūna ta-rm-ū ta-rm-ū ta-rm-unna ta-rm-un i-rm-ū
رَمَيْتُمْ تَرْمُونَ تَرْمُوا تَرْمُوا َتَرْمُنَّ ْتَرْمُن اِرْمُوا
feminine ramay-tunna ta-rmī-na ta-rmī-na ta-rmī-na ta-rmī-nānni i-rmī-na
رَمَيْتُنَّ تَرْمِينَ تَرْمِينَ تَرْمِينَ تَرْمِينَانِّ اِرْمِينَ
3rd masculine ram-aw ya-rm-ūna ya-rm-ū ya-rm-ū ya-rm-unna ya-rm-un
رَمَوْا يَرْمُونَ يَرْمُوا يَرْمُوا َيَرْمُنَّ ْيَرْمُن
feminine ramay-na ya-rmī-na ya-rmī-na ya-rmī-na ya-rmī-nānni
رَمَيْنَ يَرْمِينَ يَرْمِينَ يَرْمِينَ يَرْمِينَانِّ


Two stems each
Each of the two main stems (past and non-past) comes in two variants, a full and a shortened. For the past stem, the full is {{transl|ar|ramay-}}, shortened to {{transl|ar|ram-}} in much of the third person (i.e. before vowels, in most cases). For the non-past stem, the full is {{transl|ar|rmiy-}}, shortened to {{transl|ar|rm-}} before {{transl|ar|-ū -ī}}. The full non-past stem {{transl|ar|rmiy-}} appears as {{transl|ar|rmī-}} when not before a vowel; this is an automatic alternation in Classical Arabic. The places where the shortened stems occur are indicated by silver (past), gold (non-past).

Irregular endings
The endings are actually mostly regular. But some endings are irregular, in boldface:
  • Some of the third-person past endings are irregular, in particular those in {{transl|ar|ram-ā}} "he threw", {{transl|ar|ram-aw}} "they (masc.) threw". These simply have to be memorized.
  • Two kinds of non-past endings are irregular, both in the "suffixless" parts of the paradigm (largely referring to singular masculine or singular combined-gender). In the indicative, the full stem {{transl|ar|-rmī}} actually appears normally; what is irregular is the lack of the {{transl|ar|-u}} normally marking the indicative. In the jussive, on the other hand, the stem actually assumes a unique shortened form {{transl|ar|-rmi}}, with a short vowel (note also the lack of corresponding letter in the Arab).

{{transl|ar|faʻā (yafʻū)}}

The following shows a paradigm of a typical Form I defective (third-weak) verb {{transl|ar|daʻā (yadʻū)}} "to call", parallel to verbs of the {{transl|ar|faʻala (yafʻulu)}} type. Verbs of this sort are entirely parallel to verbs of the {{transl|ar|faʻā (yafʻī)}} type, although the exact forms can still be tricky. See notes following the table for explanation.
Paradigm of a defective (third-weak) {{transl|ar|w}} Arabic verb, {{transl|ar|daʻā (yadʻū)}} "to call"
Past Present
Indicative
Subjunctive Jussive
Jussive mood
The jussive is a grammatical mood of verbs for issuing orders, commanding, or exhorting . English verbs are not marked for this mood...

Long
Energetic
Short
Energetic
Imperative
Imperative mood
The imperative mood expresses commands or requests as a grammatical mood. These commands or requests urge the audience to act a certain way. It also may signal a prohibition, permission, or any other kind of exhortation.- Morphology :...

Singular
1st daʻaw-tu ʼa-dʻū ʼa-dʻuw-a ʼa-dʻu ʼa-dʻuw-anna ʼa-dʻuw-an
دَعَوْتُ أَدْعُو َأَدْعُو أَدْعُ َأَدْعُوَنَّ ْأَدْعُوَن
2nd masculine daʻaw-ta ta-dʻū ta-dʻuw-a ta-dʻu ta-dʻuw-anna ta-dʻuw-an u-dʻu
دَعَوْتَ تَدْعُو َتَدْعُو تَدْعُ َتَدْعُوَنَّ ْتَدْعُوَن اُدْعُ
feminine daʻaw-ti ta-dʻ-īna ta-dʻ-ī ta-dʻ-ī ta-dʻ-inna ta-dʻ-in u-dʻ-ī
دَعَوْتِ تَدْعِينَ تَدْعِي تَدْعِي َتَدْعِنَّ ْتَدْعِن اُدْعِي
3rd masculine daʻ-ā ya-dʻū ya-dʻuw-a ya-dʻu ya-dʻuw-anna ya-dʻuw-an
دَعَا يَدْعُو َيَدْعُو يَدْعُ َيَدْعُوَنَّ ْيَدْعُوَن
feminine daʻ-at ta-dʻū ta-dʻuw-a ta-dʻu ta-dʻuw-anna ta-dʻuw-an
دَعَتْ تَدْعُو َتَدْعُو تَدْعُ َتَدْعُوَنَّ ْتَدْعُوَن
Dual
2nd masculine
& feminine
daʻaw-tumā ta-dʻuw-āni ta-dʻuw-ā ta-dʻuw-ā ta-dʻuw-ānni u-dʻuw-ā
دَعَوْتُمَا تَدْعُوَانِ تَدْعُوَا تَدْعُوَا تَدْعُوَانِّ اُدْعُوَا
3rd masculine daʻaw-ā ya-dʻuw-āni ya-dʻuw-ā ya-dʻuw-ā ya-dʻuw-ānni
دَعَوَا يَدْعُوَانِ يَدْعُوَا يَدْعُوَا يَدْعُوَانِّ
feminine daʻ-atā ta-dʻuw-āni ta-dʻuw-ā ta-dʻuw-ā ta-dʻuw-ānni
دَعَتَا تَدْعُوَانِ تَدْعُوَا تَدْعُوَا تَدْعُوَانِّ
Plural
1st daʻaw-nā na-dʻū na-dʻuw-a na-dʻu na-dʻuw-anna na-dʻuw-an
دَعَوْنَا نَدْعُو َنَدْعُو نَدْعُ َنَدْعُوَنَّ ْنَدْعُوَن
2nd masculine daʻaw-tum ta-dʻ-ūna ta-dʻ-ū ta-dʻ-ū ta-dʻ-unna ta-dʻ-un u-dʻ-ū
دَعَوْتُمْ تَدْعُونَ تَدْعُوا تَدْعُوا َتَدْعُنَّ ْتَدْعُن اُدْعُوا
feminine daʻaw-tunna ta-dʻū-na ta-dʻū-na ta-dʻū-na ta-dʻū-nānni u-dʻū-na
دَعَوْتُنَّ تَدْعُونَ تَدْعُونَ تَدْعُونَ تَدْعُونَانِّ اُدْعُونَ
3rd masculine daʻ-aw ya-dʻ-ūna ya-dʻ-ū ya-dʻ-ū ya-dʻ-unna ya-dʻ-un
دَعَوْا يَدْعُونَ يَدْعُوا يَدْعُوا َيَدْعُنَّ ْيَدْعُن
feminine daʻaw-na ya-dʻū-na ya-dʻū-na ya-dʻū-na ya-dʻū-nānni
دَعَوْنَ يَدْعُونَ يَدْعُونَ يَدْعُونَ يَدْعُونَانِّ


Verbs of this sort are work nearly identically to verbs of the {{transl|ar|faʻā (yafʻī)}} type. There are the same irregular endings in the same places, and again two stems in each of the past and non-past tenses, with the same stems used in the same places:
  • In the past, the full stem is {{transl|ar|daʻaw-}}, shortened to {{transl|ar|daʻ-}}.
  • In the non-past, the full stem is {{transl|ar|dʻuw-}}, rendered as {{transl|ar|dʻū-}} when not before a vowel and shortened to {{transl|ar|dʻ-}} before {{transl|ar|-ū -ī}}.


In the Arabic script, the most important things to note are:
  • In the third person masculine singular past, regular {{transl|ar|ʼalif}} appears instead of {{transl|ar|ʼalif maqṣūrah}}: hence دَعَا not *دَعَى.
  • The otiose final {{transl|ar|ʼalif}} appears only after the final {{transl|ar|wāw}} of the plural, not elsewhere: hence تَدْعُو "you (masc. sg.) call (indic.)" but تَدْعُوا "you (masc. pl.) call (subj.)", even though they are both pronounced {{transl|ar|tadʻū}}.

{{transl|ar|faʻiya (yafʻā)}}

The following shows a paradigm of a typical Form I defective (third-weak) verb {{transl|ar|nasiya (yansā)}} "to call", parallel to verbs of the {{transl|ar|faʻila (yafʻalu)}} type. These verbs differ in a number of significant respects from either of the above types.
Paradigm of a defective (third-weak) {{transl|ar|a}} Arabic verb, {{transl|ar|nasiya (yansā)}} "to forget"
Past Present
Indicative
Subjunctive Jussive
Jussive mood
The jussive is a grammatical mood of verbs for issuing orders, commanding, or exhorting . English verbs are not marked for this mood...

Long
Energetic
Short
Energetic
Imperative
Imperative mood
The imperative mood expresses commands or requests as a grammatical mood. These commands or requests urge the audience to act a certain way. It also may signal a prohibition, permission, or any other kind of exhortation.- Morphology :...

Singular
1st nasī-tu ʼa-nsā ʼa-nsā ʼa-nsa ʼa-nsay-anna ʼa-nsay-an
نَسِيتُ أَنْسَى أَنْسَى أَنْسَ َأَنْسَيَنَّ ْأَنْسَيَن
2nd masculine nasī-ta ta-nsā ta-nsā ta-nsa ta-nsay-anna ta-nsay-an i-nsa
نَسِيتَ تَنْسَى تَنْسَى تَنْسَ َتَنْسَيَنَّ ْتَنْسَيَن اِنْسَ
feminine nasī-ti ta-nsa-yna ta-nsa-y ta-nsa-y ta-nsa-yinna ta-nsa-yin i-nsa-y
نَسِيتِ تَنْسَيْنَ تَنْسَيْ تَنْسَيْ َتَنْسَيِنَّ ْتَنْسَيِن اِنْسَيْ
3rd masculine nasiy-a ya-nsā ya-nsā ya-nsa ya-nsay-anna ya-nsay-an
نَسِيَ يَنْسَى يَنْسَى يَنْسَ َيَنْسَيَنَّ ْيَنْسَيَن
feminine nasiy-at ta-nsā ta-nsā ta-nsa ta-nsay-anna ta-nsay-an
نَسِيَتْ تَنْسَى تَنْسَى تَنْسَ َتَنْسَيَنَّ ْتَنْسَيَن
Dual
2nd masculine
& feminine
nasī-tumā ta-nsay-āni ta-nsay-ā ta-nsay-ā ta-nsay-ānni i-nsay-ā
نَسِيتُمَا تَنْسَيَانِ تَنْسَيَا تَنْسَيَا تَنْسَيَانِّ اِنْسَيَا
3rd masculine nasiy-ā ya-nsay-āni ya-nsay-ā ya-nsay-ā ya-nsay-ānni
نَسِيَا يَنْسَيَانِ يَنْسَيَا يَنْسَيَا يَنْسَيَانِّ
feminine nasiy-atā ta-nsay-āni ta-nsay-ā ta-nsay-ā ta-nsay-ānni
نَسِيَتَا تَنْسَيَانِ تَنْسَيَا تَنْسَيَا تَنْسَيَانِّ
Plural
1st nasī-nā na-nsā na-nsā na-nsa na-nsay-anna na-nsay-an
نَسِينَا نَنْسَى نَنْسَى نَنْسَ َنَنْسَيَنَّ ْنَنْسَيَن
2nd masculine nasī-tum ta-nsa-wna ta-nsa-w ta-nsa-w ta-nsa-wunna ta-nsa-wun i-nsa-w
نَسِيتُمْ تَنْسَوْنَ تَنْسَوْا تَنْسَوْا َتَنْسَوُنَّ ْتَنْسَوُن اِنْسَوْا
feminine nasī-tunna ta-nsay-na ta-nsay-na ta-nsay-na ta-nsay-nānni i-nsay-na
نَسِيتُنَّ تَنْسَيْنَ تَنْسَيْنَ تَنْسَيْنَ تَنْسَيْنَانِّ اِنْسَيْنَ
3rd masculine nas-ū ya-nsa-wna ya-nsa-w ya-nsa-w ya-nsa-wunna ya-nsa-wun
نَسُوا يَنْسَوْنَ يَنْسَوْا يَنْسَوْا َيَنْسَوُنَّ ْيَنْسَوُن
feminine nasī-na ya-nsay-na ya-nsay-na ya-nsay-na ya-nsay-nānni
نَسِينَ يَنْسَيْنَ يَنْسَيْنَ يَنْسَيْنَ يَنْسَيْنَانِّ


Multiple stems
This variant is somewhat different from the variants with {{transl|ar|-ī}} or {{transl|ar|-ū}} in the non-past. As with other third-weak verbs, there are multiple stems in each of the past and non-past, a full stem composed following the normal rules and one or more shortened stems.
  • In this case, only one form in the past uses a shortened stem: {{transl|ar|nas-ū}} "they (masc.) forgot". All other forms are constructed regularly, using the full stem {{transl|ar|nasiy-}} or its automatic pre-consonant variant {{transl|ar|nasī-}}.
  • In the non-past, however, there are at least three different stems:
  1. The full stem {{transl|ar|-nsay-}} occurs before {{transl|ar|-a/ā-}} or {{transl|ar|-n-}}, that is before dual endings, feminine plural endings and energetic endings corresponding to forms that are endingless in the jussive.
  2. The modified stem {{transl|ar|-nsā}} occurs in "endingless" forms (i.e. masculine or common-gender singular, plus 1st plural). As usual with third-weak verbs, it is shortened to {{transl|ar|-nsa}} in the jussive. These forms are marked with red.
  3. Before endings normally beginning with {{transl|ar|-i/ī-}} or {{transl|ar|-u/ū-}}, the stem and endings combine together into a shortened form: e.g. expected {{transl|ar|*ta-nsay-īna}} "you (fem. sg.) forget", {{transl|ar|*ta-nsay-ūna}} "you (masc. pl.) forget" instead become {{transl|ar|ta-nsayna}}, {{transl|ar|ta-nsawna}} respectively. The table above chooses to segment them as {{transl|ar|ta-nsa-yna}}, {{transl|ar|ta-nsa-wna}}, suggesting that a shortened stem {{transl|ar|-nsa-}} combines with irregular (compressed) endings {{transl|ar|-yna}} < {{transl|ar|*-īna}}, {{transl|ar|-wna}} < {{transl|ar|*-ūna}}. Similarly subjunctive/jussive {{transl|ar|ta-nsaw}} < {{transl|ar|*ta-nsay-ū}}; but note energetic {{transl|ar|ta-nsawunna}} < {{transl|ar|*ta-nsay-unna}}, where the original {{transl|ar|*-yu-}} has assimilated to {{transl|ar|-wu-}}. Consistent with the above analysis, we analyze this form as {{transl|ar|ta-nsa-wunna}}, with an irregular energetic ending {{transl|ar|-wunna}} where a glide consonant has developed after the previous vowel. However, since all moods in this case have a form containing {{transl|ar|-nsaw-}}, an alternative analysis would consider {{transl|ar|-nsaw}} and {{transl|ar|-nsay}} as stems. These forms are marked with gold.


Irregular endings
The endings are actually mostly regular. But some endings are irregular in the non-past, in boldface:
  • The non-past endings in the "suffixless" parts of the paradigm (largely referring to singular masculine or singular combined-gender). In the indicative and subjunctive, the modified stem {{transl|ar|-nsā}} appears, and is shortened to {{transl|ar|-nsa}} in the jussive. In the forms actually appears normally; what is irregular is the lack of the {{transl|ar|-u}} normally marking the indicative. In the jussive, on the other hand, the stem actually assumes a unique shortened form {{transl|ar|-nsa}}, with a short vowel (note also the lack of corresponding letter in the Arabic script).
  • In the forms that would normally have suffixes {{transl|ar|-i/ī-}} or {{transl|ar|-u/ū-}}, the stem and suffix combine to produce {{transl|ar|-nsay-}}, {{transl|ar|-nsaw-}}. These are analyzed here as consisting of a shortened stem form {{transl|ar|-nsa-}} plus irregular (shortened or assimilated) endings.

Formation of derived stems ("forms")


Arabic verb morphology includes augmentations of the root, also known as forms. For a typical verb based on a triliteral
Triliteral
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals"...

 root (i.e. a root formed using three root consonants), the basic form is termed Form I, while the augmented forms are known as Form II, Form III, etc. The forms in normal use are Form I through Form X; Forms XI through XV exist but are rare and obsolescent. Forms IX and XI are used only with adjectival roots referring to colors and physical defects (e.g. "red", "blue", "blind", "deaf", etc.), and are stative verb
Stative verb
A stative verb is one that asserts that one of its arguments has a particular property . Statives differ from other aspectual classes of verbs in that they are static; that is, they have undefined duration...

s having the meaning of "be X" or "become X" (e.g. Form IX {{transl|ar|iḥmarra}} "be red, become red, blush", Form XI {{transl|ar|iḥmārra}} with the same meaning). Although the structure that a given root assumes in a particular augmentation is predictable, its meaning is not (although many augmentations have one or more "usual" or prototypical meanings associated with them), and not all augmentations exist for any given root. As a result, these augmentations are part of the system of derivational morphology
Derivational morphology
Derivational morphology changes the meaning of words by applying derivations. Derivation is the combination of a word stem with a morpheme, which forms a new word, which is often of a different class...

, not part of the inflectional system.

The construction of a given augmentation is normally indicated using the dummy root {{transl|ar|f–ʻ–l}} (ف–ع–ل), based on the verb {{transl|ar|faʻala}} "to do". Note that, because Arabic has no direct equivalent to the infinitive
Infinitive
In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. In the usual description of English, the infinitive of a verb is its basic form with or without the particle to: therefore, do and to do, be and to be, and so on are infinitives...

 form of Western languages, the third-person masculine singular past tense is normally used as the dictionary form of a given verb, i.e. the form by which a verb is identified in a dictionary or grammatical discussion. Hence, the word {{transl|ar|faʻala}} above actually has the meaning of "he did", but is translated as "to do" when used as a dictionary form.

Verbs based on quadriliteral roots (roots with four consonants) also exist. There are four augmentations for such verbs, known as Forms Iq, IIq, IIIq and IVq. These have forms similar to Forms II, V, VII and IX respectively of triliteral verbs. Forms IIIq and IVq are fairly rare. The construction of such verbs is typically given using the dummy verb {{transl|ar|faʻlala}}. However, the choice of this particular verb is somewhat non-ideal in that the third and fourth consonants of an actual verb are typically not the same, despite the same consonant used for both; this is a particular problem e.g. for Form IVq. As a result, the verb tables below use the dummy verb {{transl|ar|faʻlaqa}}.

Some grammars, especially of colloquial spoken varieties rather than of Classical Arabic, use other dummy roots. For example, A Short Reference Grammar of Iraqi Arabic (Wallace M. Erwin) uses {{transl|ar|FaMaLa}} and {{transl|ar|FaSTaLa}} for three and four-character roots, respectively (standing for "First Middle Last" and "First Second Third Last"). Commonly the dummy consonants are given in capital letters.

Note also that the system of identifying verb augmentations by Roman numerals is an invention by Western scholars. Traditionally, Arabic grammarians did not number the augmentations at all, instead identifying them by the corresponding dictionary form. For example, Form V would be called "the {{transl|ar|tafaʻʻala}} form".
Verbs Derived nouns Typical meanings, notes Examples
Active voice Passive voice Active participle Passive participle Verbal noun
Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Imperative (2nd sg. masc.) Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Sg. masc. nom.
I {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻulu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ufʻul}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fuʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fāʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mafʻūl}} {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻl}}, {{transl|ar|DIN|fuʻūl}}, {{transl|ar|DIN|fiʻl}}, {{transl|ar|DIN|fuʻl(ah)}}, {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻāl(ah)}}, {{transl|ar|DIN|fiʻāl(ah)}}, etc. basic verb form {{transl|ar|DIN|kataba (yaktubu)}} "write"; {{transl|ar|DIN|daḫala (yadḫulu)}} "enter"; {{transl|ar|DIN|darasa (yadrusu)}} "study"; {{transl|ar|DIN|qatala (yaqtulu)}} "kill"
{{transl|ar|DIN|faʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ḥamala (yaḥmilu)}}} "carry"; {{transl|ar|DIN|qadara (yaqdiru)}} "be able"; {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻarafa (yaʻrifu)}} "know"; {{transl|ar|DIN|ǧalasa (yaǧlisu)}} "sit"
{{transl|ar|DIN|faʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻal}} usually with a guttural consonant ({{transl|ar|DIN|ʼ ʻ h ḥ}}) in second or third position {{transl|ar|DIN|qaṭaʻa (yaqṭaʻu)}} "cut"; {{transl|ar|DIN|qaraʼa (yaqraʼu)}} "read"; {{transl|ar|DIN|ẓahara (yaẓharu)}} "seem"; {{transl|ar|DIN|baḥaṯa (yabḥaṯu)}} "seem"
{{transl|ar|DIN|faʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻal}} often stative verb
Stative verb
A stative verb is one that asserts that one of its arguments has a particular property . Statives differ from other aspectual classes of verbs in that they are static; that is, they have undefined duration...

s (temporary conditions)
{{transl|ar|DIN|fahima (yafhamu)}} "understand"; {{transl|ar|DIN|rakiba (yarkabu)}} "ride"; {{transl|ar|DIN|šariba (yašrabu)}} "drink"; {{transl|ar|DIN|labisa (yablasu)}} "wear"
{{transl|ar|DIN|faʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻil}} often stative verb
Stative verb
A stative verb is one that asserts that one of its arguments has a particular property . Statives differ from other aspectual classes of verbs in that they are static; that is, they have undefined duration...

s (temporary conditions); rare except with initial w consonant (which disappears in non-past)
{{transl|ar|DIN|ḥasiba (yaḥsibu)}} "estimate"; {{transl|ar|DIN|waṯiqa (yaṯiqu)}} "trust"
{{transl|ar|DIN|faʻula}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻulu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ufʻul}} only with stative verb
Stative verb
A stative verb is one that asserts that one of its arguments has a particular property . Statives differ from other aspectual classes of verbs in that they are static; that is, they have undefined duration...

s (permanent conditions)
{{transl|ar|DIN|kabura (yakburu)}} "grow big, grow old"; {{transl|ar|DIN|kaṯura (yakṯuru)}} "be many, be numerous"; {{transl|ar|DIN|baʻuda (yabʻudu)}} "be distant (from)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|karuma (yakrumu)}} "be/become noble"
II {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufaʻʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fuʻʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufaʻʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufaʻʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufaʻʻal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafʻīl}} causative; intensive
Intensive
In grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger or more forceful action relative to the root on which the intensive is built. Intensives are usually lexical formations, but there may be a regular process for forming intensives from a root...

; denominative; transitivizing
{{transl|ar|DIN|kattaba}} "make (someone) write (something)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|daḫḫala}} "bring in (someone/something)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|darrasa}} "teach"; {{transl|ar|DIN|qattala}} "massacre"; {{transl|ar|DIN|ḥammala}} "burden, impose"; {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻarrafa}} "announce, inform"; {{transl|ar|DIN|qaṭṭaʻa}} "cut into pieces"
III {{transl|ar|DIN|fāʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufāʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fāʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fūʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufāʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufāʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufāʻal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufāʻalah, fiʻāl}} usually transitive
Transitive verb
In syntax, a transitive verb is a verb that requires both a direct subject and one or more objects. The term is used to contrast intransitive verbs, which do not have objects.-Examples:Some examples of sentences with transitive verbs:...

, usually with a person as object (sometimes termed the "effective" form); sometimes conative (i.e. "try to X")
{{transl|ar|DIN|kātaba}} "write to, correspond with (someone)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|dāḫala}} "befall (someone)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|dārasa}} "study together with (someone)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|qātala}} "fight"; {{transl|ar|DIN|ǧālasa}} "sit with (someone), keep (someone) company"; {{transl|ar|DIN|qātaʻa}} "disassociate (from), interrupt, cut off (someone)"
IV {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼafʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼafʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼufʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼifʻāl}} usually causative, occasionally stative
Stative verb
A stative verb is one that asserts that one of its arguments has a particular property . Statives differ from other aspectual classes of verbs in that they are static; that is, they have undefined duration...

{{transl|ar|DIN|ʼaktaba}} "dictate"; {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼadḫala}} "bring in (someone), bring about (something)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼaqdara}} "enable"; {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼaǧlasa}} "seat"; {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼaqṭaʻa}} "make (someone) cut off (something), part company with, bestow as a fief"
V {{transl|ar|DIN|tafaʻʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yatafaʻʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafaʻʻal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tufuʻʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yutafaʻʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mutafaʻʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mutafaʻʻal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafaʻʻul}} usually reflexive
Reflexive verb
In grammar, a reflexive verb is a verb whose semantic agent and patient are the same. For example, the English verb to perjure is reflexive, since one can only perjure oneself...

 or passive
Passive voice
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. Passive is used in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb. That is, the subject undergoes an action or has its state changed. A sentence whose theme is marked as grammatical subject is...

 of Form II
{{transl|ar|DIN|tadaḫḫala}} "interfere, disturb"; {{transl|ar|DIN|tadarrasa}} "learn"; {{transl|ar|DIN|taḥammala}} "endure, undergo"; {{transl|ar|DIN|taʻarrafa}} "become acquainted (with someone), meet"; {{transl|ar|DIN|taqaṭṭaʻa}} "be cut off, be disrupted, be intermittent"
VI {{transl|ar|DIN|tafāʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yatafāʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafāʻal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tufūʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yutafāʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mutafāʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mutafāʻal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafāʻul}} reciprocal
Reciprocal
-In mathematics:*Multiplicative inverse, in mathematics, the number 1/x, which multiplied by x gives the product 1, also known as a reciprocal*Reciprocal rule, a technique in calculus for calculating derivatives of reciprocal functions...

; reflexive
Reflexive verb
In grammar, a reflexive verb is a verb whose semantic agent and patient are the same. For example, the English verb to perjure is reflexive, since one can only perjure oneself...

 or passive
Passive voice
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. Passive is used in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb. That is, the subject undergoes an action or has its state changed. A sentence whose theme is marked as grammatical subject is...

 of Form III; "pretend to X"
{{transl|ar|DIN|takātaba}} "correspond with each other"; {{transl|ar|DIN|tadāḫala}} "meddle, butt in"; {{transl|ar|DIN|tadārasa}} "study carefully with each other"; {{transl|ar|DIN|taqātala}} "fight with one another"; {{transl|ar|DIN|taḥāmala}} "maltreat, be biased (against)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|taʻarrafa}} "become mutually acquainted, come to know (something)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|taqāṭaʻa}} "part company, break off mutual relations, intersect (of roads)"
VII {{transl|ar|DIN|infaʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yanfaʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|infaʻil}} ({{transl|ar|DIN|unfuʻila}}) ({{transl|ar|DIN|yunfaʻalu}}) {{transl|ar|DIN|munfaʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|munfaʻal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|infiʻāl}} passive
Passive voice
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. Passive is used in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb. That is, the subject undergoes an action or has its state changed. A sentence whose theme is marked as grammatical subject is...

 of Form I; internal passives are extremely rare for this form
{{transl|ar|DIN|inkataba}} "subscribe"; {{transl|ar|DIN|inqaṭaʻa}} "be cut off, cease, suspend"
VIII {{transl|ar|DIN|iftaʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yaftaʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|iftaʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|uftuʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yuftaʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muftaʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muftaʻal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|iftiʻāl}} reflexive of Form I; often some unpredictable variation in meaning {{transl|ar|DIN|iktataba}} "copy (something), be recorded"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iqtatala}} "fight (with)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iḥtamala}} "carry away, endure, allow"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iqtadara}} "be able"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iʻtarafa}} "confess, recognize"; ; {{transl|ar|DIN|iqtaṭaʻa}} "take a part (of something), tear out/off, deduct"
IX {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻalla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻallu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻalil}} ({{transl|ar|DIN|ufʻulla}}) ({{transl|ar|DIN|yufʻallu}}) {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻall}} n/a {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻilāl}} stative verb
Stative verb
A stative verb is one that asserts that one of its arguments has a particular property . Statives differ from other aspectual classes of verbs in that they are static; that is, they have undefined duration...

 ("be X", "become X"), only for colors (e.g. "red", "blue") and physical defects (e.g. "blind", "deaf"); internal passives are extremely rare or nonexistent for this form
{{transl|ar|DIN|iḥmarra}} "turn red, blush"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iswadda}} "be/become black"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iṣfarra}} "turn yellow, become pale"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iḥwalla}} "be cross-eyed, squint"
X {{transl|ar|DIN|istafʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yastafʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|istafʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ustufʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yustafʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mustafʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mustafʻal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|istifʻāl}} "ask to X"; "want to X"; "consider (someone) to be X"; causative; often some unpredictable variation in meaning {{transl|ar|DIN|istaktaba}} "ask (someone) to write (something)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|istaqtala}} "risk one's life"; {{transl|ar|DIN|istaqdara}} "ask (God) for strength or ability"; {{transl|ar|DIN|istaʻrafa}} "discern, recognize"; {{transl|ar|DIN|istaqṭaʻa}} "request as a fief"
XI {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻālla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻāllu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻālil}} n/a {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻāll}} n/a {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻīlāl}} rare except in poetry; same meaning as Form IX {{transl|ar|DIN|iḥmārra}} "turn red, blush"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iṣhābba}} "be/become reddish-brown"; {{transl|ar|DIN|ilhāǧǧa}} "curdle"
XII {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻawʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻawʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻawʻil}} ??{{transl|ar|DIN|ufʻulila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufʻawʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻawʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻawʻal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻīʻāl}} very rare, with specialized meanings; often stative
Stative verb
A stative verb is one that asserts that one of its arguments has a particular property . Statives differ from other aspectual classes of verbs in that they are static; that is, they have undefined duration...

{{transl|ar|DIN|iḥdawdaba}} "be convex, be hunchbacked"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iġdawdana}} "grow long and luxuriantly (of hair)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iḥlawlaka}} "be pitch-black"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iḫšawšana}} "be rough/crude, lead a rough life"
XIII {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻawwala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻawwilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻawwil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ufʻuwwila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufʻawwalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻawwil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻawwal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻiwwāl}} {{transl|ar|DIN|iǧlawwaḏa}} "gallop"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iʻlawwaṭa}} "hang on the neck of (a camel)"
XIV {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻanlala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻanlilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻanlil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ufʻunlila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufʻanlalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻanlil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻanlal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻinlāl}} {{transl|ar|DIN|iqʻansasa}} "have a protruding chest and hollow back, be pigeon-breasted"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iqʻandada}} "reside"; {{transl|ar|DIN|isḥankaka}} "become very dark"
XV {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻanlā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻanlā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻanla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ufʻunliya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufʻanlā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻanlin}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻanlan}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻinlāʼ}} {{transl|ar|DIN|iḥranbā}} "become very furious"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iġrandā}} "curse and hit (someone)"
Iq {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻlaqa}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufaʻliqu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻliq}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fuʻliqa}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufaʻlaqu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufaʻliq}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufaʻlaq}} {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻlaqat}}, occ. {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻlāq}}, {{transl|ar|DIN|fiʻlāq}} basic form, often transitive or denominative; similar to Form II, but note difference in verbal noun; reduplicated roots of the form {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻfaʻa}} are common, sometimes {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻfala}} is also seen {{transl|ar|DIN|daḥraǧa}} "roll (something)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|tarǧama}} "translate, interpret"; {{transl|ar|DIN|handasa}} "sketch, make a plan"; {{transl|ar|DIN|bayṭara}} "practice veterinary surgery" (< "veter(inary)"); {{transl|ar|DIN|zalzala}} "shake (something), frighten"; {{transl|ar|DIN|waswasa}} "whisper"; {{transl|ar|DIN|ġarġara}} "gargle"
IIq {{transl|ar|DIN|tafaʻlaqa}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yatafaʻlaqu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafaʻlaq}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tufuʻliqa}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yutafaʻlaqu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mutafaʻliq}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mutafaʻlaq}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafaʻluq}} reflexive
Reflexive verb
In grammar, a reflexive verb is a verb whose semantic agent and patient are the same. For example, the English verb to perjure is reflexive, since one can only perjure oneself...

 or passive
Passive voice
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. Passive is used in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb. That is, the subject undergoes an action or has its state changed. A sentence whose theme is marked as grammatical subject is...

 of Form Iq; intransitive
Intransitive verb
In grammar, an intransitive verb is a verb that has no object. This differs from a transitive verb, which takes one or more objects. Both classes of verb are related to the concept of the transitivity of a verb....

 denominative; similar to Form V
{{transl|ar|DIN|tadaḥraǧa}} "roll (intrans.)"; {{transl|ar|DIN|tazalzala}} "shake (intrans.), tremble"; {{transl|ar|DIN|tafalsafa}} "philosophize" (< {{transl|ar|DIN|faylasūf-}} "philosopher"); {{transl|ar|DIN|tamaḏhaba}} "follow a sect" (< {{transl|ar|DIN|maḏhab-}} "sect" < {{transl|ar|DIN|ḏahaba}} "go"); {{transl|ar|DIN|taqahqara}} "be driven back"
IIIq {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻanlaqa}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻanliqu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻanliq}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tufʻunliqa}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yutafʻanlaqu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻanliq}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻanlaq}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻinlāq}} rare {{transl|ar|DIN|iḫranṭama}} "be proud" (cf. {{transl|ar|DIN|al-ḫarṭūm-}} "Khartoum
Khartoum
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan and of Khartoum State. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile flowing west from Ethiopia. The location where the two Niles meet is known as "al-Mogran"...

")
IVq {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻalaqqa}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻaliqqu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻalqiq}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tufʻuliqqa}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yutafʻalaqqu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻaliqq}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻalaqq}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻilqāq}} usually intransitive; somewhat rare {{transl|ar|DIN|iṭmaʼanna}} "be tranquil, calm"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iḍmaḥalla}} "faide away, dwindle"; {{transl|ar|DIN|iqšaʻarra}} "shudder with horror"

Sound verbs


Sound verbs are those verbs with no associated irregularities in their constructions. Verbs with irregularities are known as weak verbs; generally, this occurs either with (1) verbs based on roots where one or more of the consonants (or radicals) is {{transl|ar|w}} (و), {{transl|ar|y}} (ي) or the glottal stop
Glottal stop
The glottal stop, or more fully, the voiceless glottal plosive, is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. In English, the feature is represented, for example, by the hyphen in uh-oh! and by the apostrophe or [[ʻokina]] in Hawaii among those using a preservative pronunciation of...

 {{transl|ar|ʼ}} (ﺀ) (also known by the Arabic names of the corresponding letters, which are {{transl|ar|DIN|wāw}}, {{transl|ar|DIN|yāʼ}} and hamza, respectively); or (2) verbs where the second and third root consonants are the same.

Some verbs that would be classified as "weak" according to the consonants of the verb root are nevertheless conjugated as a strong verb. This happens, for example:
  • Largely, to all verbs whose only weakness is a hamza radical; the irregularity is in the Arabic spelling but not the pronunciation, except in a few minor cases.
  • Largely, to all verbs whose only weakness is a {{transl|ar|DIN|y}} in the first radical (the "assimilated" type).
  • To all verbs conjugated in Forms II, III, V, VI whose only weakness is a {{transl|ar|DIN|w}} or {{transl|ar|DIN|y}} in the first or second radicals (or both).

Form VIII assimilations


Form VIII has a t that is infix
Infix
An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem . It contrasts with adfix, a rare term for an affix attached to the end of a stem, such as a prefix or suffix.-Indonesian:...

ed into the root, directly after the first root consonant. This t assimilates
Assimilation (linguistics)
Assimilation is a common phonological process by which the sound of the ending of one word blends into the sound of the beginning of the following word. This occurs when the parts of the mouth and vocal cords start to form the beginning sounds of the next word before the last sound has been...

 to certain coronal consonant
Coronal consonant
Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. Only the coronal consonants can be divided into apical , laminal , domed , or subapical , as well as a few rarer orientations, because only the front of the tongue has such...

s occurring as the first root consonant. In particular, with roots whose first consonant is d z ḏ ṣ ṭ ḍ ẓ, the combination of root and infix t appears as dd zd ḏḏ ṣṭ ṭṭ ḍṭ ẓẓ. That is, the t assimilates the emphasis of the emphatic consonant
Emphatic consonant
Emphatic consonant is a term widely used in Semitic linguistics to describe one of a series of obstruent consonants which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents. In specific Semitic languages, the members of this series may be realized as pharyngealized,...

s ṣ ṭ ḍ ẓ and the voicing of d z, and assimilates entirely to the interdental consonants ḏ ẓ. Note also the unexpected combination ḍṭ, as in {{transl|ar|iḍṭarra}} "compel, force"; this reflects the fact that {{transl|ar|ṭ}} was formerly pronounced voiced, and {{transl|ar|ḍ}} was pronounced as the emphatic equivalent not of {{transl|ar|d}} but of an unusual lateral
Lateral consonant
A lateral is an el-like consonant, in which airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth....

 sound. ({{transl|ar|ḍ}} was possibly an emphatic voiced alveolar lateral fricative /ɮˤ/ or a similar affricated sound /dɮˤ/ or /dˡˤ/; see the article on the letter ḍād
DAD
DAD is an abbreviation that may refer to:* D-A-D, a Danish rock band formerly known as "Disneyland After Dark"* Diode array detector, a type of detector in HPLC* Da Nang International Airport IATA airport code...

.)

Defective (third-weak) verbs


Other than for Form I active, there is only one possible form for each verb, regardless of whether the third root consonant is {{transl|ar|DIN|w}} or {{transl|ar|DIN|y}}. All of the derived third-weak verbs have the same active-voice endings as {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻā (yafʻī)}} verbs except for Forms V and VI, which have past-tense endings like {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻā (yafʻī)}} verbs but non-past endings like {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻiya (yafʻā)}} verbs. The passive-voice endings of all third-weak verbs (whether Form I or derived) are the same as for the {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻiya (yafʻā)}} verbs. Note also the various irregularities in the verbal nouns: feminine in Form II, -in declension in Form V and VI, glottal stop in place of root w/y in Forms VII–X.

The active and passive participles of derived defective verbs consistently are of the -in and -an declensions, respectively.

Defective Form IX verbs are extremely rare. Heywood and Nahmad list one such verb, {{transl|ar|DIN|iʻmāya}} "be/become blind", which does not follow the expected form {{transl|ar|DIN|*iʻmayya}}. They also list a similarly rare Form XI verb {{transl|ar|DIN|iʻmāyya}} "be/become blind" — this time with the expected form.
Verbs Derived nouns
Active voice Passive voice Active participle Passive participle Verbal noun
Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Imperative (2nd sg. masc.) Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Sg. masc. nom.
I {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻī}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻi}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fuʻiya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fāʻin}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mafʻiyy}} {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻy, faʻw, faʻan, fiʻan, faʻāʼ, fāʻiyah, fiʻāyah, faʻāwah, mafʻāh, mafʻiyah, fuʻyah, fuʻwah, fuʻuww, fuʻwān}} etc.
{{transl|ar|DIN|faʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻū}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ufʻu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mafʻuww}}
{{transl|ar|DIN|faʻiya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻa}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mafʻiyy}}
II {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufaʻʻī}} {{transl|ar|DIN|faʻʻi}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fuʻʻiya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufaʻʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufaʻʻin}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufaʻʻan}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafʻiyah}}
III {{transl|ar|DIN|fāʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufāʻī}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fāʻi}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fūʻiya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufāʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufāʻin}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufāʻan}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufāʻiyah, fiʻāʼ}}
IV {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼafʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufʻī}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼafʻi}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼufʻiya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻin}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻan}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼifʻāʼ}}
V {{transl|ar|DIN|tafaʻʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yatafaʻʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafaʻʻa}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tufuʻʻiya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yutafaʻʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mutafaʻʻin}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mutafaʻʻan}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafaʻʻin}}
VI {{transl|ar|DIN|tafāʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yatafāʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafāʻa}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tufūʻiya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yutafāʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mutafāʻin}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mutafāʻan}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafāʻin}}
VII {{transl|ar|DIN|infaʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yanfaʻī}} {{transl|ar|DIN|infaʻi}} ({{transl|ar|DIN|unfuʻī}}) ({{transl|ar|DIN|yunfaʻā}}) {{transl|ar|DIN|munfaʻin}} {{transl|ar|DIN|munfaʻan}} {{transl|ar|DIN|infiʻāʼ}}
VIII {{transl|ar|DIN|iftaʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yaftaʻī}} {{transl|ar|DIN|iftaʻi}} {{transl|ar|DIN|uftuʻiya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yuftaʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muftaʻin}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muftaʻan}} {{transl|ar|DIN|iftiʻāʼ}}
IX {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻāya (ifʻayaytu?)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafʻāyu (yafʻayna?)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻay?}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufʻāy}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ifʻiyāʼ}}
X {{transl|ar|DIN|istafʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yastafʻī}} {{transl|ar|DIN|istafʻi}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ustufʻiya}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yustafʻā}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mustafʻin}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mustafʻan}} {{transl|ar|DIN|istifʻāʼ}}

Hollow (second-weak) verbs


Only the forms with irregularities are shown. The missing forms are entirely regular, with w or y appearing as the second radical, depending on the root. Note also the unexpected feminine forms of the verbal nouns of Form IV, X.
Verbs Derived nouns
Active voice Passive voice Active participle Passive participle Verbal noun
Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Imperative (2nd sg. masc.) Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Sg. masc. nom.
I {{transl|ar|DIN|fāla (filtu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafīlu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fuwila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufālu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fāʼil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mafīl}} usually {{transl|ar|DIN|fawl, fayl}}; also {{transl|ar|fūl, fawāl, fiyāl(ah), fiwāl, fuwāl, mafāl(ah), mafīl}} etc.
{{transl|ar|DIN|fāla (fultu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafūlu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ful}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mafūl}}
{{transl|ar|DIN|fāla (filtu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafālu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mafīl}}
{{transl|ar|DIN|fāla (fultu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafālu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mafūl}}
IV {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼafāla (ʼafaltu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufīlu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼafil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼufīla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufālu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufīl}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufāl}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼifālah}}
VII {{transl|ar|DIN|infāla (infaltu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yanfālu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|infal}} n/a {{transl|ar|DIN|munfāl}} {{transl|ar|DIN|munfāl}} {{transl|ar|DIN|infiyāl}}
VIII {{transl|ar|DIN|iftāla (iftaltu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yaftālu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|iftal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|uftīla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yuftālu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muftāl}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muftāl}} {{transl|ar|DIN|iftiyāl}}
X {{transl|ar|DIN|istafāla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yastafīlu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|istafil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ustufīla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yustafālu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mustafīl}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mustafāl}} {{transl|ar|DIN|istifālah}}

Assimilated (first-weak) verbs


When the first radical is w, it drops out in the Form I non-past. Most of the derived forms are regular, except that the sequences uw iw are assimilated to ū ī, and the sequence wt in Form VIII is assimilated to tt throughout the paradigm. The following table only shows forms with irregularities in them.

Note in particular the common Form I verbal noun {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻilah}} (e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|ṣilah}} "arrival, link" from {{transl|ar|DIN|waṣalah}} "arrive"), with the initial w missing entirely.
Verbs Derived nouns
Active voice Passive voice Active participle Passive participle Verbal noun
Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Imperative (2nd sg. masc.) Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Sg. masc. nom.
I {{transl|ar|DIN|waʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yaʻulu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻul}} {{transl|ar|DIN|wuʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yūʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|wāʻil-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mawʻūd-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|waʻl, wuʻūl, ʻilah}} etc.
{{transl|ar|DIN|waʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yaʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻil}}
{{transl|ar|DIN|waʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yaʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻal}}
{{transl|ar|DIN|waʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yaʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻal}}
{{transl|ar|DIN|waʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yaʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻil}}
{{transl|ar|DIN|waʻula}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yaʻulu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʻul}}
IV {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼawʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yūʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼawʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼūʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yūʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mūʻil-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mūʻal-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼīʻāl-}}
VIII {{transl|ar|DIN|ittaʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yattaʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ittaʻal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|uttuʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yuttaʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muttaʻil-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muttaʻal-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ittiʻāl-}}
X {{transl|ar|DIN|istawʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yastawʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|istawʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ustūʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yustawʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mustawʻil-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mustawʻal-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|istīʻāl-}}


When the first radical is y, the forms are largely regular. The following table only shows forms that have some irregularities in them, indicated in boldface.
Verbs Derived nouns
Active voice Passive voice Active participle Passive participle Verbal noun
Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Imperative (2nd sg. masc.) Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Sg. masc. nom.
I {{transl|ar|DIN|yaʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yayʻulu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ūʻul}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yuʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yūʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yāʻil-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mayʻūd-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yaʻl-}} etc.
{{transl|ar|DIN|yaʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yayʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|īʻil}}
{{transl|ar|DIN|waʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yayʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|īʻal}}
{{transl|ar|DIN|waʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yayʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|īʻal}}
{{transl|ar|DIN|waʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yayʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|īʻil}}
{{transl|ar|DIN|waʻula}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yayʻulu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ūʻul}}
IV {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼayʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yūʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼayʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼūʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yūʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mūʻil-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mūʻal-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼīʻāl-}}
VIII {{transl|ar|DIN|ittaʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yattaʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ittaʻal}} {{transl|ar|DIN|uttuʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yuttaʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muttaʻil-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muttaʻal-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ittiʻāl-}}
X {{transl|ar|DIN|istayʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yastayʻilu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|istayʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ustūʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yustayʻalu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mustayʻil-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mustayʻal-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|istīʻāl-}}

Doubled verbs

Verbs Derived nouns
Active voice Passive voice Active participle Passive participle Verbal noun
Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Imperative (2nd sg. masc.) Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Sg. masc. nom.
I {{transl|ar|DIN|falla (falaltu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafullu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fulla, fulli, uflul}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fulla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufallu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fāll-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|maflūl-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fall-}} etc.
{{transl|ar|DIN|falla (falaltu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafillu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|filla, filli, iflil}}
{{transl|ar|DIN|falla (falaltu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafallu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|falla, falli, iflal}}
{{transl|ar|DIN|falla (faliltu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yafallu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|falla, falli, iflal}}
III {{transl|ar|DIN|fālla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufāllu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fālla, fālli, fālil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|fūlla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufāllu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufāll-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufāll-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufāllat-, filāl-}}
IV {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼafalla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufillu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼafilla, ʼafilli, ʼaflil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼufilla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yufallu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufill-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mufall-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiflāl-}}
VI {{transl|ar|DIN|tafālla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yatafāllu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafālil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tufūlla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yutafāllu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mutafāll-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mutafāll-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|tafāll-}}
VII {{transl|ar|DIN|infalla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yanfalla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|infalla, infalli, infalil}} n/a {{transl|ar|DIN|munfall-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|munfall-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|infilāl-}}
VIII {{transl|ar|DIN|iftalla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yaftalla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|iftalla, iftalli, iftalil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|uftulla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yuftallu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muftall-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muftall-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|iftilāl-}}
X {{transl|ar|DIN|istafalla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yastafillu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|istafilla, istafilli, istaflil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ustufilla}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yustafallu}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mustafill-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|mustafall-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|istiflāl-}}

Hamzated verbs


The largest problem with so-called "hamzated" verbs (those with a glottal stop ʼ or "hamza" as any of the root consonants) is the complicated way of writing such verbs in the Arabic script (see the article on hamza for the rules regarding this). In pronunciation, these verbs are in fact almost entirely regular.

The only irregularity occurs in verbs with a hamza as the first radical. A phonetic rule in Classical Arabic disallows the occurrence of two hamzas in a row separated by a short vowel, assimilating the second to the preceding vowel (hence ʼaʼ ʼiʼ ʼuʼ become ʼā ʼī ʼū). This affects the following forms:
  • The first-person singular of the non-past of Forms I, IV and VIII.
  • The entire past and imperative of Form IV.


In addition, any place where a {{transl|ar|hamzatu l-waṣl}} (elidable hamza) occurs will optionally undergo this transformation. This affects the following forms:
  • The entire imperative of Form I.
  • The entire past and imperative of Form VIII, as well as the verbal noun of Form VIII.


Note also the following irregularities:
  • The common verbs {{transl|ar|ʼakala}} "eat", {{transl|ar|ʼaḫada}} "take", {{transl|ar|ʼamara}} "command" have irregular, short imperatives {{transl|ar|kul, ḫud, mur}}.
  • Form VIII of the common verb {{transl|ar|ʼaḫada}} "take" is {{transl|ar|ittaḫada}} "take on, assume", with irregular assimilation of the hamza.
  • The common verb {{transl|ar|saʼala yasʼalu}} "ask" has an alternative non-past {{transl|ar|yasalu}} with missing hamza.

Verbs Derived nouns
Active voice Passive voice Active participle Passive participle Verbal noun
Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Imperative (2nd sg. masc.) Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Sg. masc. nom.
I {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼaʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yaʼʻulu (ʼāʻulu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|uʼʻul, ūʻul}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼuʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yuʼʻalu (ʼūʻalu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼāʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|maʼʻūl-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼaʻl-}} etc.
etc.
IV {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼāʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yuʼʻilu (ʼūʻilu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼāʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼūʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yuʼʻalu (ʼūʻalu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muʼʻil-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muʼʻal-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼīʻāl-}}
VIII {{transl|ar|DIN|iʼtaʻala, ītaʻala}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yaʼtaʻilu (ʼātaʻilu)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|iʼtaʻil, ītaʻil}} {{transl|ar|DIN|uʼtuʻila, ūtuʻila}} {{transl|ar|DIN|yuʼtaʻala (ʼūtaʻala)}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muʼtaʻil-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|muʼtaʻal-}} {{transl|ar|DIN|iʼtiʻāl-, ītiʻāl-}}

Doubly-weak verbs


Doubly-weak verbs have two "weak" radicals; a few verbs are also triply-weak. Generally, the above rules for weak verbs apply in combination, as long as they don't conflict. The following are cases where two types of weaknesses apply in combination:
  • Verbs with a w in the first radical and a w or y in the third radical. These decline as defective (third-weak) verbs, and also undergo the loss of w in the non-past of Form I, e.g. {{transl|ar|waqā yaqī}} "guard", {{transl|ar|wafā yafī}} "complete, fulfill (a promise)", {{transl|ar|waliya yalī}} "be near, follow". Note that these verbs have extremely short imperatives {{transl|ar|qi fi li}} (feminine {{transl|ar|qī fī lī}}, masculine plural {{transl|ar|qū fū lū}}, feminine plural {{transl|ar|iqna ifna ilna}}), although these are not normally used in Modern Standard Arabic. Similarly, verbs of this sort in Form IV and Form VIII are declined as defective but also have the normal assimilations of w-initial verbs, e.g. Form IV {{transl|ar|ʼawfā yūfī}} "fulfill a vow", Form VIII {{transl|ar|ittafā yattafī}} "fear (God)", both augmentations of {{transl|ar|wafā yafī}} (see above).
  • Verbs with a hamza in the first radical and a w or y in the third radical. These decline as defective (third-weak) verbs, and also undergo the assimilations associated with the initial hamza, e.g. the common verb {{transl|ar|ʼatā yaʼtī}} "come" (first singular non-past {{transl|ar|ʼātī}} "I come") and the related Form IV verb {{transl|ar|ʼātā yuʼtī}} "bring" (first singular non-past {{transl|ar|ʼūtī}} "I being").


The following are examples where weaknesses would conflict, and hence one of the "weak" radicals is treated as strong:
  • Verbs with a w or y in both the second and third radicals. These are fairly common, e.g. {{transl|ar|rawā yarwī}} "recount, transmit". These decline as regular defective (third-weak) verbs; the second radical is treated as non-weak.
  • Verbs with a w in the first radical and the second and third radicals the same. These verbs do not undergo any assimilations associated with the first radical, e.g. {{transl|ar|wadda (wadidtu) yawaddu}} "to love".
  • Verbs with a hamza in the first radical and the second and third radicals the same. These verbs do not undergo any assimilations associated with the first radical, e.g. {{transl|ar|ʼaǧǧa yaʼuǧǧu}} "burn", first singular non-past {{transl|ar|ʼaʼuǧǧu}} "I burn" despite the two hamzas in a row.


The following are cases with special irregularities:
  • Verbs with a w or y in the second radical and a hamza in the third radical. These are fairly common, e.g. the extremely common verb {{transl|ar|ǧāʼa yaǧīʼu}} "come". The only irregularity is the Form I active participle, e.g. {{transl|ar|ǧāʼin}} "coming", which is irregularly declined as a defective (third-weak) participle (presumably to avoid a sequence of two hamzas in a row, as the expected form would be }).
  • The extremely common verb {{transl|ar|raʼā yarā}} "see". The hamza drops out entirely in the non-past. Similarly in the passive, {{transl|ar|ruʼiya yurā}} "be seen". The active participle is regular {{transl|ar|rāʼin}} and the passive participle is regular {{transl|ar|marʼiyy-}}. The related Form IV verb {{transl|ar|ʼarā yūrī}} "show" is missing the hamza throughout. Other augmentations are regular: Form III {{transl|ar|rāʼā yurāʼī}} "dissemble", Form VI {{transl|ar|tarāʼā yatarāʼā}} "look at one another", Form VIII {{transl|ar|irtaʼā yartaʼī}} "think".
  • The common verb {{transl|ar|ḥayiya yaḥyā}} "live", with an alternative past tense {{transl|ar|ḥayya}}. Form IV {{transl|ar|ʼaḥyā yuḥyī}} "resuscitate, revive" is regular. Form X {{transl|ar|istaḥyā yastaḥyī}} "spare alive, feel ashamed" also appears as {{transl|ar|istaḥayya}} and {{transl|ar|istaḥā}}.

Summary of vowels


The vowels for the various forms are summarized in this table:
Active voice Passive voice Active participle Passive participle Verbal noun
Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.) Past (3rd sg. masc.) Present (3rd sg. masc.)
Before first root consonant (if vowel is present) a in Forms IV-VI. In Forms VII-XII one has i when the hamza is not elided. a except in Forms II-IV, where it's u. u u, and a after the t of Forms V and VI u u except in Form I where it's a. a in Forms II, V, and VI. In Forms VII-XII one has i when the hamza is not elided.
Just before 2nd root consonant a, ā, or none a, ā, or none u, ū, or none a, ā, or none a, ā, or none a, ā, or none i, a, ā, or none
Just before third root consonant a Form I a, i, or u. a in Forms V, VI, and IX, i in others. i a i except in Form IX where it's a. a except in Form I where it's ū. ī in Form II, u in Forms V and VI, ā elsewhere
After final root consonant, 3rd person sing. indicative a u a u n/a n/a n/a


See also Wiktionary's appendix on Arabic verb forms.

Participle


Every verb has a corresponding active participle
Participle
In linguistics, a participle is a word that shares some characteristics of both verbs and adjectives. It can be used in compound verb tenses or voices , or as a modifier...

, and most have passive participles. E.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|muʻallim}} 'teacher' is the active participle to stem II. of the root {{transl|ar|ʻ-l-m}} ('know').
  • The active participle to Stem I is {{transl|ar|DIN|fāʻil}}, and the passive participle is {{transl|ar|DIN|mafʻūl}}.
  • Stems II-X take prefix {{transl|ar|DIN|mu-}} and nominal endings for both the participles, active and passive. The difference between the two participles is only in the vowel between the last two root letters, which is {{transl|ar|DIN|-i-}} for active and {{transl|ar|DIN|-a-}} for passive (e.g. II. active {{transl|ar|DIN|mu-faʻʻil}}, and passive {{transl|ar|DIN|mu-faʻʻal}}').

Verbal noun (maṣdar)


In addition to a participle, there is a verbal noun
Verbal noun
In linguistics, the verbal noun turns a verb into a noun and corresponds to the infinitive in English language usage. In English the infinitive form of the verb is formed when preceded by to, e.g...

 (in Arabic, مصدر {{transl|ar|DIN|maṣdar}}, literally meaning "source") sometimes called a gerund, which is similar to English gerunds and verb-derived nouns of various sorts (e.g. 'running' and 'a run' from 'to run'; 'objection' from 'to object'). As shown by the English examples, its meaning refers both to the act of doing something and (by frequent semantic extension) to its result. One of its syntactic functions is as a verbal complement of another verb, and this usage it corresponds to the English gerund or infinitive (He prevented me from running or He began to run).
  • verbal noun formation to stem I is irregular.
  • the verbal noun to stem II is {{transl|ar|DIN|tafʻīl}}. For example: {{transl|ar|DIN|taḥḍīr}} 'preparation' is the verbal noun to stem II. of {{transl|ar|ḥ-ḍ-r}} ('to be present').
  • stem III often forms its verbal noun with the feminine form of the passive participle, so for {{transl|ar|DIN|sāʻada}}, "he helped", produces the verbal noun {{transl|ar|DIN|musāʻadah}}. There are also some verbal noun of the form {{transl|ar|DIN|fiʻāl}}: {{transl|ar|DIN|ǧāhada}}, "he strove", yields {{transl
    Jihad
    Jihad , an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as a noun meaning "struggle". Jihad appears 41 times in the Quran and frequently in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God ". A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is...

     (a struggle for a cause or purpose).


Some well-known examples of verbal nouns are {{transl|ar|fatḥ}} (see Fatah
Fatah
Fataḥ is a major Palestinian political party and the largest faction of the Palestine Liberation Organization , a multi-party confederation. In Palestinian politics it is on the left-wing of the spectrum; it is mainly nationalist, although not predominantly socialist. Its official goals are found...

) (Form I), {{transl
Tanzim
Tanzim is a militant faction of the Palestinian Fatah movement.-Overview:The Tanzim militia, founded in 1995 to counter Palestinian Islamism, is widely considered to be an armed offshoot of Fatah with its own leadership structure...

 (Form II), ar (Form III), {{transl
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 (Form IV), {{transl
Intifada
Intifada is an Arabic word which literally means "shaking off", though it is usually translated into English as "uprising" or "resistance" or "rebellion". , not to be confused with the Arabic plural ...

 (feminine of Form VIII verbal noun), and {{transl
Istiqlal
-Political parties:*Istiqlal Party, the Hizb al-istiqlāl or Independence Party, political party in Morocco*Hizb al-Istiqlal, or Independence Party , Arab political party under the British Mandate of Palestine...

 (Form X).

Verb (Colloquial Arabic)


The Classical Arabic system of verbs is largely unchanged in the colloquial spoken varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic
The Arabic language is a Semitic language characterized by a wide number of linguistic varieties within its five regional forms. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. The Arabic of North Africa, for example, is often incomprehensible to an Arabic speaker...

. The same derivational
Derivational morphology
Derivational morphology changes the meaning of words by applying derivations. Derivation is the combination of a word stem with a morpheme, which forms a new word, which is often of a different class...

 system of augmentations exists, including triliteral
Triliteral
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals"...

 Forms I through X and quadriliteral Forms I and II, constructed largely in the same fashion (the rare triliteral Forms XI through XV and quadriliteral Forms III and IV have vanished). The same system of weaknesses (strong, defective/third-weak, hollow/second-weak, assimilated/first-weak, doubled) also exists, again constructed largely in the same fashion. Within a given verb, two stems (past and non-past) still exist along with the same two systems of affixes (suffixing past-tense forms and prefixing/suffixing non-past forms).

The largest changes are within a given paradigm, with a significant reduction in the number of forms. The following is an example of a regular verb paradigm in Egyptian Arabic
Egyptian Arabic
Egyptian Arabic is the language spoken by contemporary Egyptians.It is more commonly known locally as the Egyptian colloquial language or Egyptian dialect ....

.
Example of a regular Form I verb in Egyptian Arabic
Egyptian Arabic
Egyptian Arabic is the language spoken by contemporary Egyptians.It is more commonly known locally as the Egyptian colloquial language or Egyptian dialect ....

, kátab/yíktib "write"
Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Singular
1st katáb-t á-ktib bá-ktib ḥá-ktib
2nd masculine katáb-t tí-ktib bi-tí-ktib ḥa-tí-ktib í-ktib
feminine katáb-ti ti-ktíb-i bi-ti-ktíb-i ḥa-ti-ktíb-i i-ktíb-i
3rd masculine kátab yí-ktib bi-yí-ktib ḥa-yí-ktib
feminine kátab-it tí-ktib bi-tí-ktib ḥa-tí-ktib
Plural
1st katáb-na ní-ktib bi-ní-ktib ḥá-ní-ktib
2nd katáb-tu ti-ktíb-u bi-ti-ktíb-u ḥa-ti-ktíb-u i-ktíb-u
3rd kátab-u yi-ktíb-u bi-yi-ktíb-u ḥa-yi-ktíb-u


This paradigm shows clearly the reduction in the number of forms:
  • The thirteen person/number/gender combinations of Classical Arabic have been reduced to eight, through the loss of dual and feminine-plural forms. (Some varieties still have feminine-plural forms, generally marked with the suffix -an, leading to a total of ten forms. This occurs, for example, in Iraqi Arabic
    Iraqi Arabic
    Iraqi Arabic is a continuum of mutually intelligible Arabic varieties native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq as well as spanning into eastern and northern Syria, western Iran, southeastern Turkey, and spoken in respective Iraqi diaspora communities.-Varieties:Iraqi Arabic has two major varieties...

     and in many of the varieties of the Arabian peninsula
    Arabian Peninsula
    The Arabian Peninsula is a land mass situated north-east of Africa. Also known as Arabia or the Arabian subcontinent, it is the world's largest peninsula and covers 3,237,500 km2...

    .)
  • The system of suffix-marked mood distinctions has been lost, other than the imperative. Egyptian Arabic
    Egyptian Arabic
    Egyptian Arabic is the language spoken by contemporary Egyptians.It is more commonly known locally as the Egyptian colloquial language or Egyptian dialect ....

     and many other "urban" varieties (e.g. Moroccan Arabic
    Moroccan Arabic
    Moroccan Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken in the Arabic-speaking areas of Morocco. For official communications, the government and other public bodies use Modern Standard Arabic, as is the case in most Arabic-speaking countries. A mixture of French and Moroccan Arabic is used in business...

    , Levantine Arabic
    Levantine Arabic
    Levantine Arabic is a broad variety of Arabic spoken in the 100 to 200 km-wide Eastern Mediterranean coastal strip...

    ) have non-past endings {{transl|ar|-i -u}} inherited from the original subjunctive forms, but some varieties (e.g. Iraqi Arabic
    Iraqi Arabic
    Iraqi Arabic is a continuum of mutually intelligible Arabic varieties native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq as well as spanning into eastern and northern Syria, western Iran, southeastern Turkey, and spoken in respective Iraqi diaspora communities.-Varieties:Iraqi Arabic has two major varieties...

    ) have {{transl|ar|-īn -ūn}} endings inherited from the original indicative. Most varieties have also gained new moods, and a new future tense, marked through the use of prefixes (most often with an unmarked subjunctive vs. an indicative marked with a prefix, e.g. Egyptian bi-, Levantine b-, Moroccan ta-/ka-). Various particles are used for the future (e.g. Egyptian ḥa-, Levantine raḥ-, Moroccan ɣa(di)-), derived from reduced forms of various verbs.
  • The internal passive is lost almost everywhere. Instead, the original reflexive
    Reflexive verb
    In grammar, a reflexive verb is a verb whose semantic agent and patient are the same. For example, the English verb to perjure is reflexive, since one can only perjure oneself...

    /mediopassive augmentations (e.g. Forms V, VI, VII) serve as both reflexive and passive. The passive of Forms II and III is generally constructed with a reflex of Forms V and VI, using a prefix it- derived from the Classical prefix ta-. The passive of Form I uses either a prefix in- (from Form VII) or it- (modeled after Forms V and VI). The other forms often have no passive.


In addition, Form IV is lost entirely in most varieties, except for a few "classicizing" verbs (i.e. verbs borrowed from Modern Standard Arabic).

See varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic
The Arabic language is a Semitic language characterized by a wide number of linguistic varieties within its five regional forms. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. The Arabic of North Africa, for example, is often incomprehensible to an Arabic speaker...

 for more information on grammar differences in the spoken varieties.

Genitive construction (ʼiḍāfah)


A noun may be defined more closely by a subsequent noun in the genitive (إضافة {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiḍāfah}}, literally "an addition"). The relation is hierarchical; the first term (المضاف {{transl|ar|DIN|al-muḍāf}}) governs the second term (المضاف إليه {{transl|ar|DIN|al-muḍāf ilayhi}}). E. g. بيت رجل {{transl|ar|baytu raǧul(in)}} 'the house of a man', 'a man's house'. The construction as a whole represents a nominal phrase, the state of which is inherited from the state of the second term. The first term must "be in construct state", namely, it cannot carry the definite article nor the tanween. Genitive constructions of multiple terms are possible. In this case, all but the final term take construct state, and all but the first member take the genitive case
Genitive case
In grammar, genitive is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun...

.

This construction is typical for a Semitic language. In many cases the two members become a fixed coined phrase, the {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼiḍāfah}} being used as the equivalent of the compound
Compound (linguistics)
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme that consists of more than one stem. Compounding or composition is the word formation that creates compound lexemes...

 nouns used in some Indo-European languages (which does not exist in Arabic). بيت الطلبة {{transl|ar|DIN|baytu-ṭ-ṭalabati}} thus may mean either 'house of the (certain, known) students' or 'the student hostel'.

Note: ة ({{transl|ar|DIN|tāʼ marbūṭah}}) of the first term must always have a pronounced {{transl|ar|DIN|-t}} (after /a/). This applies to spoken Arabic as well.

Word order


Classical Arabic tends to prefer the word order VSO (verb before subject) rather than SVO (subject before verb). However, the word order is fairly flexible, since words are tagged by case endings. Subject pronouns are normally omitted except for emphasis or when using a participle as a verb (participles are not marked for person). Auxiliary verbs precede main verbs, and prepositions precede their objects.

Adjectives follow the noun they are modifying, and agree with the noun in case, gender, number, and state: For example, بنت جميلة "{{transl|ar|bint(un) ǧamīla(tun)}}" "a beautiful girl" but البنت الجميلة "{{transl|ar|al-bintu l-ǧamīla(tu)}}" "the beautiful girl". (Compare البنت جميلة "{{transl|ar|al-bint(u) ǧamīla(tun)}}" "the girl is beautiful".) Elative adjectives, however, precede their modifying noun, do not agree with it, and require that the noun be in the genitive case (see below).

Note that case endings are dropped in pausa
Pausa
In linguistics, pausa is the end of a prosodic unit, such as an utterance. Some sound laws specifically operate in pausa only; for example, certain phonemes may be pronounced differently at the end of a word, when no other word follows within the same prosodic unit, such as in citation form...

 forms, in colloquial Arabic and in less formal MSA ("Formal Spoken Arabic"), hence SVO is more common in spoken Arabic.
=ʼinna
The subject of a sentence can be topicalized and emphasized by moving it to the beginning of the sentence and preceding it with the word إن {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinna}} ~"indeed". Examples are إنك أنت جميل "{{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinnaka anta ǧamīlun}}" "You are beautiful indeed" or إن السماء زرقاء "{{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinna s-samāʼa zarqāʼu}}" "The sky is blue indeed". (In older texts, "{{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinna}}" was translated "verily".)

"{{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinna}}", along with its "sister" terms أن "{{transl|ar|DIN|ʼanna}}" ("that", as in "I think that ..."), "{{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinna}}" ("that" after قال/يقول {{transl|ar|DIN|qāla/yaqūlu}} "say"), ولكن "{{transl|ar|DIN|(wa-)lākin(na)}}" "but" and كأن "{{transl|ar|DIN|kaʼanna}}" "as if" require that they be immediately followed by a noun in the accusative case, or an attached pronominal suffix.
Other
Object pronouns are clitic
Clitic
In morphology and syntax, a clitic is a morpheme that is grammatically independent, but phonologically dependent on another word or phrase. It is pronounced like an affix, but works at the phrase level...

s and are attached to the verb, e.g. {{transl|ar|DIN|arā-hā}} "I see her". Possessive pronouns are likewise attached to the noun they modify, e.g. "{{transl|ar|DIN|kitābu-hu}}" "his book". The definite article "{{transl|ar|DIN|al-}}" is a clitic, as are the prepositions "{{transl|ar|DIN|li-}}" "to" and "{{transl|ar|DIN|bi-}}" "in/with" and the conjunctions "{{transl|ar|DIN|ka-}}" "as" and "{{transl|ar|DIN|fa-}}" "thus, so".
See also

  • Arabic language
    Arabic language
    Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

  • [[ʼIʻrab]] (إﻋﺮﺍﺏ)
  • Literary Arabic
    Literary Arabic
    Modern Standard Arabic , Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standard and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech....

  • Varieties of Arabic
    Varieties of Arabic
    The Arabic language is a Semitic language characterized by a wide number of linguistic varieties within its five regional forms. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. The Arabic of North Africa, for example, is often incomprehensible to an Arabic speaker...

  • Arabic alphabet
    Arabic alphabet
    The Arabic alphabet or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language. It is written from right to left, in a cursive style, and includes 28 letters. Because letters usually stand for consonants, it is classified as an abjad.-Consonants:The Arabic alphabet has...

  • Quranic Arabic Corpus
    Quranic Arabic Corpus
    The Quranic Arabic Corpus is an annotated linguistic resource consisting of 77,430 words of . The research project is led by at the University of Leeds, and is part of the Arabic language computing research group within the School of Computing, supervised by...

  • Romanization of Arabic
  • Wiktionary: appendix on Arabic verbs
  • WikiBook: Learn Arabic

External links
{{Arabic language}}
{{Varieties of Arabic}}

{{DEFAULTSORT:Arabic Grammar}}