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Arab League

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The Arab League officially called the League of Arab States , is a regional organisation of Arab states in North
North Africa
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

 and Northeast Africa
Horn of Africa
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden. It is the easternmost projection of the African continent...

, and Southwest Asia
Southwest Asia
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia are terms that describe the westernmost portion of Asia. The terms are partly coterminous with the Middle East, which describes a geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than its location within Asia...

 (Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

). It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

, Transjordan
Transjordan
The Emirate of Transjordan was a former Ottoman territory in the Southern Levant that was part of the British Mandate of Palestine...

 (renamed Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 in 1949), Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, and Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

. Yemen
Yemen
The Republic of Yemen , commonly known as Yemen , is a country located in the Middle East, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, and Oman to the east....

 joined as a member on 5 May 1945. The Arab League currently has 22 members (including one, Syria, whose participation was suspended in November 2011)
Member states of the Arab League
The Arab League has 22 member states.The Arab League was founded in Cairo in 1945 by Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan , and Yemen...

 and four observers. The main goal of the league is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries."

Through institutions such as the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization
Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization
The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization is a Tunis-based institution of the Arab League, established in accordance with article 3 of the Arab Cultural Unity Charter by an announcement made in Cairo, Egypt, on 25 July 1970...

 (ALECSO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League's Council of Arab Economic Unity
Council of Arab Economic Unity
The Council of Arab Economic Unity was established by Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen on 3 June 1957...

 (CAEU), the Arab League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific and social programs designed to promote the interests of the Arab world
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

. It has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab disputes, and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon crisis. The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter
Joint Arab Economic Action Charter
The Joint Arab Economic Charter was established on June 3, 1957 by decision No. 85 of the Council of Arab Economic Unity of the Arab League....

 which sets out the principles for economic activities in the region.

Each member state has only one vote in the League Council, while decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic, and social programs of its members, and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defense and Economic Cooperation on 13 April 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defense measures.

The Arab League has played a role in shaping school curricula, advancing the role of women in the Arab societies, promoting child welfare, encouraging youth and sports programs, preserving Arab cultural heritage, and fostering cultural exchanges between the member states. Literacy campaigns have been launched, intellectual works reproduced, and modern technical terminology is translated for the use within member states. The league encourages measures against crime and drug abuse, and deals with labour issues—particularly among the emigrant Arab workforce.

History



Following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. It aimed to be a regional organisation of Arab states with a focus to developing the economy, resolving disputes, and coordinating political aims. Other countries joined the league at later dates. Each country was given one vote in the council. The first major action was the joint intervention, allegedly on behalf of the majority Arab population that was being uprooted as the State of Israel emerged in 1948 (and in response to popular outcry in the Arab world), although in fact a main participant in this intervention, Transjordan, had agreed with the Israelis to divide up the Arab Palestinian state proposed by the UN General Assembly, while Egypt intervened primarily to prevent its rival in Amman from accomplishing its objective. (References: Avi Shlaim,
Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement, and the Partition of Palestine.Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press, 1988; Uri Bar-Joseph, Uri, The Best of Enemies: Israel and Transjordan in the War of 1948. London: Frank Cass, 1987; Joseph Nevo , King Abdullah and Palestine: A Territorial Ambition (London: Macmillan Press; New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.)
This was followed by the creation of a mutual defense treaty two years later. A common market was established in 1965.
(Robert W. MacDonald, The League of Arab States: A Study in Regional Organization. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1965.)

Geography




The area of members of the Arab League covers around 13000000 sqkm and straddles two continents: Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

, and Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

. The area consists of large arid deserts, namely the Sahara
Sahara
The Sahara is the world's second largest desert, after Antarctica. At over , it covers most of Northern Africa, making it almost as large as Europe or the United States. The Sahara stretches from the Red Sea, including parts of the Mediterranean coasts, to the outskirts of the Atlantic Ocean...

. Nevertheless, it also contains several very fertile lands, such as the Nile Valley, the High Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
The Atlas Mountains is a mountain range across a northern stretch of Africa extending about through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The highest peak is Toubkal, with an elevation of in southwestern Morocco. The Atlas ranges separate the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines from the Sahara Desert...

, and the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent, nicknamed "The Cradle of Civilization" for the fact the first civilizations started there, is a crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and semi-arid Western Asia. The term was first used by University of Chicago...

 which stretches from Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 over Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

, and Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 and Palestine
Palestine
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

. The area comprises deep forests in southern Arabia
Arabian Peninsula
The Arabian Peninsula is a land mass situated north-east of Africa. Also known as Arabia or the Arabian subcontinent, it is the world's largest peninsula and covers 3,237,500 km2...

, as well as parts of the world's longest river, the Nile
Nile
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in North Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. It is long. It runs through the ten countries of Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Egypt.The Nile has two major...

.

The area witnessed the rise of many ancient civilizations: Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

, Ancient Israel and Judah
History of ancient Israel and Judah
Israel and Judah were related Iron Age kingdoms of ancient Palestine. The earliest known reference to the name Israel in archaeological records is in the Merneptah stele, an Egyptian record of c. 1209 BCE. By the 9th century BCE the Kingdom of Israel had emerged as an important local power before...

, Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

, Babylon
Babylon
Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

, Phoenicia
Phoenicia
Phoenicia , was an ancient civilization in Canaan which covered most of the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent. Several major Phoenician cities were built on the coastline of the Mediterranean. It was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550...

, Carthage
Carthage
Carthage , implying it was a 'new Tyre') is a major urban centre that has existed for nearly 3,000 years on the Gulf of Tunis, developing from a Phoenician colony of the 1st millennium BC...

, Kush
Kingdom of Kush
The native name of the Kingdom was likely kaš, recorded in Egyptian as .The name Kash is probably connected to Cush in the Hebrew Bible , son of Ham ....

, Ancient Somalia and the Nabateans, among others.

Member states



The Arab League was founded in Cairo in 1945 by seven countries. There was a continual increase in membership
Enlargement of the Arab League
The Arab League was established in 1945 with 7 founding states, with Egypt at the helm, and today the League has 22 members. The League witnessed 11 enlargements, with the largest in 1971 with four members of the Arab states of the Persian Gulf joining the League.-Future enlargements:Future...

 during the second half of the 20th century, with additional 15 Arab states and 4 observers
Observer status
Observer status is a privilege granted by some organizations to non-members to give them an ability to participate in the organization's activities. Observer status is often granted by intergovernmental organizations to non-member states and international nongovernmental organizations that have...

 being admitted, with a current total of 21 member states due to Syria's suspension following the 2011 uprise.

On 22 February 2011, following the 2011 Libyan uprising and the use of military force against civilians, the Arab League Secretary General, Amr Moussa
Amr Moussa
Amr Mohammed Moussa is an Egyptian politician and diplomat who was the Secretary-General of the Arab League, a 22-member forum representing Arab states, from 1 June 2001 until 1 June 2011. He is a candidate in the 2011 Egyptian presidential election....

, stated that Libya's membership in the Arab League had been suspended: "the organisation has decided to halt the participation of the Libyan delegations from all Arab League sessions". This makes Libya the second country in the League's history to have a frozen membership. Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar Gaddafi or "September 1942" 20 October 2011), commonly known as Muammar Gaddafi or Colonel Gaddafi, was the official ruler of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then the "Brother Leader" of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011.He seized power in a...

 declared that the League was illegitimate, saying, "The Arab League is finished. There is no such thing as the Arab League". On 25 August 2011, Secretary General Nabil Elaraby
Nabil Elaraby
Nabil Elaraby is an Egyptian diplomat, currently the Secretary-General of the Arab League having been elected on 15 May 2011. Previously, he was Foreign Minister of Egypt in Essam Sharaf's government from March-June 2011.-Early life and education:Elaraby holds a J.S.D. and an LL.M...

 announced it was "about time" Libya's full member status was restored. The National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
The National Transitional Council of Libya , sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, the Interim National Council, or the Libyan National Council,...

, the partially recognised interim government of Libya, will send a representative to be seated at the Arab League meeting on August 27 to participate in a discussion as to whether to readmit Libya to the organisation.

The Arab Parliament
Arab Parliament
At the Arab League Summit of 2001-Amman, the Arab states agreed to create an Arab Parliament, and came up with a resolution to give the Secretary General of the Arab League the power to start and create the Parliament...

 recommended the suspension of member states Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

 on 20 September 2011, over persistent reports of disproportionate violence against regime opponents and activists during the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
The Arab Spring , otherwise known as the Arab Awakening, is a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world that began on Saturday, 18 December 2010...

. A vote on 12 November agreed to formally suspend Syria four days after the vote, giving Assad a last chance to avoid suspension. Syria, Lebanon, and Yemen voted against the motion, while Iraq abstained.

Politics



The Arab League is a political organization aiming to help integrate its members economically, and solve in-between conflicts without asking for foreign help. It possesses elements of a state representative parliament, while issues of foreign affairs are usually dealt under the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 supervision.

Governance



The Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland
Pan-Arabism
Pan-Arabism is an ideology espousing the unification--or, sometimes, close cooperation and solidarity against perceived enemies of the Arabs--of the countries of the Arab world, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the Arabs...

 while respecting the sovereignty
Sovereignty
Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory. It can be found in a power to rule and make law that rests on a political fact for which no purely legal explanation can be provided...

 of the individual member states. The internal regulations of the Council of the League and the committees were agreed in October 1951. Those of the Secretariat-General were agreed in May 1953.

Since then, governance of the Arab League has been based on the duality of supra-national institutions and the sovereignty of the member states. Preservation of individual statehood derived its strengths from the natural preference of ruling elites to maintain their power and independence in decision making. Moreover, the fear of the richer that the poorer may share their wealth in the name of Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism is a nationalist ideology celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world...

, the feuds among Arab rulers
Arab Cold War
The Arab Cold War was a series of sub-conflicts, during the global Cold War period, waged between the Arab states from the era of European decolonization to the collapse of the Soviet Bloc. The term was coined by American political scientist and Middle East scholar Malcolm Kerr, in his 1965 book of...

, and the influence of external powers that might oppose Arab unity can be seen as obstacles towards a deeper integration of the league.

Status of the Palestinian Territories



Mindful of their previous announcements in support of the Arabs of Palestine
Palestine
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

 the framers of the Pact were determined to include them within the League from its inauguration. This was done by means of an annex that declared:
At the Cairo Summit of 1964, the Arab League initiated the creation of an organisation representing the Palestinian people. The first Palestinian National Council
Palestinian National Council
The Palestinian National Council is the legislative body of the Palestine Liberation Organization and elects its Executive Committee, which assumes leadership of the organization between its sessions. The Council normally meets every two years. Resolutions are passed by a simple majority with a...

 convened in East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem refer to the parts of Jerusalem captured and annexed by Jordan in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and then captured and annexed by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War...

 on 29 May 1964. The Palestinian Liberation Organization was founded during this meeting on 2 June 1964.

Today, Palestine enjoys the status of a full member of the Arab League and is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.

At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative
Arab Peace Initiative
The Beirut Summit was a meeting of the Arab League in Beirut, Lebanon in March 2002 to discuss the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The meeting became especially noteworthy for the adoption, by the Arab states attending, of a proposal offering a comprehensive peace between the Arab countries and...

, a Saudi-inspired peace plan for the Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to political tensions and open hostilities between the Arab peoples and the Jewish community of the Middle East. The modern Arab-Israeli conflict began with the rise of Zionism and Arab Nationalism towards the end of the nineteenth century, and intensified with the...

. The initiative offered full normalisation of the relations with Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

. In exchange, Israel was required to withdraw from all occupied territories
Occupied territories
Occupied territory is territory under military occupation. Occupation is a term of art in international law; in accordance with Article 42 of the Laws and Customs of War on Land ; October 18, 1907, territory is considered occupied when it is actually placed under the authority of the hostile army...

, including the Golan Heights, to recognise Palestinian independence in the West Bank
West Bank
The West Bank ) of the Jordan River is the landlocked geographical eastern part of the Palestinian territories located in Western Asia. To the west, north, and south, the West Bank shares borders with the state of Israel. To the east, across the Jordan River, lies the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan...

 and Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
thumb|Gaza city skylineThe Gaza Strip lies on the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Strip borders Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the south, east and north. It is about long, and between 6 and 12 kilometres wide, with a total area of...

, with East Jerusalem as its capital, as well as a "just solution" for the Palestinian refugees.

The Peace Initiative was again endorsed at 2007 in the Riyadh Summit. In July 2007, the Arab League sent a mission, consisting of the Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

ian and Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

ian foreign ministers, to Israel to promote the initiative. The mission was welcomed with reservations by Israel.

Following Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

's move to expel the resident Israeli diplomats amid the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict
2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict
The Gaza War, known as Operation Cast Lead in Israel and as the Gaza Massacre in the Arab world, was a three-week bombing and invasion of the Gaza Strip by Israel, and hundreds of rocket attacks on south of Israel which...

, Kuwaiti member of parliament Waleed al-Tabtabai made a public plea to move the Arab League headquarters from Cairo to Caracas, Venezuela.

On 13 June 2010, Amr Mohammed Moussa, Secretary-General of the Arab League visited the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
thumb|Gaza city skylineThe Gaza Strip lies on the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Strip borders Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the south, east and north. It is about long, and between 6 and 12 kilometres wide, with a total area of...

 in a move to pressure Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 to lift its economic blockade
Blockade
A blockade is an effort to cut off food, supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade should not be confused with an embargo or sanctions, which are legal barriers to trade, and is distinct from a siege in that a blockade is usually...

 against the Gaza due to its leadership under Hamas
Hamas
Hamas is the Palestinian Sunni Islamic or Islamist political party that governs the Gaza Strip. Hamas also has a military wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades...

. The visit by Moussa was the first by an official of the Arab League since the election of Hamas in 2007. Immediately after the Israeli raid on the flotilla of ships bringing aid to Gaza, Moussa said the Arab League would go to the UN Security Council to demand the blockade be lifted. Israel maintains that the blockade is needed for Israeli security.

Summits



  • Two summits are not added to the system of Arab League summits:
    • Anshas
      Anshas
      Anshas is a city East of Cairo located in the Sharkiya Governorate in the Nile Delta of Egypt.It holds the first experimental nuclear reactor to be operated in Egypt, the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority Experimental Farm, unauthorized IAEA....

      , Egypt: 28–29 May 1946
    • Beirut, Lebanon: 13 – 15 November 1956

  • Summit 14 in Fes, Morocco, occurred in two stages:
    • On 25 November 1981: The 5-hours meeting ended without an agreed on document.
    • On 6–9 September 1982


Economy


The Arab League is rich in resources, with enormous oil
Oil
An oil is any substance that is liquid at ambient temperatures and does not mix with water but may mix with other oils and organic solvents. This general definition includes vegetable oils, volatile essential oils, petrochemical oils, and synthetic oils....

 and natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

 resources in certain member states; it also has great fertile lands in southern Sudan
Sudan
Sudan , officially the Republic of the Sudan , is a country in North Africa, sometimes considered part of the Middle East politically. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the...

, usually referred to as the food basket of the Arab World
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

. The region's instability has not affected its tourism industry, considered the fastest growing industry in the region, with Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, the UAE, Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

, Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

, Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

, and Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

 leading the way. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is telecommunications. Within less than a decade, local companies such as Orascom, and Etisalat
Etisalat
Emirates Telecommunications Corporation, branded trade name Etisalat is a UAE based telecommunications services provider, currently operating in 18 countries across Asia, the Middle East and Africa...

 have managed to compete internationally.

Economic achievements initiated by the League amongst member states have been less impressive than those achieved by other smaller Arab organisations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). However, several promising major economic projects are set to be completed soon. Among them is the Arab Gas Pipeline
Arab Gas Pipeline
The Arab Gas Pipeline is a natural gas pipeline in the Middle East. It exports Egyptian natural gas to Jordan, Syria and Lebanon, with a separate line to Israel. It has a total length of at a cost of US$1.2 billion.-Arish–Aqaba section:...

, scheduled to be accomplished in 2010. It will transport Egyptian and Iraqi gas to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey. The Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA), planned to come into effect on 1 January 2008, will render 95% of all Arab products free of customs.

Economic development in the Arab League is very disparate. Significant difference in wealth and economic conditions exist between the rich oil states of the UAE, Qatar
Qatar
Qatar , also known as the State of Qatar or locally Dawlat Qaṭar, is a sovereign Arab state, located in the Middle East, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its...

, Kuwait
Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

, and Algeria
Algeria
Algeria , officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria , also formally referred to as the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa with Algiers as its capital.In terms of land area, it is the largest country in Africa and the Arab...

 on the one hand, and poor countries like the Comoros
Comoros
The Comoros , officially the Union of the Comoros is an archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean, located off the eastern coast of Africa, on the northern end of the Mozambique Channel, between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar...

, Mauritania
Mauritania
Mauritania is a country in the Maghreb and West Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the west, by Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest...

, and Djibouti
Djibouti
Djibouti , officially the Republic of Djibouti , is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somalia in the southeast. The remainder of the border is formed by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden at the east...

 on the other. Arab economic funding is under development. As an example, the Arab League agreed to support the Sudanese region of Darfur
Darfur
Darfur is a region in western Sudan. An independent sultanate for several hundred years, it was incorporated into Sudan by Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1916. The region is divided into three federal states: West Darfur, South Darfur, and North Darfur...

 with US$500 million, and Egyptian, and Libyan companies are planning to build several wells in this dry area.

Education


In collecting literacy data, many countries estimate the number of literate people based on self-reported data. Some use educational attainment data as a proxy, but measures of school attendance or grade completion may differ. Because definitions and data collection methods vary across countries, literacy estimates should be used with caution. United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Development Programme
The United Nations Development Programme is the United Nations' global development network. It advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. UNDP operates in 177 countries, working with nations on their own solutions to...

, Human Development Report
Human Development Report
The Human Development Report is an annual milestone publication by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme .-History:...

 2010.
Rank Country Literacy
Literacy
Literacy has traditionally been described as the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently and think critically about printed material.Literacy represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from print...

 rate
1  Kuwait 94.5
2  Palestinian National Authority 94.1
3  Qatar 93.1
4  Jordan 92.2
5  Bahrain 90.8
6  United Arab Emirates 90.0
7  Lebanon 89.6
8  Libya 88.4
9  Oman 86.7
10  Saudi Arabia 85.5
11  Syria 83.6
12  Tunisia 78
13  Iraq 77.6
14  Comoros 73.6
15  Algeria 72.6
16  Sudan 69.3
17  Djibouti 67.9
18  Egypt 66.4
19  Yemen 60.9
20  Mauritania 56.8
21  Morocco 56.4
22  Somalia 51.6

Demographics



The Arab League is a culturally and ethnically diverse association of 22 member states, although the overwhelming majority of the League's population identifies as Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 (either on a cultural basis, or on an ethno-racial basis). As of 1 January 2007, about 340,000,000 people live in the states of the Arab League. Its population grows faster than in most other global regions. This threatens to diminish the slow economic expansion expected in the league's developing countries.

The most populous member state is Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, with a population of about 81 million. The least populated is the Comoros
Comoros
The Comoros , officially the Union of the Comoros is an archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean, located off the eastern coast of Africa, on the northern end of the Mozambique Channel, between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar...

, with over 0.6 million inhabitants.

Since large parts of the Arab countries are desert, the population is concentrated in and around cities where most the trade and industry are located. The largest Arab city is Cairo
Cairo
Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

, followed by Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

, Khartoum
Khartoum
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan and of Khartoum State. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile flowing west from Ethiopia. The location where the two Niles meet is known as "al-Mogran"...

, Giza, Damascus
Damascus
Damascus , commonly known in Syria as Al Sham , and as the City of Jasmine , is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo, both are part of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major...

, Riyadh
Riyadh
Riyadh is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province, and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, and is home to 5,254,560 people, and the urban center of a...

, and Casablanca
Casablanca
Casablanca is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Grand Casablanca region.Casablanca is Morocco's largest city as well as its chief port. It is also the biggest city in the Maghreb. The 2004 census recorded a population of 2,949,805 in the prefecture...

.

Population

Rank Country Population Density (/km2) Density (sq mi) Notes
1  Egypt 85,436,072
{{refimprove|date=November 2011}}

{{Merge from |Member states of the Arab League |Charter of the Arab League |Enlargement of the Arab League |discuss=Talk:Arab League#Merger proposal |date=August 2011}}

{{contains Arabic text}}
The Arab League ({{lang-ar|الجامعة العربية}} al-Jāmiʻa al-ʻArabiyya), officially called the League of Arab States ({{lang-ar|جامعة الدول العربية}} {{transl|ar|Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya}}), is a regional organisation of Arab states in North
North Africa
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

 and Northeast Africa
Horn of Africa
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden. It is the easternmost projection of the African continent...

, and Southwest Asia
Southwest Asia
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia are terms that describe the westernmost portion of Asia. The terms are partly coterminous with the Middle East, which describes a geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than its location within Asia...

 (Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

). It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

, Transjordan
Transjordan
The Emirate of Transjordan was a former Ottoman territory in the Southern Levant that was part of the British Mandate of Palestine...

 (renamed Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 in 1949), Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, and Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

. Yemen
Yemen
The Republic of Yemen , commonly known as Yemen , is a country located in the Middle East, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, and Oman to the east....

 joined as a member on 5 May 1945. The Arab League currently has 22 members (including one, Syria, whose participation was suspended in November 2011)
Member states of the Arab League
The Arab League has 22 member states.The Arab League was founded in Cairo in 1945 by Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan , and Yemen...

 and four observers. The main goal of the league is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries."

Through institutions such as the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization
Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization
The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization is a Tunis-based institution of the Arab League, established in accordance with article 3 of the Arab Cultural Unity Charter by an announcement made in Cairo, Egypt, on 25 July 1970...

 (ALECSO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League's Council of Arab Economic Unity
Council of Arab Economic Unity
The Council of Arab Economic Unity was established by Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen on 3 June 1957...

 (CAEU), the Arab League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific and social programs designed to promote the interests of the Arab world
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

. It has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab disputes, and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon crisis. The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter
Joint Arab Economic Action Charter
The Joint Arab Economic Charter was established on June 3, 1957 by decision No. 85 of the Council of Arab Economic Unity of the Arab League....

 which sets out the principles for economic activities in the region.

Each member state has only one vote in the League Council, while decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic, and social programs of its members, and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defense and Economic Cooperation on 13 April 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defense measures.

The Arab League has played a role in shaping school curricula, advancing the role of women in the Arab societies, promoting child welfare, encouraging youth and sports programs, preserving Arab cultural heritage, and fostering cultural exchanges between the member states. {{Citation needed|date=February 2009}} Literacy campaigns have been launched, intellectual works reproduced, and modern technical terminology is translated for the use within member states. The league encourages measures against crime and drug abuse, and deals with labour issues—particularly among the emigrant Arab workforce.

History


{{Main|History of the Arab League}}
Following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. It aimed to be a regional organisation of Arab states with a focus to developing the economy, resolving disputes, and coordinating political aims. Other countries joined the league at later dates. Each country was given one vote in the council. The first major action was the joint intervention, allegedly on behalf of the majority Arab population that was being uprooted as the State of Israel emerged in 1948 (and in response to popular outcry in the Arab world), although in fact a main participant in this intervention, Transjordan, had agreed with the Israelis to divide up the Arab Palestinian state proposed by the UN General Assembly, while Egypt intervened primarily to prevent its rival in Amman from accomplishing its objective. (References: Avi Shlaim,
Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement, and the Partition of Palestine.Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press, 1988; Uri Bar-Joseph, Uri, The Best of Enemies: Israel and Transjordan in the War of 1948. London: Frank Cass, 1987; Joseph Nevo , King Abdullah and Palestine: A Territorial Ambition (London: Macmillan Press; New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.)
This was followed by the creation of a mutual defense treaty two years later. A common market was established in 1965.
(Robert W. MacDonald, The League of Arab States: A Study in Regional Organization. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1965.)

Geography



{{Main|Geography of the Arab League}}
The area of members of the Arab League covers around 13000000 sqkm and straddles two continents: Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

, and Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

. The area consists of large arid deserts, namely the Sahara
Sahara
The Sahara is the world's second largest desert, after Antarctica. At over , it covers most of Northern Africa, making it almost as large as Europe or the United States. The Sahara stretches from the Red Sea, including parts of the Mediterranean coasts, to the outskirts of the Atlantic Ocean...

. Nevertheless, it also contains several very fertile lands, such as the Nile Valley, the High Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
The Atlas Mountains is a mountain range across a northern stretch of Africa extending about through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The highest peak is Toubkal, with an elevation of in southwestern Morocco. The Atlas ranges separate the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines from the Sahara Desert...

, and the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent, nicknamed "The Cradle of Civilization" for the fact the first civilizations started there, is a crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and semi-arid Western Asia. The term was first used by University of Chicago...

 which stretches from Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 over Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

, and Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 and Palestine
Palestine
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

. The area comprises deep forests in southern Arabia
Arabian Peninsula
The Arabian Peninsula is a land mass situated north-east of Africa. Also known as Arabia or the Arabian subcontinent, it is the world's largest peninsula and covers 3,237,500 km2...

, as well as parts of the world's longest river, the Nile
Nile
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in North Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. It is long. It runs through the ten countries of Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Egypt.The Nile has two major...

.

The area witnessed the rise of many ancient civilizations: Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

, Ancient Israel and Judah
History of ancient Israel and Judah
Israel and Judah were related Iron Age kingdoms of ancient Palestine. The earliest known reference to the name Israel in archaeological records is in the Merneptah stele, an Egyptian record of c. 1209 BCE. By the 9th century BCE the Kingdom of Israel had emerged as an important local power before...

, Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

, Babylon
Babylon
Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

, Phoenicia
Phoenicia
Phoenicia , was an ancient civilization in Canaan which covered most of the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent. Several major Phoenician cities were built on the coastline of the Mediterranean. It was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550...

, Carthage
Carthage
Carthage , implying it was a 'new Tyre') is a major urban centre that has existed for nearly 3,000 years on the Gulf of Tunis, developing from a Phoenician colony of the 1st millennium BC...

, Kush
Kingdom of Kush
The native name of the Kingdom was likely kaš, recorded in Egyptian as .The name Kash is probably connected to Cush in the Hebrew Bible , son of Ham ....

, Ancient Somalia and the Nabateans, among others.
{{Life in the Arab League}}

Member states


{{Main|Member states of the Arab League}}
{{See also|Enlargement of the Arab League}}

The Arab League was founded in Cairo in 1945 by seven countries. There was a continual increase in membership
Enlargement of the Arab League
The Arab League was established in 1945 with 7 founding states, with Egypt at the helm, and today the League has 22 members. The League witnessed 11 enlargements, with the largest in 1971 with four members of the Arab states of the Persian Gulf joining the League.-Future enlargements:Future...

 during the second half of the 20th century, with additional 15 Arab states and 4 observers
Observer status
Observer status is a privilege granted by some organizations to non-members to give them an ability to participate in the organization's activities. Observer status is often granted by intergovernmental organizations to non-member states and international nongovernmental organizations that have...

 being admitted, with a current total of 21 member states due to Syria's suspension following the 2011 uprise.

On 22 February 2011, following the 2011 Libyan uprising and the use of military force against civilians, the Arab League Secretary General, Amr Moussa
Amr Moussa
Amr Mohammed Moussa is an Egyptian politician and diplomat who was the Secretary-General of the Arab League, a 22-member forum representing Arab states, from 1 June 2001 until 1 June 2011. He is a candidate in the 2011 Egyptian presidential election....

, stated that Libya's membership in the Arab League had been suspended: "the organisation has decided to halt the participation of the Libyan delegations from all Arab League sessions". This makes Libya the second country in the League's history to have a frozen membership. Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar Gaddafi or "September 1942" 20 October 2011), commonly known as Muammar Gaddafi or Colonel Gaddafi, was the official ruler of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then the "Brother Leader" of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011.He seized power in a...

 declared that the League was illegitimate, saying, "The Arab League is finished. There is no such thing as the Arab League". On 25 August 2011, Secretary General Nabil Elaraby
Nabil Elaraby
Nabil Elaraby is an Egyptian diplomat, currently the Secretary-General of the Arab League having been elected on 15 May 2011. Previously, he was Foreign Minister of Egypt in Essam Sharaf's government from March-June 2011.-Early life and education:Elaraby holds a J.S.D. and an LL.M...

 announced it was "about time" Libya's full member status was restored. The National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
The National Transitional Council of Libya , sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, the Interim National Council, or the Libyan National Council,...

, the partially recognised interim government of Libya, will send a representative to be seated at the Arab League meeting on August 27 to participate in a discussion as to whether to readmit Libya to the organisation.

The Arab Parliament
Arab Parliament
At the Arab League Summit of 2001-Amman, the Arab states agreed to create an Arab Parliament, and came up with a resolution to give the Secretary General of the Arab League the power to start and create the Parliament...

 recommended the suspension of member states Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

 on 20 September 2011, over persistent reports of disproportionate violence against regime opponents and activists during the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
The Arab Spring , otherwise known as the Arab Awakening, is a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world that began on Saturday, 18 December 2010...

. A vote on 12 November agreed to formally suspend Syria four days after the vote, giving Assad a last chance to avoid suspension. Syria, Lebanon, and Yemen voted against the motion, while Iraq abstained.

Politics


{{Main|Politics of the Arab League}}
The Arab League is a political organization aiming to help integrate its members economically, and solve in-between conflicts without asking for foreign help. It possesses elements of a state representative parliament, while issues of foreign affairs are usually dealt under the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 supervision.

Governance



{{Main|Government of the Arab League|Arab Parliament}}

The Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland
Pan-Arabism
Pan-Arabism is an ideology espousing the unification--or, sometimes, close cooperation and solidarity against perceived enemies of the Arabs--of the countries of the Arab world, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the Arabs...

 while respecting the sovereignty
Sovereignty
Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory. It can be found in a power to rule and make law that rests on a political fact for which no purely legal explanation can be provided...

 of the individual member states. The internal regulations of the Council of the League and the committees were agreed in October 1951. Those of the Secretariat-General were agreed in May 1953.

Since then, governance of the Arab League has been based on the duality of supra-national institutions and the sovereignty of the member states. Preservation of individual statehood derived its strengths from the natural preference of ruling elites to maintain their power and independence in decision making. Moreover, the fear of the richer that the poorer may share their wealth in the name of Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism is a nationalist ideology celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world...

, the feuds among Arab rulers
Arab Cold War
The Arab Cold War was a series of sub-conflicts, during the global Cold War period, waged between the Arab states from the era of European decolonization to the collapse of the Soviet Bloc. The term was coined by American political scientist and Middle East scholar Malcolm Kerr, in his 1965 book of...

, and the influence of external powers that might oppose Arab unity can be seen as obstacles towards a deeper integration of the league.

Status of the Palestinian Territories


{{See also|Arab Peace Initiative}}
Mindful of their previous announcements in support of the Arabs of Palestine
Palestine
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

 the framers of the Pact were determined to include them within the League from its inauguration. This was done by means of an annex that declared:
{{cquote|Even though Palestine was not able to control her own destiny, it was on the basis of the recognition of her independence that the Covenant of the League of Nations determined a system of government for her. Her existence and her independence among the nations can, therefore, no more be questioned de jure than the independence of any of the other Arab States. [...] Therefore, the States signatory to the Pact of the Arab League consider that in view of Palestine's special circumstances, the Council of the League should designate an Arab delegate from Palestine to participate in its work until this country enjoys actual independence}}

At the Cairo Summit of 1964, the Arab League initiated the creation of an organisation representing the Palestinian people. The first Palestinian National Council
Palestinian National Council
The Palestinian National Council is the legislative body of the Palestine Liberation Organization and elects its Executive Committee, which assumes leadership of the organization between its sessions. The Council normally meets every two years. Resolutions are passed by a simple majority with a...

 convened in East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem refer to the parts of Jerusalem captured and annexed by Jordan in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and then captured and annexed by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War...

 on 29 May 1964. The Palestinian Liberation Organization was founded during this meeting on 2 June 1964.

Today, Palestine enjoys the status of a full member of the Arab League and is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.

At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative
Arab Peace Initiative
The Beirut Summit was a meeting of the Arab League in Beirut, Lebanon in March 2002 to discuss the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The meeting became especially noteworthy for the adoption, by the Arab states attending, of a proposal offering a comprehensive peace between the Arab countries and...

, a Saudi-inspired peace plan for the Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to political tensions and open hostilities between the Arab peoples and the Jewish community of the Middle East. The modern Arab-Israeli conflict began with the rise of Zionism and Arab Nationalism towards the end of the nineteenth century, and intensified with the...

. The initiative offered full normalisation of the relations with Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

. In exchange, Israel was required to withdraw from all occupied territories
Occupied territories
Occupied territory is territory under military occupation. Occupation is a term of art in international law; in accordance with Article 42 of the Laws and Customs of War on Land ; October 18, 1907, territory is considered occupied when it is actually placed under the authority of the hostile army...

, including the Golan Heights, to recognise Palestinian independence in the West Bank
West Bank
The West Bank ) of the Jordan River is the landlocked geographical eastern part of the Palestinian territories located in Western Asia. To the west, north, and south, the West Bank shares borders with the state of Israel. To the east, across the Jordan River, lies the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan...

 and Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
thumb|Gaza city skylineThe Gaza Strip lies on the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Strip borders Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the south, east and north. It is about long, and between 6 and 12 kilometres wide, with a total area of...

, with East Jerusalem as its capital, as well as a "just solution" for the Palestinian refugees.

The Peace Initiative was again endorsed at 2007 in the Riyadh Summit. In July 2007, the Arab League sent a mission, consisting of the Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

ian and Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

ian foreign ministers, to Israel to promote the initiative. The mission was welcomed with reservations by Israel.{{Citation needed|date=July 2008}}

Following Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

's move to expel the resident Israeli diplomats amid the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict
2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict
The Gaza War, known as Operation Cast Lead in Israel and as the Gaza Massacre in the Arab world, was a three-week bombing and invasion of the Gaza Strip by Israel, and hundreds of rocket attacks on south of Israel which...

, Kuwaiti member of parliament Waleed al-Tabtabai made a public plea to move the Arab League headquarters from Cairo to Caracas, Venezuela.

On 13 June 2010, Amr Mohammed Moussa, Secretary-General of the Arab League visited the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
thumb|Gaza city skylineThe Gaza Strip lies on the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Strip borders Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the south, east and north. It is about long, and between 6 and 12 kilometres wide, with a total area of...

 in a move to pressure Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 to lift its economic blockade
Blockade
A blockade is an effort to cut off food, supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade should not be confused with an embargo or sanctions, which are legal barriers to trade, and is distinct from a siege in that a blockade is usually...

 against the Gaza due to its leadership under Hamas
Hamas
Hamas is the Palestinian Sunni Islamic or Islamist political party that governs the Gaza Strip. Hamas also has a military wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades...

. The visit by Moussa was the first by an official of the Arab League since the election of Hamas in 2007. Immediately after the Israeli raid on the flotilla of ships bringing aid to Gaza, Moussa said the Arab League would go to the UN Security Council to demand the blockade be lifted. Israel maintains that the blockade is needed for Israeli security.{{Citation needed|date=June 2011}}

Summits



{{columns-list|2|
  1.   Cairo
    1964 Arab League summit (Cairo)
    The 1964 Arab League summit was the first summit of the Arab League, held in Cairo, Egypt, on 13 - 16 January 1964 and attended by all thirteen member states....

    : 13–17 January 1964.
  2.   Alexandria
    Alexandria
    Alexandria is the second-largest city of Egypt, with a population of 4.1 million, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country; it is also the largest city lying directly on the Mediterranean coast. It is Egypt's largest seaport, serving...

    : 5–11 September 1964.
  3.   Casablanca
    1965 Arab League summit
    The 1965 Arab League summit was held on September 13 in Casablanca, Morocco. The summit was boycotted by Tunisia over disagreements with Egypt....

    : 13–17 September 1965.
  4.   Khartoum
    1967 Arab League summit
    The 1967 Arab League summit was held on August 29 in Khartoum as the fourth Arab League Summit. The summit came in the aftermath of the Arab defeat to Israel in the Six-Day War and is famous for its Khartoum Resolution known as "The Three No's"; No peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, no...

    : 29 August 1967.
  5.   Rabat
    Rabat
    Rabat , is the capital and third largest city of the Kingdom of Morocco with a population of approximately 650,000...

    : 21–23 December 1969.
  6.   Cairo
    1970 Arab League summit
    The 1970 Arab League summit was held on September 27 in Cairo, Egypt as an extraordinary Arab League Summit. The summit came in the aftermath of the bloody events of Black September in Jordan, and the clashes between the Palestinian Liberation Organization and King Hussein of Jordan...

     (first emergency summit): 21–27 September 1970
  7.   Algiers
    Algiers
    ' is the capital and largest city of Algeria. According to the 1998 census, the population of the city proper was 1,519,570 and that of the urban agglomeration was 2,135,630. In 2009, the population was about 3,500,000...

    : 26–28 November.1973.
  8.   Rabat: 29 October 1974.
  9.   Riyadh
    1976 Arab League summit (Riyadh)
    The 1976 Arab League summit was held on October 16 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as an extraordinary Arab League Summit. The summit came in the aftermath of the escalating civil war in Lebanon. It was attended only by representatives from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Kuwait, Lebanon and the Palestinian...

     (2nd emergency summit): 17–28 October 1976.
  10.   Cairo
    1976 Arab League summit (Cairo)
    The 1976 Arab League summit was held on October 25 in Cairo, Egypt less than two weeks after the Riyadh summit. The summit had a wider Arab participation, it was dedicated to follow up on the deteriorating situation in Lebanon....

    : 25–26 October 1976.
  11.   Baghdad
    1978 Arab League summit
    The 1978 Arab League summit was held on November 2nd in Baghdad as the 9th Arab League Summit. The summit came in the aftermath of the Egypt's Anwar Sadat's unilateral peace treaty with Israel. Arab leaders convened in Baghdad in the absence of Egypt and decided to expel it from the Arab League....

    : 2–5 November.1978.
  12.   Tunis
    Tunis
    Tunis is the capital of both the Tunisian Republic and the Tunis Governorate. It is Tunisia's largest city, with a population of 728,453 as of 2004; the greater metropolitan area holds some 2,412,500 inhabitants....

    : 20–22 November 1979.
  13.   Amman
    Amman
    Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

    : 21–22 November 1980.
  14.   Fes
    Fes
    Fes or Fez is the second largest city of Morocco, after Casablanca, with a population of approximately 1 million . It is the capital of the Fès-Boulemane region....

    : 6–9 September 1982.
  15.   Casablanca
    Casablanca
    Casablanca is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Grand Casablanca region.Casablanca is Morocco's largest city as well as its chief port. It is also the biggest city in the Maghreb. The 2004 census recorded a population of 2,949,805 in the prefecture...

     (3rd emergency summit): 7–9 September 1985
  16.   Amman
    Amman
    Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

     (4th emergency summit): 8–12 November 1987.
  17.   Algiers
    Algiers
    ' is the capital and largest city of Algeria. According to the 1998 census, the population of the city proper was 1,519,570 and that of the urban agglomeration was 2,135,630. In 2009, the population was about 3,500,000...

     (5th emergency summit): 7–9 June 1988.
  18.   Casablanca
    Casablanca
    Casablanca is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Grand Casablanca region.Casablanca is Morocco's largest city as well as its chief port. It is also the biggest city in the Maghreb. The 2004 census recorded a population of 2,949,805 in the prefecture...

     (6th emergency summit): 23–26 June 1989.
  19.   Baghdad
    Baghdad
    Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

     (7th emergency summit): 28–30 March 1990.
  20.   Cairo
    Cairo
    Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

     (8th emergency summit): 9–10 August 1990
  21.   Cairo
    Cairo
    Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

     (9th emergency summit): 22–23 June 1996.
  22.   Cairo
    Cairo
    Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

     (10th emergency summit): 21–22 October 2000.
  23.   Amman
    Amman
    Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

    : 27–28 March 2001.
  24.   Beirut: 27–28 March 2002.
  25.   Sharm el-Sheikh
    Sharm el-Sheikh
    Sharm el-Sheikh is a city situated on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, on the coastal strip along the Red Sea. Its population is approximately 35,000...

    : 1 March 2003.
  26.   Tunis
    Tunis
    Tunis is the capital of both the Tunisian Republic and the Tunis Governorate. It is Tunisia's largest city, with a population of 728,453 as of 2004; the greater metropolitan area holds some 2,412,500 inhabitants....

    : 22–23 May 2004.
  27.   Algiers
    Algiers
    ' is the capital and largest city of Algeria. According to the 1998 census, the population of the city proper was 1,519,570 and that of the urban agglomeration was 2,135,630. In 2009, the population was about 3,500,000...

    : 22–23 March 2005.
  28.   Khartoum
    Khartoum
    Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan and of Khartoum State. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile flowing west from Ethiopia. The location where the two Niles meet is known as "al-Mogran"...

    : 28–30 March 2006.
  29.   Riyadh
    2007 Arab League summit
    The 2007 Arab League Summit, also called the Riyadh Summit, refers to a convention of leaders from 21 members of the Arab League who gathered in Riyadh for the 19th Arab summit in March 2007. The summit convened on the 28 March 2007 and was preceded by a set of preparatory meetings starting on 24...

    : 27–28 March 2007.
  30.   Damascus
    2008 Arab League summit
    The 2008 Arab League summit was held in Damascus on March 29, 2008. The summit was marred by inter-Arab differences, mainly over the political deadlock in Lebanon, with relations between Syria and the Saudi-Egypt coalition reaching an all time low. Saudi Arabia and Egypt snubbed the summit by...

    : 29–30 March 2008.
  31.   Doha
    2009 Arab League summit
    The 2009 Arab League summit was held in Doha, Qatar on March 30, 2009. The Arab League defied the International Criminal Court by giving a "warm welcome" to Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir, whom the Court placed a warrant on for war crimes in the Darfur genocide.-Reaction:Egyptian...

    : 28–30 March 2009.
  32.   Sirte
    2010 Arab League summit
    The Arab League 22nd Summit was held in Sirte, in Libya on the 27th of March 2010.Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi spoke at the summit, stressing that Israel should return the Golan Heights to Syria....

    : 27–28 March 2010.
  33.   Baghdad
    2011 Arab League summit
    The Sirt summit announced that the next Arab League summit will be held in Baghdad, and will be considered the first Arab League summit in Baghdad in almost 20 years, ever since the 1990 Gulf war sparked, the Arab League summit is expected to discuss the Arab Union, on the top of the Baghdad...

    : Postponed to March 2012.

}}

{{Columns-start|num=2}}
  • Two summits are not added to the system of Arab League summits:
    • Anshas
      Anshas
      Anshas is a city East of Cairo located in the Sharkiya Governorate in the Nile Delta of Egypt.It holds the first experimental nuclear reactor to be operated in Egypt, the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority Experimental Farm, unauthorized IAEA....

      , Egypt: 28–29 May 1946
    • Beirut, Lebanon: 13 – 15 November 1956

{{Column}}
  • Summit 14 in Fes, Morocco, occurred in two stages:
    • On 25 November 1981: The 5-hours meeting ended without an agreed on document.
    • On 6–9 September 1982

{{Columns-end}}

Economy


{{Main|Economy of the Arab League}}
{{See also|List of countries by GDP (PPP)|List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita}}
The Arab League is rich in resources, with enormous oil
Oil
An oil is any substance that is liquid at ambient temperatures and does not mix with water but may mix with other oils and organic solvents. This general definition includes vegetable oils, volatile essential oils, petrochemical oils, and synthetic oils....

 and natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

 resources in certain member states; it also has great fertile lands in southern Sudan
Sudan
Sudan , officially the Republic of the Sudan , is a country in North Africa, sometimes considered part of the Middle East politically. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the...

, usually referred to as the food basket of the Arab World
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

. The region's instability has not affected its tourism industry, considered the fastest growing industry in the region, with Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, the UAE, Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

, Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

, Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

, and Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

 leading the way.{{citation needed|date=August 2010}} Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is telecommunications. Within less than a decade, local companies such as Orascom, and Etisalat
Etisalat
Emirates Telecommunications Corporation, branded trade name Etisalat is a UAE based telecommunications services provider, currently operating in 18 countries across Asia, the Middle East and Africa...

 have managed to compete internationally.

Economic achievements initiated by the League amongst member states have been less impressive than those achieved by other smaller Arab organisations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). However, several promising major economic projects are set to be completed soon. Among them is the Arab Gas Pipeline
Arab Gas Pipeline
The Arab Gas Pipeline is a natural gas pipeline in the Middle East. It exports Egyptian natural gas to Jordan, Syria and Lebanon, with a separate line to Israel. It has a total length of at a cost of US$1.2 billion.-Arish–Aqaba section:...

, scheduled to be accomplished in 2010. It will transport Egyptian and Iraqi gas to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey. The Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA), planned to come into effect on 1 January 2008, will render 95% of all Arab products free of customs.{{Citation needed|date=July 2009}}

Economic development in the Arab League is very disparate. Significant difference in wealth and economic conditions exist between the rich oil states of the UAE, Qatar
Qatar
Qatar , also known as the State of Qatar or locally Dawlat Qaṭar, is a sovereign Arab state, located in the Middle East, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its...

, Kuwait
Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

, and Algeria
Algeria
Algeria , officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria , also formally referred to as the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa with Algiers as its capital.In terms of land area, it is the largest country in Africa and the Arab...

 on the one hand, and poor countries like the Comoros
Comoros
The Comoros , officially the Union of the Comoros is an archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean, located off the eastern coast of Africa, on the northern end of the Mozambique Channel, between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar...

, Mauritania
Mauritania
Mauritania is a country in the Maghreb and West Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the west, by Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest...

, and Djibouti
Djibouti
Djibouti , officially the Republic of Djibouti , is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somalia in the southeast. The remainder of the border is formed by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden at the east...

 on the other. Arab economic funding is under development. As an example, the Arab League agreed to support the Sudanese region of Darfur
Darfur
Darfur is a region in western Sudan. An independent sultanate for several hundred years, it was incorporated into Sudan by Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1916. The region is divided into three federal states: West Darfur, South Darfur, and North Darfur...

 with US$500 million, and Egyptian, and Libyan companies are planning to build several wells in this dry area.

Education



{{Main|List of countries by literacy rate}}

In collecting literacy data, many countries estimate the number of literate people based on self-reported data. Some use educational attainment data as a proxy, but measures of school attendance or grade completion may differ. Because definitions and data collection methods vary across countries, literacy estimates should be used with caution. United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Development Programme
The United Nations Development Programme is the United Nations' global development network. It advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. UNDP operates in 177 countries, working with nations on their own solutions to...

, Human Development Report
Human Development Report
The Human Development Report is an annual milestone publication by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme .-History:...

 2010.
Rank Country Literacy
Literacy
Literacy has traditionally been described as the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently and think critically about printed material.Literacy represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from print...

 rate
1  Kuwait 94.5
2  Palestinian National Authority 94.1
3  Qatar 93.1
4  Jordan 92.2
5  Bahrain 90.8
6  United Arab Emirates 90.0
7  Lebanon 89.6
8  Libya 88.4
9  Oman 86.7
10  Saudi Arabia 85.5
11  Syria 83.6
12  Tunisia 78
13  Iraq 77.6
14  Comoros 73.6
15  Algeria 72.6
16  Sudan 69.3
17  Djibouti 67.9
18  Egypt 66.4
19  Yemen 60.9
20  Mauritania 56.8
21  Morocco 56.4
22  Somalia 51.6

Demographics


{{Main|Demographics of the Arab League}}
The Arab League is a culturally and ethnically diverse association of 22 member states, although the overwhelming majority of the League's population identifies as Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 (either on a cultural basis, or on an ethno-racial basis). As of 1 January 2007, about 340,000,000 people live in the states of the Arab League. Its population grows faster than in most other global regions. This threatens to diminish the slow economic expansion expected in the league's developing countries.{{Citation needed|date=July 2008}}

The most populous member state is Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, with a population of about 81 million. The least populated is the Comoros
Comoros
The Comoros , officially the Union of the Comoros is an archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean, located off the eastern coast of Africa, on the northern end of the Mozambique Channel, between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar...

, with over 0.6 million inhabitants.

Since large parts of the Arab countries are desert, the population is concentrated in and around cities where most the trade and industry are located. The largest Arab city is Cairo
Cairo
Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

, followed by Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

, Khartoum
Khartoum
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan and of Khartoum State. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile flowing west from Ethiopia. The location where the two Niles meet is known as "al-Mogran"...

, Giza, Damascus
Damascus
Damascus , commonly known in Syria as Al Sham , and as the City of Jasmine , is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo, both are part of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major...

, Riyadh
Riyadh
Riyadh is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province, and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, and is home to 5,254,560 people, and the urban center of a...

, and Casablanca
Casablanca
Casablanca is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Grand Casablanca region.Casablanca is Morocco's largest city as well as its chief port. It is also the biggest city in the Maghreb. The 2004 census recorded a population of 2,949,805 in the prefecture...

.

Population

Rank Country Population Density (/km2) Density (sq mi) Notes
1  Egypt 85,436,072
{{refimprove|date=November 2011}}

{{Merge from |Member states of the Arab League |Charter of the Arab League |Enlargement of the Arab League |discuss=Talk:Arab League#Merger proposal |date=August 2011}}

{{contains Arabic text}}
The Arab League ({{lang-ar|الجامعة العربية}} al-Jāmiʻa al-ʻArabiyya), officially called the League of Arab States ({{lang-ar|جامعة الدول العربية}} {{transl|ar|Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya}}), is a regional organisation of Arab states in North
North Africa
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

 and Northeast Africa
Horn of Africa
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden. It is the easternmost projection of the African continent...

, and Southwest Asia
Southwest Asia
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia are terms that describe the westernmost portion of Asia. The terms are partly coterminous with the Middle East, which describes a geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than its location within Asia...

 (Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

). It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

, Transjordan
Transjordan
The Emirate of Transjordan was a former Ottoman territory in the Southern Levant that was part of the British Mandate of Palestine...

 (renamed Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 in 1949), Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, and Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

. Yemen
Yemen
The Republic of Yemen , commonly known as Yemen , is a country located in the Middle East, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, and Oman to the east....

 joined as a member on 5 May 1945. The Arab League currently has 22 members (including one, Syria, whose participation was suspended in November 2011)
Member states of the Arab League
The Arab League has 22 member states.The Arab League was founded in Cairo in 1945 by Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan , and Yemen...

 and four observers. The main goal of the league is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries."

Through institutions such as the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization
Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization
The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization is a Tunis-based institution of the Arab League, established in accordance with article 3 of the Arab Cultural Unity Charter by an announcement made in Cairo, Egypt, on 25 July 1970...

 (ALECSO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League's Council of Arab Economic Unity
Council of Arab Economic Unity
The Council of Arab Economic Unity was established by Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen on 3 June 1957...

 (CAEU), the Arab League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific and social programs designed to promote the interests of the Arab world
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

. It has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab disputes, and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon crisis. The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter
Joint Arab Economic Action Charter
The Joint Arab Economic Charter was established on June 3, 1957 by decision No. 85 of the Council of Arab Economic Unity of the Arab League....

 which sets out the principles for economic activities in the region.

Each member state has only one vote in the League Council, while decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic, and social programs of its members, and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defense and Economic Cooperation on 13 April 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defense measures.

The Arab League has played a role in shaping school curricula, advancing the role of women in the Arab societies, promoting child welfare, encouraging youth and sports programs, preserving Arab cultural heritage, and fostering cultural exchanges between the member states. {{Citation needed|date=February 2009}} Literacy campaigns have been launched, intellectual works reproduced, and modern technical terminology is translated for the use within member states. The league encourages measures against crime and drug abuse, and deals with labour issues—particularly among the emigrant Arab workforce.

History


{{Main|History of the Arab League}}
Following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. It aimed to be a regional organisation of Arab states with a focus to developing the economy, resolving disputes, and coordinating political aims. Other countries joined the league at later dates. Each country was given one vote in the council. The first major action was the joint intervention, allegedly on behalf of the majority Arab population that was being uprooted as the State of Israel emerged in 1948 (and in response to popular outcry in the Arab world), although in fact a main participant in this intervention, Transjordan, had agreed with the Israelis to divide up the Arab Palestinian state proposed by the UN General Assembly, while Egypt intervened primarily to prevent its rival in Amman from accomplishing its objective. (References: Avi Shlaim,
Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement, and the Partition of Palestine.Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press, 1988; Uri Bar-Joseph, Uri, The Best of Enemies: Israel and Transjordan in the War of 1948. London: Frank Cass, 1987; Joseph Nevo , King Abdullah and Palestine: A Territorial Ambition (London: Macmillan Press; New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.)
This was followed by the creation of a mutual defense treaty two years later. A common market was established in 1965.
(Robert W. MacDonald, The League of Arab States: A Study in Regional Organization. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1965.)

Geography



{{Main|Geography of the Arab League}}
The area of members of the Arab League covers around 13000000 sqkm and straddles two continents: Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

, and Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

. The area consists of large arid deserts, namely the Sahara
Sahara
The Sahara is the world's second largest desert, after Antarctica. At over , it covers most of Northern Africa, making it almost as large as Europe or the United States. The Sahara stretches from the Red Sea, including parts of the Mediterranean coasts, to the outskirts of the Atlantic Ocean...

. Nevertheless, it also contains several very fertile lands, such as the Nile Valley, the High Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
The Atlas Mountains is a mountain range across a northern stretch of Africa extending about through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The highest peak is Toubkal, with an elevation of in southwestern Morocco. The Atlas ranges separate the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines from the Sahara Desert...

, and the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent, nicknamed "The Cradle of Civilization" for the fact the first civilizations started there, is a crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and semi-arid Western Asia. The term was first used by University of Chicago...

 which stretches from Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 over Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

, and Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 and Palestine
Palestine
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

. The area comprises deep forests in southern Arabia
Arabian Peninsula
The Arabian Peninsula is a land mass situated north-east of Africa. Also known as Arabia or the Arabian subcontinent, it is the world's largest peninsula and covers 3,237,500 km2...

, as well as parts of the world's longest river, the Nile
Nile
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in North Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. It is long. It runs through the ten countries of Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Egypt.The Nile has two major...

.

The area witnessed the rise of many ancient civilizations: Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

, Ancient Israel and Judah
History of ancient Israel and Judah
Israel and Judah were related Iron Age kingdoms of ancient Palestine. The earliest known reference to the name Israel in archaeological records is in the Merneptah stele, an Egyptian record of c. 1209 BCE. By the 9th century BCE the Kingdom of Israel had emerged as an important local power before...

, Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

, Babylon
Babylon
Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

, Phoenicia
Phoenicia
Phoenicia , was an ancient civilization in Canaan which covered most of the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent. Several major Phoenician cities were built on the coastline of the Mediterranean. It was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550...

, Carthage
Carthage
Carthage , implying it was a 'new Tyre') is a major urban centre that has existed for nearly 3,000 years on the Gulf of Tunis, developing from a Phoenician colony of the 1st millennium BC...

, Kush
Kingdom of Kush
The native name of the Kingdom was likely kaš, recorded in Egyptian as .The name Kash is probably connected to Cush in the Hebrew Bible , son of Ham ....

, Ancient Somalia and the Nabateans, among others.
{{Life in the Arab League}}

Member states


{{Main|Member states of the Arab League}}
{{See also|Enlargement of the Arab League}}

The Arab League was founded in Cairo in 1945 by seven countries. There was a continual increase in membership
Enlargement of the Arab League
The Arab League was established in 1945 with 7 founding states, with Egypt at the helm, and today the League has 22 members. The League witnessed 11 enlargements, with the largest in 1971 with four members of the Arab states of the Persian Gulf joining the League.-Future enlargements:Future...

 during the second half of the 20th century, with additional 15 Arab states and 4 observers
Observer status
Observer status is a privilege granted by some organizations to non-members to give them an ability to participate in the organization's activities. Observer status is often granted by intergovernmental organizations to non-member states and international nongovernmental organizations that have...

 being admitted, with a current total of 21 member states due to Syria's suspension following the 2011 uprise.

On 22 February 2011, following the 2011 Libyan uprising and the use of military force against civilians, the Arab League Secretary General, Amr Moussa
Amr Moussa
Amr Mohammed Moussa is an Egyptian politician and diplomat who was the Secretary-General of the Arab League, a 22-member forum representing Arab states, from 1 June 2001 until 1 June 2011. He is a candidate in the 2011 Egyptian presidential election....

, stated that Libya's membership in the Arab League had been suspended: "the organisation has decided to halt the participation of the Libyan delegations from all Arab League sessions". This makes Libya the second country in the League's history to have a frozen membership. Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar Gaddafi or "September 1942" 20 October 2011), commonly known as Muammar Gaddafi or Colonel Gaddafi, was the official ruler of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then the "Brother Leader" of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011.He seized power in a...

 declared that the League was illegitimate, saying, "The Arab League is finished. There is no such thing as the Arab League". On 25 August 2011, Secretary General Nabil Elaraby
Nabil Elaraby
Nabil Elaraby is an Egyptian diplomat, currently the Secretary-General of the Arab League having been elected on 15 May 2011. Previously, he was Foreign Minister of Egypt in Essam Sharaf's government from March-June 2011.-Early life and education:Elaraby holds a J.S.D. and an LL.M...

 announced it was "about time" Libya's full member status was restored. The National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
The National Transitional Council of Libya , sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, the Interim National Council, or the Libyan National Council,...

, the partially recognised interim government of Libya, will send a representative to be seated at the Arab League meeting on August 27 to participate in a discussion as to whether to readmit Libya to the organisation.

The Arab Parliament
Arab Parliament
At the Arab League Summit of 2001-Amman, the Arab states agreed to create an Arab Parliament, and came up with a resolution to give the Secretary General of the Arab League the power to start and create the Parliament...

 recommended the suspension of member states Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

 on 20 September 2011, over persistent reports of disproportionate violence against regime opponents and activists during the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
The Arab Spring , otherwise known as the Arab Awakening, is a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world that began on Saturday, 18 December 2010...

. A vote on 12 November agreed to formally suspend Syria four days after the vote, giving Assad a last chance to avoid suspension. Syria, Lebanon, and Yemen voted against the motion, while Iraq abstained.

Politics


{{Main|Politics of the Arab League}}
The Arab League is a political organization aiming to help integrate its members economically, and solve in-between conflicts without asking for foreign help. It possesses elements of a state representative parliament, while issues of foreign affairs are usually dealt under the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 supervision.

Governance



{{Main|Government of the Arab League|Arab Parliament}}

The Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland
Pan-Arabism
Pan-Arabism is an ideology espousing the unification--or, sometimes, close cooperation and solidarity against perceived enemies of the Arabs--of the countries of the Arab world, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the Arabs...

 while respecting the sovereignty
Sovereignty
Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory. It can be found in a power to rule and make law that rests on a political fact for which no purely legal explanation can be provided...

 of the individual member states. The internal regulations of the Council of the League and the committees were agreed in October 1951. Those of the Secretariat-General were agreed in May 1953.

Since then, governance of the Arab League has been based on the duality of supra-national institutions and the sovereignty of the member states. Preservation of individual statehood derived its strengths from the natural preference of ruling elites to maintain their power and independence in decision making. Moreover, the fear of the richer that the poorer may share their wealth in the name of Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism is a nationalist ideology celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world...

, the feuds among Arab rulers
Arab Cold War
The Arab Cold War was a series of sub-conflicts, during the global Cold War period, waged between the Arab states from the era of European decolonization to the collapse of the Soviet Bloc. The term was coined by American political scientist and Middle East scholar Malcolm Kerr, in his 1965 book of...

, and the influence of external powers that might oppose Arab unity can be seen as obstacles towards a deeper integration of the league.

Status of the Palestinian Territories


{{See also|Arab Peace Initiative}}
Mindful of their previous announcements in support of the Arabs of Palestine
Palestine
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

 the framers of the Pact were determined to include them within the League from its inauguration. This was done by means of an annex that declared:
{{cquote|Even though Palestine was not able to control her own destiny, it was on the basis of the recognition of her independence that the Covenant of the League of Nations determined a system of government for her. Her existence and her independence among the nations can, therefore, no more be questioned de jure than the independence of any of the other Arab States. [...] Therefore, the States signatory to the Pact of the Arab League consider that in view of Palestine's special circumstances, the Council of the League should designate an Arab delegate from Palestine to participate in its work until this country enjoys actual independence}}

At the Cairo Summit of 1964, the Arab League initiated the creation of an organisation representing the Palestinian people. The first Palestinian National Council
Palestinian National Council
The Palestinian National Council is the legislative body of the Palestine Liberation Organization and elects its Executive Committee, which assumes leadership of the organization between its sessions. The Council normally meets every two years. Resolutions are passed by a simple majority with a...

 convened in East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem refer to the parts of Jerusalem captured and annexed by Jordan in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and then captured and annexed by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War...

 on 29 May 1964. The Palestinian Liberation Organization was founded during this meeting on 2 June 1964.

Today, Palestine enjoys the status of a full member of the Arab League and is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.

At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative
Arab Peace Initiative
The Beirut Summit was a meeting of the Arab League in Beirut, Lebanon in March 2002 to discuss the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The meeting became especially noteworthy for the adoption, by the Arab states attending, of a proposal offering a comprehensive peace between the Arab countries and...

, a Saudi-inspired peace plan for the Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to political tensions and open hostilities between the Arab peoples and the Jewish community of the Middle East. The modern Arab-Israeli conflict began with the rise of Zionism and Arab Nationalism towards the end of the nineteenth century, and intensified with the...

. The initiative offered full normalisation of the relations with Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

. In exchange, Israel was required to withdraw from all occupied territories
Occupied territories
Occupied territory is territory under military occupation. Occupation is a term of art in international law; in accordance with Article 42 of the Laws and Customs of War on Land ; October 18, 1907, territory is considered occupied when it is actually placed under the authority of the hostile army...

, including the Golan Heights, to recognise Palestinian independence in the West Bank
West Bank
The West Bank ) of the Jordan River is the landlocked geographical eastern part of the Palestinian territories located in Western Asia. To the west, north, and south, the West Bank shares borders with the state of Israel. To the east, across the Jordan River, lies the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan...

 and Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
thumb|Gaza city skylineThe Gaza Strip lies on the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Strip borders Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the south, east and north. It is about long, and between 6 and 12 kilometres wide, with a total area of...

, with East Jerusalem as its capital, as well as a "just solution" for the Palestinian refugees.

The Peace Initiative was again endorsed at 2007 in the Riyadh Summit. In July 2007, the Arab League sent a mission, consisting of the Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

ian and Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

ian foreign ministers, to Israel to promote the initiative. The mission was welcomed with reservations by Israel.{{Citation needed|date=July 2008}}

Following Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

's move to expel the resident Israeli diplomats amid the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict
2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict
The Gaza War, known as Operation Cast Lead in Israel and as the Gaza Massacre in the Arab world, was a three-week bombing and invasion of the Gaza Strip by Israel, and hundreds of rocket attacks on south of Israel which...

, Kuwaiti member of parliament Waleed al-Tabtabai made a public plea to move the Arab League headquarters from Cairo to Caracas, Venezuela.

On 13 June 2010, Amr Mohammed Moussa, Secretary-General of the Arab League visited the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
thumb|Gaza city skylineThe Gaza Strip lies on the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Strip borders Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the south, east and north. It is about long, and between 6 and 12 kilometres wide, with a total area of...

 in a move to pressure Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 to lift its economic blockade
Blockade
A blockade is an effort to cut off food, supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade should not be confused with an embargo or sanctions, which are legal barriers to trade, and is distinct from a siege in that a blockade is usually...

 against the Gaza due to its leadership under Hamas
Hamas
Hamas is the Palestinian Sunni Islamic or Islamist political party that governs the Gaza Strip. Hamas also has a military wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades...

. The visit by Moussa was the first by an official of the Arab League since the election of Hamas in 2007. Immediately after the Israeli raid on the flotilla of ships bringing aid to Gaza, Moussa said the Arab League would go to the UN Security Council to demand the blockade be lifted. Israel maintains that the blockade is needed for Israeli security.{{Citation needed|date=June 2011}}

Summits



{{columns-list|2|
  1.   Cairo
    1964 Arab League summit (Cairo)
    The 1964 Arab League summit was the first summit of the Arab League, held in Cairo, Egypt, on 13 - 16 January 1964 and attended by all thirteen member states....

    : 13–17 January 1964.
  2.   Alexandria
    Alexandria
    Alexandria is the second-largest city of Egypt, with a population of 4.1 million, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country; it is also the largest city lying directly on the Mediterranean coast. It is Egypt's largest seaport, serving...

    : 5–11 September 1964.
  3.   Casablanca
    1965 Arab League summit
    The 1965 Arab League summit was held on September 13 in Casablanca, Morocco. The summit was boycotted by Tunisia over disagreements with Egypt....

    : 13–17 September 1965.
  4.   Khartoum
    1967 Arab League summit
    The 1967 Arab League summit was held on August 29 in Khartoum as the fourth Arab League Summit. The summit came in the aftermath of the Arab defeat to Israel in the Six-Day War and is famous for its Khartoum Resolution known as "The Three No's"; No peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, no...

    : 29 August 1967.
  5.   Rabat
    Rabat
    Rabat , is the capital and third largest city of the Kingdom of Morocco with a population of approximately 650,000...

    : 21–23 December 1969.
  6.   Cairo
    1970 Arab League summit
    The 1970 Arab League summit was held on September 27 in Cairo, Egypt as an extraordinary Arab League Summit. The summit came in the aftermath of the bloody events of Black September in Jordan, and the clashes between the Palestinian Liberation Organization and King Hussein of Jordan...

     (first emergency summit): 21–27 September 1970
  7.   Algiers
    Algiers
    ' is the capital and largest city of Algeria. According to the 1998 census, the population of the city proper was 1,519,570 and that of the urban agglomeration was 2,135,630. In 2009, the population was about 3,500,000...

    : 26–28 November.1973.
  8.   Rabat: 29 October 1974.
  9.   Riyadh
    1976 Arab League summit (Riyadh)
    The 1976 Arab League summit was held on October 16 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as an extraordinary Arab League Summit. The summit came in the aftermath of the escalating civil war in Lebanon. It was attended only by representatives from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Kuwait, Lebanon and the Palestinian...

     (2nd emergency summit): 17–28 October 1976.
  10.   Cairo
    1976 Arab League summit (Cairo)
    The 1976 Arab League summit was held on October 25 in Cairo, Egypt less than two weeks after the Riyadh summit. The summit had a wider Arab participation, it was dedicated to follow up on the deteriorating situation in Lebanon....

    : 25–26 October 1976.
  11.   Baghdad
    1978 Arab League summit
    The 1978 Arab League summit was held on November 2nd in Baghdad as the 9th Arab League Summit. The summit came in the aftermath of the Egypt's Anwar Sadat's unilateral peace treaty with Israel. Arab leaders convened in Baghdad in the absence of Egypt and decided to expel it from the Arab League....

    : 2–5 November.1978.
  12.   Tunis
    Tunis
    Tunis is the capital of both the Tunisian Republic and the Tunis Governorate. It is Tunisia's largest city, with a population of 728,453 as of 2004; the greater metropolitan area holds some 2,412,500 inhabitants....

    : 20–22 November 1979.
  13.   Amman
    Amman
    Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

    : 21–22 November 1980.
  14.   Fes
    Fes
    Fes or Fez is the second largest city of Morocco, after Casablanca, with a population of approximately 1 million . It is the capital of the Fès-Boulemane region....

    : 6–9 September 1982.
  15.   Casablanca
    Casablanca
    Casablanca is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Grand Casablanca region.Casablanca is Morocco's largest city as well as its chief port. It is also the biggest city in the Maghreb. The 2004 census recorded a population of 2,949,805 in the prefecture...

     (3rd emergency summit): 7–9 September 1985
  16.   Amman
    Amman
    Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

     (4th emergency summit): 8–12 November 1987.
  17.   Algiers
    Algiers
    ' is the capital and largest city of Algeria. According to the 1998 census, the population of the city proper was 1,519,570 and that of the urban agglomeration was 2,135,630. In 2009, the population was about 3,500,000...

     (5th emergency summit): 7–9 June 1988.
  18.   Casablanca
    Casablanca
    Casablanca is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Grand Casablanca region.Casablanca is Morocco's largest city as well as its chief port. It is also the biggest city in the Maghreb. The 2004 census recorded a population of 2,949,805 in the prefecture...

     (6th emergency summit): 23–26 June 1989.
  19.   Baghdad
    Baghdad
    Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

     (7th emergency summit): 28–30 March 1990.
  20.   Cairo
    Cairo
    Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

     (8th emergency summit): 9–10 August 1990
  21.   Cairo
    Cairo
    Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

     (9th emergency summit): 22–23 June 1996.
  22.   Cairo
    Cairo
    Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

     (10th emergency summit): 21–22 October 2000.
  23.   Amman
    Amman
    Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

    : 27–28 March 2001.
  24.   Beirut: 27–28 March 2002.
  25.   Sharm el-Sheikh
    Sharm el-Sheikh
    Sharm el-Sheikh is a city situated on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, on the coastal strip along the Red Sea. Its population is approximately 35,000...

    : 1 March 2003.
  26.   Tunis
    Tunis
    Tunis is the capital of both the Tunisian Republic and the Tunis Governorate. It is Tunisia's largest city, with a population of 728,453 as of 2004; the greater metropolitan area holds some 2,412,500 inhabitants....

    : 22–23 May 2004.
  27.   Algiers
    Algiers
    ' is the capital and largest city of Algeria. According to the 1998 census, the population of the city proper was 1,519,570 and that of the urban agglomeration was 2,135,630. In 2009, the population was about 3,500,000...

    : 22–23 March 2005.
  28.   Khartoum
    Khartoum
    Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan and of Khartoum State. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile flowing west from Ethiopia. The location where the two Niles meet is known as "al-Mogran"...

    : 28–30 March 2006.
  29.   Riyadh
    2007 Arab League summit
    The 2007 Arab League Summit, also called the Riyadh Summit, refers to a convention of leaders from 21 members of the Arab League who gathered in Riyadh for the 19th Arab summit in March 2007. The summit convened on the 28 March 2007 and was preceded by a set of preparatory meetings starting on 24...

    : 27–28 March 2007.
  30.   Damascus
    2008 Arab League summit
    The 2008 Arab League summit was held in Damascus on March 29, 2008. The summit was marred by inter-Arab differences, mainly over the political deadlock in Lebanon, with relations between Syria and the Saudi-Egypt coalition reaching an all time low. Saudi Arabia and Egypt snubbed the summit by...

    : 29–30 March 2008.
  31.   Doha
    2009 Arab League summit
    The 2009 Arab League summit was held in Doha, Qatar on March 30, 2009. The Arab League defied the International Criminal Court by giving a "warm welcome" to Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir, whom the Court placed a warrant on for war crimes in the Darfur genocide.-Reaction:Egyptian...

    : 28–30 March 2009.
  32.   Sirte
    2010 Arab League summit
    The Arab League 22nd Summit was held in Sirte, in Libya on the 27th of March 2010.Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi spoke at the summit, stressing that Israel should return the Golan Heights to Syria....

    : 27–28 March 2010.
  33.   Baghdad
    2011 Arab League summit
    The Sirt summit announced that the next Arab League summit will be held in Baghdad, and will be considered the first Arab League summit in Baghdad in almost 20 years, ever since the 1990 Gulf war sparked, the Arab League summit is expected to discuss the Arab Union, on the top of the Baghdad...

    : Postponed to March 2012.

}}

{{Columns-start|num=2}}
  • Two summits are not added to the system of Arab League summits:
    • Anshas
      Anshas
      Anshas is a city East of Cairo located in the Sharkiya Governorate in the Nile Delta of Egypt.It holds the first experimental nuclear reactor to be operated in Egypt, the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority Experimental Farm, unauthorized IAEA....

      , Egypt: 28–29 May 1946
    • Beirut, Lebanon: 13 – 15 November 1956

{{Column}}
  • Summit 14 in Fes, Morocco, occurred in two stages:
    • On 25 November 1981: The 5-hours meeting ended without an agreed on document.
    • On 6–9 September 1982

{{Columns-end}}

Economy


{{Main|Economy of the Arab League}}
{{See also|List of countries by GDP (PPP)|List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita}}
The Arab League is rich in resources, with enormous oil
Oil
An oil is any substance that is liquid at ambient temperatures and does not mix with water but may mix with other oils and organic solvents. This general definition includes vegetable oils, volatile essential oils, petrochemical oils, and synthetic oils....

 and natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

 resources in certain member states; it also has great fertile lands in southern Sudan
Sudan
Sudan , officially the Republic of the Sudan , is a country in North Africa, sometimes considered part of the Middle East politically. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the...

, usually referred to as the food basket of the Arab World
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

. The region's instability has not affected its tourism industry, considered the fastest growing industry in the region, with Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, the UAE, Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

, Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

, Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

, and Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

 leading the way.{{citation needed|date=August 2010}} Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is telecommunications. Within less than a decade, local companies such as Orascom, and Etisalat
Etisalat
Emirates Telecommunications Corporation, branded trade name Etisalat is a UAE based telecommunications services provider, currently operating in 18 countries across Asia, the Middle East and Africa...

 have managed to compete internationally.

Economic achievements initiated by the League amongst member states have been less impressive than those achieved by other smaller Arab organisations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). However, several promising major economic projects are set to be completed soon. Among them is the Arab Gas Pipeline
Arab Gas Pipeline
The Arab Gas Pipeline is a natural gas pipeline in the Middle East. It exports Egyptian natural gas to Jordan, Syria and Lebanon, with a separate line to Israel. It has a total length of at a cost of US$1.2 billion.-Arish–Aqaba section:...

, scheduled to be accomplished in 2010. It will transport Egyptian and Iraqi gas to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey. The Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA), planned to come into effect on 1 January 2008, will render 95% of all Arab products free of customs.{{Citation needed|date=July 2009}}

Economic development in the Arab League is very disparate. Significant difference in wealth and economic conditions exist between the rich oil states of the UAE, Qatar
Qatar
Qatar , also known as the State of Qatar or locally Dawlat Qaṭar, is a sovereign Arab state, located in the Middle East, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its...

, Kuwait
Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

, and Algeria
Algeria
Algeria , officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria , also formally referred to as the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa with Algiers as its capital.In terms of land area, it is the largest country in Africa and the Arab...

 on the one hand, and poor countries like the Comoros
Comoros
The Comoros , officially the Union of the Comoros is an archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean, located off the eastern coast of Africa, on the northern end of the Mozambique Channel, between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar...

, Mauritania
Mauritania
Mauritania is a country in the Maghreb and West Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the west, by Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest...

, and Djibouti
Djibouti
Djibouti , officially the Republic of Djibouti , is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somalia in the southeast. The remainder of the border is formed by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden at the east...

 on the other. Arab economic funding is under development. As an example, the Arab League agreed to support the Sudanese region of Darfur
Darfur
Darfur is a region in western Sudan. An independent sultanate for several hundred years, it was incorporated into Sudan by Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1916. The region is divided into three federal states: West Darfur, South Darfur, and North Darfur...

 with US$500 million, and Egyptian, and Libyan companies are planning to build several wells in this dry area.

Education



{{Main|List of countries by literacy rate}}

In collecting literacy data, many countries estimate the number of literate people based on self-reported data. Some use educational attainment data as a proxy, but measures of school attendance or grade completion may differ. Because definitions and data collection methods vary across countries, literacy estimates should be used with caution. United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Development Programme
The United Nations Development Programme is the United Nations' global development network. It advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. UNDP operates in 177 countries, working with nations on their own solutions to...

, Human Development Report
Human Development Report
The Human Development Report is an annual milestone publication by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme .-History:...

 2010.
Rank Country Literacy
Literacy
Literacy has traditionally been described as the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently and think critically about printed material.Literacy represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from print...

 rate
1  Kuwait 94.5
2  Palestinian National Authority 94.1
3  Qatar 93.1
4  Jordan 92.2
5  Bahrain 90.8
6  United Arab Emirates 90.0
7  Lebanon 89.6
8  Libya 88.4
9  Oman 86.7
10  Saudi Arabia 85.5
11  Syria 83.6
12  Tunisia 78
13  Iraq 77.6
14  Comoros 73.6
15  Algeria 72.6
16  Sudan 69.3
17  Djibouti 67.9
18  Egypt 66.4
19  Yemen 60.9
20  Mauritania 56.8
21  Morocco 56.4
22  Somalia 51.6

Demographics


{{Main|Demographics of the Arab League}}
The Arab League is a culturally and ethnically diverse association of 22 member states, although the overwhelming majority of the League's population identifies as Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 (either on a cultural basis, or on an ethno-racial basis). As of 1 January 2007, about 340,000,000 people live in the states of the Arab League. Its population grows faster than in most other global regions. This threatens to diminish the slow economic expansion expected in the league's developing countries.{{Citation needed|date=July 2008}}

The most populous member state is Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, with a population of about 81 million. The least populated is the Comoros
Comoros
The Comoros , officially the Union of the Comoros is an archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean, located off the eastern coast of Africa, on the northern end of the Mozambique Channel, between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar...

, with over 0.6 million inhabitants.

Since large parts of the Arab countries are desert, the population is concentrated in and around cities where most the trade and industry are located. The largest Arab city is Cairo
Cairo
Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

, followed by Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

, Khartoum
Khartoum
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan and of Khartoum State. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile flowing west from Ethiopia. The location where the two Niles meet is known as "al-Mogran"...

, Giza, Damascus
Damascus
Damascus , commonly known in Syria as Al Sham , and as the City of Jasmine , is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo, both are part of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major...

, Riyadh
Riyadh
Riyadh is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province, and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, and is home to 5,254,560 people, and the urban center of a...

, and Casablanca
Casablanca
Casablanca is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Grand Casablanca region.Casablanca is Morocco's largest city as well as its chief port. It is also the biggest city in the Maghreb. The 2004 census recorded a population of 2,949,805 in the prefecture...

.

Population

Rank Country Population Density (/km2) Density (sq mi) Notes
1  Egypt 85,436,072 {{#expr:(72798031 + 4241 * {{Age in days 2006
2  Algeria 34,895,000 {{#expr: 34895000 / 2381741 round 0}} /km2
3  Morocco 32,287,474 {{#expr: (31514000 + 923 * {{Age in days 2009
4  Sudan 36,894,000 {{#expr: 31894000 / 1886068 round 0}} /km2
5  Iraq 30,747,000 {{#expr: 30747000 / 438317 round 0}} /km2
6  Saudi Arabia 28,146,658 {{#expr: 25721000 / 2149690 round 0}} /km2
7  Yemen 35,580,000 {{#expr: 23580000 / 527968 round 0}} /km2
8  Syria 21,906,000 {{#expr: 21906000 / 185180 round 0}} /km2
9  Tunisia 10,327,800 {{#expr: 10327000 / 163610 round 0}} /km2
10  Somalia 9,133,000 {{#expr: 9133000 / 637657 round 0}} /km2
11  United Arab Emirates 8,264,070 {{#expr: 8264070 / 83600 round 0}} /km2
12  Libya 8,420,000 {{#expr: 6420000 / 1759540 round 1}} /km2
13  Jordan 6,316,000 {{#expr: 6316000 / 89342 round 0}} /km2
14  Lebanon 4,224,000 {{#expr: 4224000 / 10452 round 0}} /km2
15  Palestinian territories 4,100,000 {{#expr: 4100000 / 6020 round 0}} /km2
16  Kuwait 3,566,437 {{#expr: 3566437 / 17818 round 0}} /km2
17  Mauritania 3,291,000 {{#expr: 3291000 / 1025520 round 1}} /km2
18  Oman 2,845,000 {{#expr: 2845000 / 309500 round 1}} /km2
19  Qatar 1,409,000 {{#expr: 1409000 / 11000 round 0}} /km2
20  Bahrain 1,234,596 {{#expr: 1234596 / 750 round 0}} /km2
21  Djibouti 864,000 {{#expr: 864000 / 23200 round 0}} /km2
22  Comoros 676,000 {{#expr: 676000 / 2235 round 0}} /km2
Total  Arab League 346,563,107 {{#expr: 346563107 / 13157207 round 1}} {{#expr: 346563107 / 13157207 round 1}} /km2

Religion


{{ref improve section|date=February 2011}}
{{bar box
|width = 300px
|float = right
|title = Religions
|titlebar = #ddd
|bars =
{{bar percent|Muslims|seagreen|90}}
{{bar percent|Christians|blue|6}}
{{bar percent|Others|red|4}}
}}
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam were all founded in or near areas that are now Arab League countries. Today, consequently, the vast majority of the Arab League's citizens are Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

, with Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 being the second largest religion. Prior to the establishment of the State of Israel, significant number of Jews
Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

 also lived in Arab counties, but these communities are nearly extinct since the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim lands. The members of the Arab League host several holy cities and other religiously significant locations, including: Alexandria
Alexandria
Alexandria is the second-largest city of Egypt, with a population of 4.1 million, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country; it is also the largest city lying directly on the Mediterranean coast. It is Egypt's largest seaport, serving...

, Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Bethlehem is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank of the Jordan River, near Israel and approximately south of Jerusalem, with a population of about 30,000 people. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority and a hub of Palestinian culture and tourism...

, Karbala
Karbala
Karbala is a city in Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad. Karbala is the capital of Karbala Governorate, and has an estimated population of 572,300 people ....

, Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Kirkuk is a city in Iraq and the capital of Kirkuk Governorate.It is located in the Iraqi governorate of Kirkuk, north of the capital, Baghdad...

, Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

, Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 and Najaf
Najaf
Najaf is a city in Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. Its estimated population in 2008 is 560,000 people. It is the capital of Najaf Governorate...

. Sunni Muslims make up the majority of the Arab League's citizens. However, large numbers of Shiite Muslims make up the majority in Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 and Bahrain
Bahrain
' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

, as well as in areas of Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, Kuwait
Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

 and Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

.

Christianity
Arab Christians
Arab Christians are ethnic Arabs of Christian faith, sometimes also including those, who are identified with Arab panethnicity. They are the remnants of ancient Arab Christian clans or Arabized Christians. Many of the modern Arab Christians are descendants of pre-Islamic Christian Arabian tribes,...

 is the second largest religion in the League, with over 20 million Christians living in countries such as Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

, Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

, Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, Palestine
Palestine
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

, Sudan
Sudan
Sudan , officially the Republic of the Sudan , is a country in North Africa, sometimes considered part of the Middle East politically. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the...

 and Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

. There are tiny Jewish
Arab Jews
Arab Jews is a term referring to Jews living in the Arab World, or Jews descended from such persons.The term was occasionally used in the early 20th century, mainly by Arab nationalists, to describe the 1 million Jews living in the Arab world at the time...

 populations living mostly in the Maghreb
Maghreb
The Maghreb is the region of Northwest Africa, west of Egypt. It includes five countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Mauritania and the disputed territory of Western Sahara...

 region, mainly in Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

 and Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

. However, most Jews living in the Arab World immigrated or were expelled to Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 after its creation in 1948. Other minor religious groups include the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
The Bahá'í Faith is a monotheistic religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in 19th-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind. There are an estimated five to six million Bahá'ís around the world in more than 200 countries and territories....

 and the Druze
Druze
The Druze are an esoteric, monotheistic religious community, found primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, which emerged during the 11th century from Ismailism. The Druze have an eclectic set of beliefs that incorporate several elements from Abrahamic religions, Gnosticism, Neoplatonism...


  • Muslim population - 311,093,951
  • Total population - 339,510,535

Arab League population by sect following
N Country Islam Christians Others
1 {{ALG}} 99% 0.5% 0.5%
2 {{BHR}} 81.2% 9% 8.81%
3 {{COM}} 99% 1% n/a
4 {{DJI}} 94% 5% 1%
5 {{EGY}} 83% 16% 1%
6 {{IRQ}} 95% 4.3% 0.7%
7 {{JOR}} 93% 6% 1%
8 {{KWT}} 85% 10% 5%
9 {{LIB}} 62% 36% 2%
10  Libya 97% 0% 3%
11 {{MRT}} 100% 0% 0%
12 {{MAR}} 98.7% 1% 0.3%
13 {{OMN}} 92.5% 5% 2.5%
14  Palestinian National Authority 92% 8% -
15 {{QAT}} 77.6% 11% 11.4%
16 {{SAU}} 100% 0% 0%
17 {{SOM}} 97% 3% 0%
18 {{SUD}} 97% 3% 0.001%
19 {{SYR}} 85% 9% 6%
20 {{TUN}} 98% 1% 1%
21 {{ARE}} 76% 9% 15%
22 {{YEM}} 99% 0.2% 0.8%
   Arab League 90% 6% 4%

Area

Rank Country Area (km2){{anchor|**}}Source, unless otherwise specified: {{Cite document url=http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2008/Table03.pdf format=pdf title=Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density publisher=United Nations Statistics Division year=2008 accessdate = 24 September 2010 postscript=
}}

Entries in this table giving figures other than the figures given in this source are bracketed by asterisks in the Notes field, and the rationale for the figure used are explained in the associated Note.
Area (sq mi) % of Total Notes
1  Algeria 2381741919,595.3 18.1% Largest country in Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

 and in the Arab world
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

.
2  Saudi Arabia 2149690829,999.9 16.4% Largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

.
3  Sudan 1861484718,723 14.2% Formerly the largest country in Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

.
4  Libya 1759540679,362.2 11.4%
5  Mauritania 1025520395,955.5 7.8%
6  Egypt 1002000386,874.4 7.6% Excluding the Hala'ib Triangle
Hala'ib Triangle
The Hala'ib Triangle is an area of land measuring located on the Red Sea's African coast...

 (20,580 km2/7,950 sq mi).
7  Somalia 637657246,200.7 4.9%
8  Yemen 527968203,849.6 4.0%
9  Morocco 446550172,413.9 3.4% Does not include Western Sahara
Western Sahara
Western Sahara is a disputed territory in North Africa, bordered by Morocco to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Its surface area amounts to . It is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world, mainly...

 (266,000 km2/103,000 sq mi).
10  Iraq 435244168,048.6 3.3%
11  Oman 309500119,498.6 2.4%
12  Syria 18518071,498.4 1.4% Including the part of the Golan Heights (1,200 km2/460 sq mi) currently administered by Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

.
13  Tunisia 16361063,170.2 1.2%
14  Jordan 8934234,495.1 0.7%
15  United Arab Emirates 8360032,278.1 0.6%
16  Djibouti 232008,957.6 0.1%
17  Kuwait 178186,879.6 0.1%
18  Qatar 115864,473.4 0.08%
19  Lebanon 104524,035.5 0.08%
20  Palestinian territories 60202,324.3 0.05%
21  Comoros 2235862.9 0.01%
22  Bahrain 758292.7 0.005%

Comparisons with other organizations


The Arab League resembles the Organization of American States
Organization of American States
The Organization of American States is a regional international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States...

, the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
The Council of Europe is an international organisation promoting co-operation between all countries of Europe in the areas of legal standards, human rights, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural co-operation...

, and the African Union
African Union
The African Union is a union consisting of 54 African states. The only all-African state not in the AU is Morocco. Established on 9 July 2002, the AU was formed as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity...

, in that it has primarily political aims. However, membership in the League is based on culture rather than purely geographical location. In this respect, the Arab League resembles organisations such as the Latin Union
Latin Union
The Latin Union is an international organization of nations that use Romance languages, with the aim of protecting, projecting, and promoting the common cultural heritage and unifying identities of the Latin, and Latin-influenced, world. It was created in 1954 in Madrid, Spain, and has existed as a...

, or the Caribbean Community
Caribbean Community
The Caribbean Community is an organisation of 15 Caribbean nations and dependencies. CARICOM's main purposes are to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and to coordinate foreign policy...

.

The Arab League differs notably from the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 in that it has not achieved a significant degree of regional integration, and the organisation itself has no direct relations with the citizens of its member states. However, the Arab League is based on principles that support and promote a unified Arab nationalism, and a common position among Arab states on various issues.

All Arab League members are also members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. In turn, the memberships of the smaller GCC, and Arab Maghreb Union
Arab Maghreb Union
The Arab Maghreb Union is a trade agreement aiming for economic and some sort of future political unity in North Africa between the countries Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Mauritania...

 organisations are subsets of that of the League.

See also


{{Columns-start|num=2}}
  • Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport
    Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport
    The Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport is an organization specialized in Science and Technology and Maritime Transport....

     (AASTMT)
  • Arab Air Carriers Organization
    Arab Air Carriers Organization
    The Arab Air Carriers Organization , established in 1965, is a non profit organization and has 24 Arab airlines as members.AACO was established by the League of Arab States . Its goal is to promote cooperation, quality and safety standards among the Arab airlines...

  • Arab Charter on Human Rights
  • Arab Cold War
    Arab Cold War
    The Arab Cold War was a series of sub-conflicts, during the global Cold War period, waged between the Arab states from the era of European decolonization to the collapse of the Soviet Bloc. The term was coined by American political scientist and Middle East scholar Malcolm Kerr, in his 1965 book of...

  • Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
    Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
    The Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development is a Kuwait-based, pan-Arab development finance institution. All member-states of the Arab League are members of the AFESD. As of 2003, it held around USD 7.3 billion in assets....

     (AFESD)
  • Arabic industrial development and mining organization
    Arabic industrial development and mining organization
    Arabic Industrial Development and Mining Organization -History:In a summit in Kuwait 1966 the Arab League Council decided to establish an organization to improve and develop the industry in general. The decision was approved by the Arab Economic Council in 1968. The headquarters was decided to be...

  • Arab Inter-parliamentary Union
  • Arab League and the Arab–Israeli conflict
  • Arab League boycott of Israel
    Arab League boycott of Israel
    The Arab League boycott of Israel is a systematic effort by Arab League member states to isolate Israel economically to prevent Arab states and discourage non-Arabs from providing support to Israel and adding to Israel's economic and military strength...

  • Arab Maghreb Union
    Arab Maghreb Union
    The Arab Maghreb Union is a trade agreement aiming for economic and some sort of future political unity in North Africa between the countries Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Mauritania...

     (UMA)
  • Arab Monetary Fund
    Arab Monetary Fund
    The Arab Monetary Fund is a regional Arab organization, founded 1976, and operational from 1977. It is a working sub-organization of the Arab League.-Objectives:...

  • Arab Organization for Industrialization
    Arab Organization for Industrialization
    The Arab Organization for Industrialization is an Egypt-based Arab military organisation established in 1975 by Egypt, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates to supervise the collective development of the Arab defence industry. Following a gradual deterioration in relations between the...

  • Arab Parliament
    Arab Parliament
    At the Arab League Summit of 2001-Amman, the Arab states agreed to create an Arab Parliament, and came up with a resolution to give the Secretary General of the Arab League the power to start and create the Parliament...

  • Arab World
    Arab world
    The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...


{{Column}}
  • Council of Arab Economic Unity
    Council of Arab Economic Unity
    The Council of Arab Economic Unity was established by Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen on 3 June 1957...

     (CAEU)
  • General Arab Insurance Federation
    General Arab Insurance Federation
    The General Arab Insurance Federation was established in September 1964 after a treaty was signed in Cairo, Egypt, in response to demands for such an organization by insurance companies. The headquarters of the Federation is also in Cairo since 1964. The Secretary General of the Organization is Dr...

  • General Union of Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture for Arab Countries
    General Union of Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture for Arab Countries
    -Introduction:Established in 1951, with the Headquarters in Beirut, Known Simply as the General Union, its a non-Governmental Organization that represents the Arab Private Sector on the regional and international levels....

  • Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
  • International Confederation of Arab Trade Unions
  • List of conflicts in the Arab League
  • List of largest cities of the Arab League
  • Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries
    Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries
    The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries is a multi-governmental organization headquartered in Kuwait which coordinates energy policies between oil–producing Arab nations, and whose main purpose is developmental.-History:...

     (OAPEC)
  • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
  • Pan Arab Games
    Pan Arab Games
    The Arab Games are a regional multi-sport event held between nations from the Arab World. They are organized by the Union of Arab National Olympic Committees. The first Games took place in 1953 in Alexandria, Egypt. Intended to be held every four years since, political turmoil as well as financial...

  • Pan Arabism
  • Summit of South American-Arab Countries
    Summit of South American-Arab Countries
    The Summit of South American-Arab Countries is a bi-regional mechanism for cooperation and political coordination, which gathers the 22 member-States of the League of Arab States and the 12 countries of South America...

  • United Arab Command
    United Arab Command
    The United Arab Command was a unified Arab military command established by unanimous resolution of the thirteen member states of the Arab League at the summit held in Cairo, Egypt, on 13 - 16 January 1964.-Predecessors:The UAC was the culmination of a history of pan-Arabist collective security...

  • Orange card system - motor insurance scheme of the Arab League

{{Columns-end}}

Further reading

  • Ankerl, Guy: Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva, INU Press, 2000. ISBN 2-88155-0044-5
  • Geddes, Charles L: A Documentary History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Greenwood Press, 1991. ISBN 0-275-93858-1

External links


{{Wikisource|Arab League Pact}}
{{commons|League of Arab States}}
  • Arab League official site (Arabic)
  • The League of Arab States at Al-Bab.com
  • The Arab League at Council on Foreign Relations
    Council on Foreign Relations
    The Council on Foreign Relations is an American nonprofit nonpartisan membership organization, publisher, and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs...

  • Profile: Arab League, BBC News
    BBC News
    BBC News is the department of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online...

    , updated 9 March 2011
  • Arab League at Jewish Virtual Library
    Jewish Virtual Library
    Jewish Virtual Library is an online encyclopedia published by the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise . Established in 1993, it is a comprehensive website covering Israel, the Jewish people, and Jewish culture.-History:...

  • Arab League at Looklex Encyclopaedia
  • Arab League at Winthrop University
    Winthrop University
    Winthrop University is a public, four-year liberal arts university in Rock Hill, South Carolina, USA. In 2006-07, Winthrop University had an enrollment of 6,292 students. The University has been recognized as South Carolina's top-rated university according to evaluations conducted by the South...

  • Arab League at WorldStatesmen.org


{{Arab League|state=expanded}}
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