Angiotensin

Angiotensin

Overview
Angiotensin, a peptide
Peptide
Peptides are short polymers of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds. They are distinguished from proteins on the basis of size, typically containing less than 50 monomer units. The shortest peptides are dipeptides, consisting of two amino acids joined by a single peptide bond...

 hormone
Hormone
A hormone is a chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. In essence, it is a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one...

, causes blood vessels to constrict, and drives blood pressure up. It is part of the renin-angiotensin system, which is a major target for drugs that lower blood pressure. Angiotensin also stimulates the release of aldosterone
Aldosterone
Aldosterone is a hormone that increases the reabsorption of sodium ions and water and the release of potassium in the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubule of the kidneys' functional unit, the nephron. This increases blood volume and, therefore, increases blood pressure. Drugs that...

, another hormone, from the adrenal cortex
Adrenal cortex
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, including aldosterone and cortisol respectively. It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis.-Layers:Notably, the reticularis in...

. Aldosterone
Aldosterone
Aldosterone is a hormone that increases the reabsorption of sodium ions and water and the release of potassium in the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubule of the kidneys' functional unit, the nephron. This increases blood volume and, therefore, increases blood pressure. Drugs that...

 promotes sodium retention in the distal nephron, in the kidney, which also drives blood pressure up.

Angiotensin is an oligopeptide
Peptide
Peptides are short polymers of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds. They are distinguished from proteins on the basis of size, typically containing less than 50 monomer units. The shortest peptides are dipeptides, consisting of two amino acids joined by a single peptide bond...

 in the blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 that causes vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, particularly the large arteries, small arterioles and veins. The process is the opposite of vasodilation, the widening of blood vessels. The process is particularly important in...

, increased blood pressure
Blood pressure
Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. During each heartbeat, BP varies...

, and release of aldosterone
Aldosterone
Aldosterone is a hormone that increases the reabsorption of sodium ions and water and the release of potassium in the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubule of the kidneys' functional unit, the nephron. This increases blood volume and, therefore, increases blood pressure. Drugs that...

 from the adrenal cortex
Adrenal cortex
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, including aldosterone and cortisol respectively. It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis.-Layers:Notably, the reticularis in...

.
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Encyclopedia
Angiotensin, a peptide
Peptide
Peptides are short polymers of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds. They are distinguished from proteins on the basis of size, typically containing less than 50 monomer units. The shortest peptides are dipeptides, consisting of two amino acids joined by a single peptide bond...

 hormone
Hormone
A hormone is a chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. In essence, it is a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one...

, causes blood vessels to constrict, and drives blood pressure up. It is part of the renin-angiotensin system, which is a major target for drugs that lower blood pressure. Angiotensin also stimulates the release of aldosterone
Aldosterone
Aldosterone is a hormone that increases the reabsorption of sodium ions and water and the release of potassium in the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubule of the kidneys' functional unit, the nephron. This increases blood volume and, therefore, increases blood pressure. Drugs that...

, another hormone, from the adrenal cortex
Adrenal cortex
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, including aldosterone and cortisol respectively. It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis.-Layers:Notably, the reticularis in...

. Aldosterone
Aldosterone
Aldosterone is a hormone that increases the reabsorption of sodium ions and water and the release of potassium in the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubule of the kidneys' functional unit, the nephron. This increases blood volume and, therefore, increases blood pressure. Drugs that...

 promotes sodium retention in the distal nephron, in the kidney, which also drives blood pressure up.

Angiotensin is an oligopeptide
Peptide
Peptides are short polymers of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds. They are distinguished from proteins on the basis of size, typically containing less than 50 monomer units. The shortest peptides are dipeptides, consisting of two amino acids joined by a single peptide bond...

 in the blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 that causes vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, particularly the large arteries, small arterioles and veins. The process is the opposite of vasodilation, the widening of blood vessels. The process is particularly important in...

, increased blood pressure
Blood pressure
Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. During each heartbeat, BP varies...

, and release of aldosterone
Aldosterone
Aldosterone is a hormone that increases the reabsorption of sodium ions and water and the release of potassium in the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubule of the kidneys' functional unit, the nephron. This increases blood volume and, therefore, increases blood pressure. Drugs that...

 from the adrenal cortex
Adrenal cortex
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, including aldosterone and cortisol respectively. It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis.-Layers:Notably, the reticularis in...

. It is a hormone
Hormone
A hormone is a chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. In essence, it is a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one...

 and a powerful dipsogen
Dipsogen
A dipsogen is an agent that causes thirst. -Physiology:Angiotensin II is thought to be a powerful dipsogen, and is one of the products of the renin-angiotensin pathway, a biological homeostatic mechanism for the regulation of electrolytes and water.-External references:...

. It is derived from the precursor molecule angiotensinogen, a serum globulin produced in the liver
Liver
The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion...

. It plays an important role in the renin-angiotensin system
Renin-angiotensin system
The renin-angiotensin system or the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and water balance....

. Angiotensin was independently isolated in Indianapolis and Argentina in the late 1930s (as 'Angiotonin' and 'Hypertensin' respectively) and subsequently characterised and synthesized by groups at the Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland Clinic
The Cleveland Clinic is a multispecialty academic medical center located in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. The Cleveland Clinic is currently regarded as one of the top 4 hospitals in the United States as rated by U.S. News & World Report...

 and Ciba laboratories in Basel, Switzerland.

Angiotensinogen


Angiotensinogen is an α-2-globulin
Alpha globulin
Alpha Globulins are a group of globular proteins in plasma, which are highly mobile in alkaline or electrically charged solutions. They inhibit certain blood protease and inhibitor activity.-Alpha 1 globulins:*α1-antitrypsin*Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin...

 that is produced constitutively and released into the circulation mainly by the liver.
It is a member of the serpin
Serpin
Serpins are a group of proteins with similar structures that were first identified as a set of proteins able to inhibit proteases. The acronym serpin was originally coined because many serpins inhibit chymotrypsin-like serine proteases .The first members of the serpin superfamily to be extensively...

 family, although it is not known to inhibit other enzymes, unlike most serpins. Plasma angiotensinogen levels are increased by plasma corticosteroid
Corticosteroid
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range of physiologic systems such as stress response, immune response and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte...

, estrogen
Estrogen
Estrogens , oestrogens , or œstrogens, are a group of compounds named for their importance in the estrous cycle of humans and other animals. They are the primary female sex hormones. Natural estrogens are steroid hormones, while some synthetic ones are non-steroidal...

, thyroid
Thyroid
The thyroid gland or simply, the thyroid , in vertebrate anatomy, is one of the largest endocrine glands. The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage...

 hormone
Hormone
A hormone is a chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. In essence, it is a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one...

, and angiotensin II levels.

Angiotensinogen is also known as renin substrate.

Human angiotensinogen is 452 amino acids long, but other species have angiotensinogen of varying sizes. The first 12 amino acids are the most important for activity.

Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe-His-Leu-Val-Ile-...

Angiotensin I


Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe-His-Leu | Val-Ile-...

Angiotensin I (CAS
CAS registry number
CAS Registry Numbersare unique numerical identifiers assigned by the "Chemical Abstracts Service" toevery chemical described in the...

# 11128-99-7) is formed by the action of renin
Renin
Renin , also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an enzyme that participates in the body's renin-angiotensin system -- also known as the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Axis -- that mediates extracellular volume , and arterial vasoconstriction...

 on angiotensinogen. Renin is produced in the kidney
Kidney
The kidneys, organs with several functions, serve essential regulatory roles in most animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are essential in the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid–base balance, and...

s in response to renal sympaticus activity, decreased intra-renal blood pressure at the juxtaglomerular cell
Juxtaglomerular cell
The juxtaglomerular cells are cells in the kidney that synthesize, store, and secrete the enzyme renin. They are specialized smooth muscle cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole that delivers blood to the glomerulus...

s, or decreased delivery of Na+ and Cl- to the macula densa
Macula densa
In the kidney, the macula densa is an area of closely packed specialized cells lining the wall of the distal tubule at the point of return of the nephron to the vascular pole of its parent glomerulus, ....

. If less Na+ is sensed by the macula densa, renin release by juxtaglomerular cells is increased.

Renin cleaves the peptide bond
Peptide bond
This article is about the peptide link found within biological molecules, such as proteins. A similar article for synthetic molecules is being created...

 between the leucine
Leucine
Leucine is a branched-chain α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCHCH2CH2. Leucine is classified as a hydrophobic amino acid due to its aliphatic isobutyl side chain. It is encoded by six codons and is a major component of the subunits in ferritin, astacin and other 'buffer' proteins...

 (Leu) and valine
Valine
Valine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCHCH2. L-Valine is one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids. Its codons are GUU, GUC, GUA, and GUG. This essential amino acid is classified as nonpolar...

 (Val) residues on angiotensinogen, creating the ten amino acid
Amino acid
Amino acids are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group and a side-chain that varies between different amino acids. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen...

 peptide (des-Asp) angiotensin I (CAS
CAS registry number
CAS Registry Numbersare unique numerical identifiers assigned by the "Chemical Abstracts Service" toevery chemical described in the...

# 9041-90-1).

Angiotensin I appears to have no biological activity and exists solely as a precursor to angiotensin 2.

Angiotensin II


Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe | His-Leu

Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II through removal of two C-terminal residues by the enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme
Angiotensin-converting enzyme
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme , an exopeptidase, is a circulating enzyme that participates in the body's renin-angiotensin system , which mediates extracellular volume , and arterial vasoconstriction...

(ACE, or kinase), primarily through ACE within the kidney. ACE found in other tissues of the body have no physiological role (ACE has a high density in the lung, but activation here promotes no vasoconstriction, Ang II is below physiological levels of action). Angiotensin II acts as an endocrine
Endocrine system
In physiology, the endocrine system is a system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone directly into the bloodstream to regulate the body. The endocrine system is in contrast to the exocrine system, which secretes its chemicals using ducts. It derives from the Greek words "endo"...

, autocrine
Autocrine signalling
Autocrine signaling is a form of signalling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger that binds to autocrine receptors on the same cell, leading to changes in the cell...

/paracrine
Paracrine signalling
Paracrine signalling is a form of cell signalling in which the target cell is near the signal-releasing cell.-Local action:Some signalling molecules degrade very quickly, limiting the scope of their effectiveness to the immediate surroundings...

, and intracrine
Intracrine
Intracrine refers to a hormone that acts inside a cell. Steroid hormones act through intracellular receptors and, thus, may be considered to be intracrines. In contrast, peptide or protein hormones, in general, act as endocrines, autocrines, or paracrines by binding to their receptors present on...

 hormone.

ACE is a target for inactivation by ACE inhibitor
ACE inhibitor
ACE inhibitors or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are a group of drugs used primarily for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure...

 drugs, which decrease the rate of angiotensin II production. Angiotensin II increases blood pressure by stimulating the Gq protein in vascular smooth muscle cells (which in turn activates contraction by an IP3-dependent mechanism). ACE inhibitor
ACE inhibitor
ACE inhibitors or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are a group of drugs used primarily for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure...

 drugs are major drugs against hypertension.

Other cleavage products of ACE, 7 or 9 amino acids long, are also known; they have differential affinity for angiotensin receptors, although their exact role is still unclear. The action of angiotensin II itself is targeted by angiotensin II receptor antagonist
Angiotensin II receptor antagonist
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers , AT1-receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals which modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...

s, which directly block angiotensin II AT1 receptors
Angiotensin receptor
The angiotensin receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensin II as their ligands. They are important in the renin-angiotensin system: they are responsible for the signal transduction of the vasoconstricting stimulus of the main effector hormone, angiotensin...

.

Angiotensin II is degraded to angiotensin III by angiotensinases that are located in red blood cells and the vascular beds of most tissues. It has a half-life in circulation of around 30 seconds, whereas, in tissue, it may be as long as 15–30 minutes.

Angiotensin III


Asp | Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe

Angiotensin III has 40% of the pressor activity of Angiotensin II, but 100% of the aldosterone-producing activity.

Angiotensin IV


Arg | Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe

Angiotensin IV is a hexapeptide that, like angiotensin III, has some lesser activity.

Effects

See also Renin-angiotensin system#Effects

Angiotensins II, III & IV have a number of effects throughout the body:

Cardiovascular


They are potent direct vasoconstrictors, constricting arteries and veins and increasing blood pressure.

Angiotensin II has prothrombotic potential through adhesion and aggregation of platelets and production of PAI-1 and PAI-2.

When cardiac cell growth is stimulated, a local (autocrine-paracrine) renin-angiotensin system is activated in the cardiac myocyte, which stimulates cardiac cell growth through Protein Kinase C. The same system can be activated in smooth muscle cells in conditions of hypertension, atherosclerosis, or endothelial damage. Angiotensin II is the most important Gq stimulator of the heart during hypertrophy, compared to endothelin-1 and A1 adrenoreceptors.

Neural


Angiotensin II increases thirst
Thirst
Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink. It is an essential mechanism involved in fluid balance. It arises from a lack of fluids and/or an increase in the concentration of certain osmolites, such as salt...

 sensation (dipsogen
Dipsogen
A dipsogen is an agent that causes thirst. -Physiology:Angiotensin II is thought to be a powerful dipsogen, and is one of the products of the renin-angiotensin pathway, a biological homeostatic mechanism for the regulation of electrolytes and water.-External references:...

) through the subfornical organ
Subfornical organ
The subfornical organ, situated on the ventral surface of the fornix, at the interventricular foramina , is one of the circumventricular organs of the brain.-Relations with other circumventricular organs:...

 (SFO) of the brain, decreases the response of the baroreceptor reflex, and increases the desire for salt. It increases secretion of ADH
Vasopressin
Arginine vasopressin , also known as vasopressin, argipressin or antidiuretic hormone , is a neurohypophysial hormone found in most mammals, including humans. Vasopressin is a peptide hormone that controls the reabsorption of molecules in the tubules of the kidneys by affecting the tissue's...

 in the posterior pituitary
Posterior pituitary
The posterior pituitary comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. Despite its name, the posterior pituitary gland is not a gland, per se; rather, it is largely a collection of axonal projections from the hypothalamus that terminate behind the anterior...

 and secretion of ACTH in the anterior pituitary. It also potentiates the release of norepinephrine
Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine is the US name for noradrenaline , a catecholamine with multiple roles including as a hormone and a neurotransmitter...

 by direct action on postganglionic sympathetic
Sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system is one of the three parts of the autonomic nervous system, along with the enteric and parasympathetic systems. Its general action is to mobilize the body's nervous system fight-or-flight response...

 fibers.

Adrenal


Angiotensin II acts on the adrenal cortex
Adrenal cortex
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, including aldosterone and cortisol respectively. It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis.-Layers:Notably, the reticularis in...

, causing it to release aldosterone
Aldosterone
Aldosterone is a hormone that increases the reabsorption of sodium ions and water and the release of potassium in the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubule of the kidneys' functional unit, the nephron. This increases blood volume and, therefore, increases blood pressure. Drugs that...

, a hormone that causes the kidneys to retain sodium and lose potassium. Elevated plasma angiotensin II levels are responsible for the elevated aldosterone levels present during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle
Menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle is the scientific term for the physiological changes that can occur in fertile women for the purpose of sexual reproduction. This article focuses on the human menstrual cycle....

.

Renal


Angiotensin II has a direct effect on the proximal tubules to increase Na+ reabsorption. It has a complex and variable effect on glomerular filtration and renal blood flow
Renal blood flow
In the physiology of the kidney, renal blood flow is the volume of blood delivered to the kidneys per unit time. In humans, the kidneys together receive roughly 22% of cardiac output, amounting to 1.1 L/min in a 70-kg adult male...

 depending on the setting. Increases in systemic blood pressure will maintain renal perfusion pressure; however, constriction of the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles will tend to restrict renal blood flow. The effect on the efferent arteriolar resistance is, however, markedly greater, in part due to its smaller basal diameter; this tends to increase glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure and maintain glomerular filtration rate. A number of other mechanisms can affect renal blood flow and GFR. High concentrations of Angiotensin II can constrict the glomerular mesangium reducing the area for glomerular filtration. Angiotensin II as a sensitizer to tubuloglomerular feedback preventing an excessive rise in GFR. Angiotensin II causes the local release of prostaglandins, which, in turn, antagonize renal vasoconstriction. The net effect of these competing mechanisms on glomerular filtration will vary with the physiological and pharmacological environment.
Renal effects of Angiotensin II
Target Action Mechanism
Renal artery
Renal artery
The renal arteries normally arise off the side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood. Each is directed across the crus of the diaphragm, so as to form nearly a right angle with the aorta....

 &
afferent arterioles
Afferent arterioles
The afferent arterioles are a group of blood vessels that supply the nephrons in many excretory systems. They play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure as a part of the Tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism....

vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, particularly the large arteries, small arterioles and veins. The process is the opposite of vasodilation, the widening of blood vessels. The process is particularly important in...

 
VDCC
Voltage-dependent calcium channel
Voltage-dependent calcium channels are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in excitable cells with a permeability to the ion Ca2+...

s → Ca2+
Calcium
Calcium is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust...

 influx
efferent arteriole
Efferent arteriole
The efferent arterioles are blood vessels that are part of the urinary tract of organisms. The efferent arterioles form from a convergence of the capillaries of the glomerulus...

vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, particularly the large arteries, small arterioles and veins. The process is the opposite of vasodilation, the widening of blood vessels. The process is particularly important in...

 
(probably) activate Angiotensin receptor 1 → Activation of Gq
Gq alpha subunit
Gq protein or Gq/11 is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C . PLC in turn hydrolyzes Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to diacyl glycerol and inositol triphosphate signal transduction pathway...

 → ↑PLC
Phospholipase C
Phosphoinositide phospholipase C is a family of eukaryotic intracellular enzymes that play an important role in signal transduction processes. In general, this enzyme is denoted as Phospholipase C, although three other families of phospholipase C enzymes have been identified in bacteria and in...

 activity → ↑IP3
Inositol triphosphate
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate , together with diacylglycerol , is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells. While DAG stays inside the membrane, IP3 is soluble and diffuses through the cell...

 and DAG → activation of IP3 receptor
Inositol triphosphate receptor
Inositol trisphosphate receptor is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as Ca2+ channel activated by inositol trisphosphate . InsP3R is very diverse among organisms, and is necessary for the control of cellular and physiological processes including cell division, cell proliferation, apoptosis,...

 in SR → ↑intracellular Ca2+
mesangial cell
Mesangial cell
Mesangial cells are specialized cells around blood vessels in the kidneys, at the mesangium. They are specialized smooth muscle cells that function to regulate blood flow through the capillaries, usually divided into two types, each having a very distinct function and location:* Extraglomerular...

s
contraction → ↓filtration area
  • activation of Gq
    Gq alpha subunit
    Gq protein or Gq/11 is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C . PLC in turn hydrolyzes Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to diacyl glycerol and inositol triphosphate signal transduction pathway...

     → ↑PLC
    Phospholipase C
    Phosphoinositide phospholipase C is a family of eukaryotic intracellular enzymes that play an important role in signal transduction processes. In general, this enzyme is denoted as Phospholipase C, although three other families of phospholipase C enzymes have been identified in bacteria and in...

     activity → ↑IP3
    Inositol triphosphate
    Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate , together with diacylglycerol , is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells. While DAG stays inside the membrane, IP3 is soluble and diffuses through the cell...

     and DAG → activation of IP3 receptor
    Inositol triphosphate receptor
    Inositol trisphosphate receptor is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as Ca2+ channel activated by inositol trisphosphate . InsP3R is very diverse among organisms, and is necessary for the control of cellular and physiological processes including cell division, cell proliferation, apoptosis,...

     in SR → ↑intracellular Ca2+
  • VDCC
    Voltage-dependent calcium channel
    Voltage-dependent calcium channels are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in excitable cells with a permeability to the ion Ca2+...

    s → Ca2+
    Calcium
    Calcium is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust...

     influx
Tubuloglomerular feedback Increased sensitivity Increase in afferent arteriole responsiveness to signals from macula densa
Macula densa
In the kidney, the macula densa is an area of closely packed specialized cells lining the wall of the distal tubule at the point of return of the nephron to the vascular pole of its parent glomerulus, ....

medullary
Renal medulla
The renal medulla is the innermost part of the kidney. The renal medulla is split up into a number of sections, known as the renal pyramids. Blood enters into the kidney via the renal artery, which then splits up to form the arcuate arterioles. The arcuate arterioles each in turn branch into...

 blood flow
Reduction

See also

  • ACE inhibitor
    ACE inhibitor
    ACE inhibitors or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are a group of drugs used primarily for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure...

  • Angiotensin receptor
    Angiotensin receptor
    The angiotensin receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensin II as their ligands. They are important in the renin-angiotensin system: they are responsible for the signal transduction of the vasoconstricting stimulus of the main effector hormone, angiotensin...

  • Angiotensin II receptor antagonist
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonist
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers , AT1-receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals which modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...

  • Captopril
    Captopril
    Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure. Captopril was the first ACE inhibitor developed and was considered a breakthrough both because of its novel mechanism of action and also because of the...

  • Discovery and development of renin inhibitors
    Discovery and development of renin inhibitors
    Renin inhibitors are antihypertensive drugs that inhibit the first and rate-limiting step of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system . Since the 1970s scientists have been trying to develop potent inhibitors with acceptable oral bioavailability. The process was difficult and took about three decades...

  • Peptides

Further reading


  • Brenner & Rector's The Kidney, 7th ed., Saunders, 2004.
  • Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 3rd Ed., CV Mosby Company, 1990.
  • Review of Medical Physiology, 20th Ed., William F. Ganong, McGraw-Hill, 2001.
  • Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders, 5th ed., Burton David Rose & Theodore W. Post McGraw-Hill, 2001

External links

  • The MEROPS
    Merops
    Merops may refer to:* Merops , a genus of bee-eaters.* MEROPS, an on-line database for peptidases.It may also refer to several figures from Greek mythology:* King of Ethiopia, husband of Clymene, who lay with Helios and bore Phaethon...

    online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: I04.953