Andrea del Castagno

Andrea del Castagno

Overview
"Castagna" redirects here. For other meanings, see Castagna (disambiguation)
Castagna (disambiguation)
Castagna can refer to:*People**Andrea del Castagno , an Italian painter**William J. Castagna , an American jurist**Cristina Castagna , an Italian mountaineer*Companies...

.

Andrea del Castagno (or Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla) (c. 1421–19 August 1457) was an Italian
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 painter from Florence
Florence
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 370,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1.5 million in the metropolitan area....

, influenced chiefly by Tommaso Masaccio and Giotto di Bondone
Giotto di Bondone
Giotto di Bondone , better known simply as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages...

. His works include frescoes in Sant'Apollonia
Sant'Apollonia
Sant'Apollonia was once a Benedictine convent that was founded in 1339 in Florence, Italy. The building is now used as an art museum that houses the The Last Supper fresco by the Italian Renaissance artist Andrea del Castagno....

 in Florence and the painted equestrian monument of Niccolò da Tolentino
Niccolò da Tolentino
Niccolò Mauruzzi , best known as Niccolò da Tolentino was an Italian condottiero.-Biography:A member of the Mauruzi della Stacciola family of Tolentino, he fled from that city in 1370 after a dispute with his relatives. He therefore fought under several condottieri...

 (1456) in the Cathedral in Florence
Santa Maria del Fiore
The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church of Florence, Italy. The Duomo, as it is ordinarily called, was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style to the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and completed structurally in 1436 with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi...

. He in turn influenced the Ferrarese school of Cosmè Tura, Francesco del Cossa
Francesco del Cossa
Francesco del Cossa was an Italian early-Renaissance painter of the School of Ferrara.-Biography:...

 and Ercole de' Roberti
Ercole de' Roberti
thumb|240px|Portrait of [[Giovanni II Bentivoglio]] . National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.Ercole de' Roberti , also known as Ercole Ferrarese or Ercole da Ferrara, was an Italian artist of the Early Renaissance and the School of Ferrara...

.

Andrea del Castagno was born at Castagno
Castagno d'Andrea
Castagno d'Andrea is a frazione of the comune of San Godenzo, in the province of Florence, Tuscany . It is located within the Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona, Campigna National Park.It was the birthplace of the painter Andrea del Castagno....

, a village near Monte Falterona
Monte Falterona
Monte Falterona is a mountain in the Tuscan-Romagnolo Apeninnes, in the Casentino traditional region, standing at 1,654 m. It is part of the Casentino forests, Monte Falterona and Campigna National Park....

, not far from Florence.
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Encyclopedia
"Castagna" redirects here. For other meanings, see Castagna (disambiguation)
Castagna (disambiguation)
Castagna can refer to:*People**Andrea del Castagno , an Italian painter**William J. Castagna , an American jurist**Cristina Castagna , an Italian mountaineer*Companies...

.

Andrea del Castagno (or Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla) (c. 1421–19 August 1457) was an Italian
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 painter from Florence
Florence
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 370,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1.5 million in the metropolitan area....

, influenced chiefly by Tommaso Masaccio and Giotto di Bondone
Giotto di Bondone
Giotto di Bondone , better known simply as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages...

. His works include frescoes in Sant'Apollonia
Sant'Apollonia
Sant'Apollonia was once a Benedictine convent that was founded in 1339 in Florence, Italy. The building is now used as an art museum that houses the The Last Supper fresco by the Italian Renaissance artist Andrea del Castagno....

 in Florence and the painted equestrian monument of Niccolò da Tolentino
Niccolò da Tolentino
Niccolò Mauruzzi , best known as Niccolò da Tolentino was an Italian condottiero.-Biography:A member of the Mauruzi della Stacciola family of Tolentino, he fled from that city in 1370 after a dispute with his relatives. He therefore fought under several condottieri...

 (1456) in the Cathedral in Florence
Santa Maria del Fiore
The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church of Florence, Italy. The Duomo, as it is ordinarily called, was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style to the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and completed structurally in 1436 with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi...

. He in turn influenced the Ferrarese school of Cosmè Tura, Francesco del Cossa
Francesco del Cossa
Francesco del Cossa was an Italian early-Renaissance painter of the School of Ferrara.-Biography:...

 and Ercole de' Roberti
Ercole de' Roberti
thumb|240px|Portrait of [[Giovanni II Bentivoglio]] . National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.Ercole de' Roberti , also known as Ercole Ferrarese or Ercole da Ferrara, was an Italian artist of the Early Renaissance and the School of Ferrara...

.

Early years


Andrea del Castagno was born at Castagno
Castagno d'Andrea
Castagno d'Andrea is a frazione of the comune of San Godenzo, in the province of Florence, Tuscany . It is located within the Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona, Campigna National Park.It was the birthplace of the painter Andrea del Castagno....

, a village near Monte Falterona
Monte Falterona
Monte Falterona is a mountain in the Tuscan-Romagnolo Apeninnes, in the Casentino traditional region, standing at 1,654 m. It is part of the Casentino forests, Monte Falterona and Campigna National Park....

, not far from Florence. During the war between Florence and Milan, he lived in Corella
Corella, Italy
Corella is a village of the commune of Dicomano . The village is located in a valley of the Apennines ....

, returning to his home after its end. In 1440 he moved to Florence under the protection of Bernadetto de' Medici
Bernadetto de' Medici
Bernadetto de' Medici was an Italian patrician who moved from Florence to Naples.A member to a secondary branch of the Medici Family , he was the son of Ottaviano de' Medici and Bartolomeo Giugni...

. Here he painted the portraits of the citizens hanged after the Battle of Anghiari
Battle of Anghiari (1440)
The Battle of Anghiari was fought on June 29, 1440, between Milan and the Italian League led by Republic of Florence in the course of the Wars in Lombardy....

 on the facade of the Palazzo del Podestà, gaining the nickname of Andrea degli Impiccati.

Little is known about his formation, though it has been hypothised that he apprenticed under Fra Filippo Lippi and Paolo Uccello
Paolo Uccello
Paolo Uccello , born Paolo di Dono, was an Italian painter and a mathematician who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art. Giorgio Vasari in his book Lives of the Artists wrote that Uccello was obsessed by his interest in perspective and would stay up all night in his...

. In 1440-1441 he executed the fresco of Crucifixion and Saints in the Ospedale di Santa Maria Nuova, whose perspective-oriented construction and figures shows the influence of Masaccio.

In 1442 he was in Venice
Venice
Venice is a city in northern Italy which is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. It is the capital of the Veneto region...

 where he executed frescoes in the San Tarasio Chapel of the church of San Zaccaria. Later he also worked in St. Mark's Basilica, leaving a fresco of Death of the Virgin (1442–1443).

Back in Florence, he designed a stained window with Deposition for the local Cathedral
Santa Maria del Fiore
The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church of Florence, Italy. The Duomo, as it is ordinarily called, was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style to the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and completed structurally in 1436 with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi...

. On May 30, 1445 he became member of the Guild of the Medicians. From the same year is the fresco of Madonna with Child and Santi in the Contini Bonacossi Collection (Uffizi
Uffizi
The Uffizi Gallery , is a museum in Florence, Italy. It is one of the oldest and most famous art museums of the Western world.-History:...

).

The Last Supper




In 1447 he worked in the refectory of Sant'Apollonia
Sant'Apollonia
Sant'Apollonia was once a Benedictine convent that was founded in 1339 in Florence, Italy. The building is now used as an art museum that houses the The Last Supper fresco by the Italian Renaissance artist Andrea del Castagno....

 in Florence, painting, in the lower part, Last Supper fresco
Fresco
Fresco is any of several related mural painting types, executed on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from the Greek word affresca which derives from the Latin word for "fresh". Frescoes first developed in the ancient world and continued to be popular through the Renaissance...

, accompanied by other scenes portraying the Deposition
Stations of the Cross
Stations of the Cross refers to the depiction of the final hours of Jesus, and the devotion commemorating the Passion. The tradition as chapel devotion began with St...

, Resurrection
Resurrection of Jesus
The Christian belief in the resurrection of Jesus states that Jesus returned to bodily life on the third day following his death by crucifixion. It is a key element of Christian faith and theology and part of the Nicene Creed: "On the third day he rose again in fulfillment of the Scriptures"...

, and Crucifixion
Crucifixion
Crucifixion is an ancient method of painful execution in which the condemned person is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead...

, which are now damaged. He also painted a lunette in the cloister, depicting a Pietà.

The Last Supper displays del Castagno's talents at his best. The detail and naturalism of this fresco portray the ways in which del Castagno departed from earlier artistic styles. It is likely that Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance...

 was already familiar with this work before he painted his his own Last Supper in a more dramatic form to contrast with the stillness of these works, so that more emotion would be displayed.

Late activity


In 1449-1450 he painted the Assumption with Saints Julian and Miniato for the church of San Miniato fra le Torri (now in Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

). In the same years he collaborated with Filippo Carducci to a series of Illustrious People for the Villa Carducci at Legnaia
Legnaia
Legnaia is a rione in Florence, Italy. It is located between the centre of the city and Scandicci, and was an autonomous commune from 1808 until 1865. At the time, it counted some 11,300 inhabitants....

. These include Pippo Spano, Farinata degli Uberti
Farinata degli Uberti
Farinata degli Uberti , real name Manente degli Uberti, was an Italian aristocrat and military leader, considered by some to be a heretic, who appears in Dante Alighieri's Inferno and is mentioned in C.S...

, Niccolò Acciaioli
Niccolò Acciaioli
Niccolò Acciaioli was an Italian noble, a member of the Florentine banking family of the Acciaioli. He was the grand seneschal of the Kingdom of Naples and count of Melfi, Malta, and Gozo in the mid-fourteenth century. He was the son of Acciaiolo, a wealthy Florentine merchant...

, Dante
DANTE
Delivery of Advanced Network Technology to Europe is a not-for-profit organisation that plans, builds and operates the international networks that interconnect the various national research and education networks in Europe and surrounding regions...

, Petrarca
Petrarch
Francesco Petrarca , known in English as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar, poet and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch is often called the "Father of Humanism"...

, Boccaccio
Giovanni Boccaccio
Giovanni Boccaccio was an Italian author and poet, a friend, student, and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist and the author of a number of notable works including the Decameron, On Famous Women, and his poetry in the Italian vernacular...

, the Cumaean Sibyl
Cumaean Sibyl
The ageless Cumaean Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle at Cumae, a Greek colony located near Naples, Italy.The word sibyl comes from the ancient Greek word sibylla, meaning prophetess. There were many Sibyls in different locations throughout the ancient world...

, Esther
Book of Esther
The Book of Esther is a book in the Ketuvim , the third section of the Jewish Tanakh and is part of the Christian Old Testament. The Book of Esther or the Megillah is the basis for the Jewish celebration of Purim...

 and Tomiri
Tomyris
Tomyris, from the Persian تهم‌رییش Tahm-Rayiš, was a queen who reigned over the Massagetae, an Iranic people of Central Asia east of the Caspian Sea, in approximately 530 BC.- History :...

.

Also from around 1450 is the Crucifixion in London, as well as the David with Goliath's Head and the Portrait of a Man in Washington. Between January 1451 and September 1453 he completed the frescoes with Scenes of Life of the Virgin
Life of the Virgin
The Life of the Virgin, showing narrative scenes from the life of Mary, the mother of Jesus, is a common subject for pictorial cycles in Christian art, often complementing, or forming part of, a cycle on the Life of Christ. In both cases the number of scenes shown varies greatly with the space...

left unfinished by Domenico Veneziano
Domenico Veneziano
Domenico Veneziano was an Italian painter of the early Renaissance, active mostly in Perugia and Tuscany.Little is known of his birth, though he is thought to have been born in Venice, hence his last name. He then moved to Florence in 1422-23 as a boy, to become a pupil of Gentile da Fabriano. He...

 in the Florentine church of Sant'Egidio (now lost). In October Filippo Carducci commissioned him frescoes for his villa at Soffiano, of which today an Eve and a ruined Madonna with Child survive.

In 1455 Andrea del Castagno worked in the Basilica della Santissima Annunziata
Basilica della Santissima Annunziata di Firenze
The Basilica della Santissima Annunziata is a Roman Catholic minor basilica in Florence, Italy, the mother church of the Servite order. It is located at the northeastern side of the Piazza Santissima Annunziata....

 (frescoes with Trinity with Saints Jerome, Paula and Eustochium and St. Julian and the Redeemer, the former showing a stressed realism). Also to those years is attributed a Crucifixion for St. Apollonia. In 1456 he executed in the Cathedral the fresco of the Equestrian Statue of Niccolò da Tolentino
Equestrian Statue of Niccolò da Tolentino
The Equestrian Statue of Niccolò da Tolentino is a fresco painting by the Italian early Renaissance master Andrea del Castagno, executed in 1456. It is housed in the Florence Cathedral, Italy...

, paralleling the similar painting by Paolo Uccello portraying John Hawkwood
John Hawkwood
Sir John Hawkwood was an English mercenary or condottiero who was active in 14th century Italy. The French chronicler Jean Froissart knew him as Jean Haccoude and Italians as Giovanni Acuto...

.

Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari was an Italian painter, writer, historian, and architect, who is famous today for his biographies of Italian artists, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.-Biography:...

, an artist and biographer of the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 13th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe...

, alleged that Castagno murdered Domenico Veneziano, although this seems rather unlikely - given that Veneziano died in 1461, four years after Castagno died of the plague
Bubonic plague
Plague is a deadly infectious disease that is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis, named after the French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin. Primarily carried by rodents and spread to humans via fleas, the disease is notorious throughout history, due to the unrivaled scale of death...

.

Selected works

  • Assumption of the Virgin between San Miniato and St. Julian (1449–1450), Gemäldegalerie, Berlin