Antonio Cruz García
, known as Antonio Mairena
(Mairena del Alcor
Mairena del Alcor is a city located in the province of Seville, Spain. According to the 2007 census, the city has a population of 18.710 inhabitants.-External links:** - Sistema de Información Multiterritorial de Andalucía...
, Seville Province, Spain, 1909 – Seville, 1983) was a famous flamenco
Flamenco is a genre of music and dance which has its foundation in Andalusian music and dance and in whose evolution Andalusian Gypsies played an important part....
singer. He led the movement towards the revival of traditional flamenco in the fifties and subsequent decades.
García was born in a Gypsy family of smiths and learned to sing in the family environment. An important personality of flamenco, he was the main leader of a movement of flamenco artists and intellectuals who tried to rescue a type of flamenco, which they considered to be pure or authentic. He rescued or recreated a high number of songs that had been almost lost, and also published several books and articles to divulge his views on flamenco and flamenco history. He considered himself as heir to the art of Manuel Torre
Manuel Soto Loreto, known as Manuel Torre or Manuel Torres , was a Romani flamenco singer.- Beginning :...
, the most classic flamenco singer from Jerez
Jerez de la Frontera is a municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia, in southwestern Spain, situated midway between the sea and the mountains. , the city, the largest in the province, had 208,896 inhabitants; it is the fifth largest in Andalusia...
, and also acknowledged the influence of other masters like Tomás Pavón or Joaquín el de la Paula.
He won several awards, the most important of which was the Llave de Oro del Cante
(Gold Key of Flamenco Singing), which he obtained in the third Concurso de Córdoba
(Contest of Córdoba
-History:The first trace of human presence in the area are remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 32,000 BC. In the 8th century BC, during the ancient Tartessos period, a pre-urban settlement existed. The population gradually learned copper and silver metallurgy...
). It is common belief that the contest was organized especially to grant him the award, and that the appearance of a contest was contrived to have a good excuse to grant him this honour, although some flamenco historians justify this on the grounds that he deserved the award for the service he had rendered to the art of flamenco (Álvarez Caballero 1995).
He excelled in the most serious, solemn palos
of Gypsy origin (often known as Cante Jondo
Cante jondo is a vocal style in flamenco. An unspoiled form of Andalusian folk music, the name means deep song It is generally considered that the common traditional classification of flamenco music is divided into three groups of which the deepest, most serious forms are known as cante jondo...
), like Tonás
Tonás is the name given to a palo or type of flamenco songs. It belongs to the wider category of Cantes a palo seco, that is, palos which are sung without accompaniment or a cappella. Owing to this feature, they are considered by traditional flamencology to be the oldest surviving musical form of...
Martinetes are a flamenco palo belonging to the group of the tonás or cantes a palo seco. As the rest of the songs in this group, it is sung with no accompaniment. In some dance shows for the stage, though, it is accompanied by percussion played with the compás of siguiriya...
, Soleá, and Seguidillas, of which he recorded all or most of the traditional songs and variations. The value of his artistic legacy is controversial. On the one hand, some flamenco fans and critics consider him to be a model to imitate, an impersonation of the most authentic flamenco, and a restorer of traditional forms. On the other hand, others disregard him as excessively orthodox, academic, and cold, and regard his views on flamenco as paralysing and a threat to the future evolution of the flamenco art. They also often accused of ethnical bias, as he tended to overemphasize the quality of flamenco styles which were of Gypsy origin, while looking down to anything non-Gypsy.
It is frequently stated that some of the songs he rescued from oblivion had in fact been created by him, although he always denied it, as he believed that in flamenco there was no scope for new creations, and modern singers had to limit their work to the traditional songs inherited from the tradition. However, many of the songs he rescued are now part of the usual repertoire of flamenco artists.
- Fiesta por bulerías y fandangos (1941)
- Bulerías y fandangos (1941)
- Disco de Tánger (1944)
- Bulerías y soleares (1950)
- Bulerías jerezanas y fandangos (1950)
- Alegrías y seguidillas (1950)
- Bulerías y soleares (1950)
- Con Antonio y Carmen Rojas al baile (1952)
- Disco de Londres (1954)
- Cantes de Antonio Mairena (1958)
- Sevilla cuna del cante flamenco (1959)
- Cinco grabaciones en disco de amianto para uso personal de Antonio Mairena (1960)
- Antología del cante flamenco y cante gitano dirigida por Antonio Mairena (1960)
- Duendes del cante de Triana (1963)
- Noches de la Alameda (1963)
- Tangos de Andalucía (1963)
- La llave de oro del cante flamenco (1964)
- Cien años de cante gitano (1965)
- La gran historia del cante gitano-andaluz (3LP) (1966)
- Sevilla por bulerías (1967)
- Festival de Cante Jondo Antonio Mairena (1967)
- Misa flamenca en Sevilla (1968)
- Mi cante por Saetas (1969)
- Honores a la Niña de los Peines (1969)
- Mis recuerdos de Manuel Torre (1970)
- La fragua de los Mairenas (1970)
- Cantes festeros de Antonio Mairena (1972)
- Grandes estilos flamencos (1972)
- Antonio Mairena y el cante de Jerez (1972)
- Cantes de Cádiz y los Puertos (1973)
- Triana, raíz del Cante (1973)
- Grabación de su participación en el Festival de la Unión (1974)
- Esquema histórico del cante por siguiriyas y soleares (1976)
- El calor de mis recuerdos (1983)
ÁLVAREZ CABALLERO, Ángel: La discoteca ideal del flamenco
, Editorial Planeta, Barcelona, 1995 ISBN 84-08-01602-4