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André Marie

André Marie

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André Marie was a French Radical politician who served as Prime Minister during the Fourth Republic
French Fourth Republic
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution. It was in many ways a revival of the Third Republic, which was in place before World War II, and suffered many of the same problems...

 in 1948.

Biography


Born at Honfleur in 1897, the young André Marie studied at primary and secondary level there, going on to the Lycée Pierre Corneille
Lycée Pierre Corneille (Rouen)
The Lycée Pierre-Corneille is a school in Rouen, France. It was founded by the Archbishop of Rouen, Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon and run by the Jesuits to educate the children of the aristocracy and bourgeoisie in accordance with the purest doctrinal principles of Roman Catholicism...

, when his parents moved to Rouen in 1908. While preparing to apply to the École Normale Supérieure Lettres et Sciences Humaines
École normale supérieure lettres et sciences humaines
The École Normale Supérieure Lettres et Sciences Humaines, or ENS LSH, was an elite French grande école specialising in the arts, humanities and social sciences...

, he was mobilised at the end of 1916. By the end of World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, he commanded a battery of 75 men. He received two light injuries and numerous commendations. He was decorated with the Croix de guerre
Croix de guerre
The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of France. It was first created in 1915 and consists of a square-cross medal on two crossed swords, hanging from a ribbon with various degree pins. The decoration was awarded during World War I, again in World War II, and in other conflicts...

 with palm.

He started work as a lawyer in 1922. He was elected Deputy for Seine-Inférieure (now Seine-Maritime), holding his seat in the Palais Bourbon
Palais Bourbon
The Palais Bourbon, , a palace located on the left bank of the Seine, across from the Place de la Concorde, Paris , is the seat of the French National Assembly, the lower legislative chamber of the French government.-History:...

 from 1928 to 1962. In 1933, André Marie entered the government as Under-Secretary of State to Albert Sarraut
Albert Sarraut
Albert-Pierre Sarraut was a French Radical politician, twice Prime Minister during the Third Republic.Sarraut was born in Bordeaux, Gironde, France.He was Governor-General of French Indochina, from 1912 to 1919....

, responsible for Alsace-Lorraine
Alsace-Lorraine
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871 after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle region of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War. The Alsatian part lay in the Rhine Valley on the west bank of the Rhine River and east...

. He served in several Under-Secretarial posts, and represented France at the League of Nations
League of Nations
The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace...

.

As World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 escalated, André Marie, a reserve captain, was one of several parliamentarians who enlisted voluntarily. An artillery captain, he was decorated with a second croix de guerre
Croix de guerre
The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of France. It was first created in 1915 and consists of a square-cross medal on two crossed swords, hanging from a ribbon with various degree pins. The decoration was awarded during World War I, again in World War II, and in other conflicts...

, taken prisoner, and imprisoned at the Oflag
Oflag
An Oflag was a prisoner of war camp for officers only, established by the German Army in both World War I and World War II in accordance with the requirements of the Geneva Convention ....

 at Saarburg
Saarburg
Saarburg is a city of the Trier-Saarburg district in the Rhineland-Palatinate state of Germany, on the banks of the Saar River in the hilly country a few kilometers upstream from the Saar's junction with the Moselle....

. He was therefore absent for the vote of 10 July 1940, which empowered Marshal Pétain
Philippe Pétain
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain , generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain , was a French general who reached the distinction of Marshal of France, and was later Chief of State of Vichy France , from 1940 to 1944...

 and instituted the regime of Vichy France
Vichy France
Vichy France, Vichy Regime, or Vichy Government, are common terms used to describe the government of France that collaborated with the Axis powers from July 1940 to August 1944. This government succeeded the Third Republic and preceded the Provisional Government of the French Republic...

.

Marie was freed in 1941, having served as an officer in both World Wars. Refusing Vichy
Vichy France
Vichy France, Vichy Regime, or Vichy Government, are common terms used to describe the government of France that collaborated with the Axis powers from July 1940 to August 1944. This government succeeded the Third Republic and preceded the Provisional Government of the French Republic...

 politics on his return to Seine-Maritime, he resigned all his elected offices, and in a letter to his constituents, expained that he could not exercise his mandate while the people could not be consulted freely. As a member of the Georges-France resistance
French Resistance
The French Resistance is the name used to denote the collection of French resistance movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during World War II...

 network, he was denounced and arrested on 12 September 1943 by occupation authorities, imprisoned at Compiègne, then deported to a camp at Buchenwald on 16 December 1943, where he remained until the liberation of the camp by American troops on 11 April 1945. He had lost 30 kilograms, and had suffered a heart infection and a liver infection.

On his return to France, André Marie quickly regained his place in political life, both at departmental level and at national level.

In 1947, he was appointed Minister of Justice
Minister of Justice (France)
The Ministry of Justice is controlled by the French Minister of Justice , a top-level cabinet position in the French government. The current Minister of Justice is Michel Mercier...

 in the Ramadier
Paul Ramadier
Paul Ramadier was a prominent French politician of the Third and Fourth Republics. Mayor of Decazeville starting in 1919, he served as the first Prime Minister of the Fourth Republic in 1947. On 10 July 1940, he voted against the granting of the full powers to Marshal Philippe Pétain, who...

 ministry, and presided over the last trials in the High Court of collaborators. The President
President of the French Republic
The President of the French Republic colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is France's elected Head of State....

 called on him to become Prime Minister, replacing Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman was a noted Luxembourgish-born French statesman. Schuman was a Christian Democrat and an independent political thinker and activist...

 on 27 July 1948, but he was obliged to resign a month later.

He accepted the post of Deputy Prime Minister in the Queuille
Henri Queuille
Henri Queuille was a French Radical politician prominent in the Third and Fourth Republics. After World War II, he served three times as Prime Minister.He was the son of a noblewoman.-First ministry :...

 cabinet in 1948, and was again named Minister of Justice
Minister of Justice (France)
The Ministry of Justice is controlled by the French Minister of Justice , a top-level cabinet position in the French government. The current Minister of Justice is Michel Mercier...

, refusing to pursue the Communists after the miners' strikes of 1948. On 3 February 1949, as Minister of Justice, he was called to account in the National Assembly on the matter of the economic collaborator Pierre Brice. The radical Deputy Emmanuel d'Astier de la Vigerie declared: "Men who have amassed fortunes as a result of collaboration are now largely free to enjoy the fruits of their treason because the government, indulgent towards collaborators, has led a politic of repression against the working class." Weakened by the affair, André Marie resigned on 13 February 1949.

He then served as Minister of Education, from August 1951 until June 1954. Il brought about the Marie and Barangé laws, in support of free education. An ardent proponent of public education, he brought about the law, still in place, which makes students of the écoles normales supérieures
École Normale Supérieure
The École normale supérieure is one of the most prestigious French grandes écoles...

 trainee civil servants: in exchange for a monthly salary, they may be asked to serve the government at any point during the ten years following their matriculation.

Mayor of Barentin
Barentin
Barentin is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Haute-Normandie region in northern France.-Geography:A town of light industry and farming situated by the banks of the Austreberthe River in the Pays de Caux, some northwest of Rouen at the junction of the D6015, D143 and the D104 roads...

 from 1945 to 1974, he installed the statues of the town's famous "street museum".

Ministry (26 July - 5 September 1948)

  • André Marie - President of the Council
  • Pierre-Henri Teitgen
    Pierre-Henri Teitgen
    Pierre-Henri Teitgen was a French lawyer, professor and politician.Teitgen was born in Rennes, Brittany. Made prisoner of war in 1940, he played a major role in the French Resistance....

     - Vice President of the Council
  • Léon Blum
    Léon Blum
    André Léon Blum was a French politician, usually identified with the moderate left, and three times the Prime Minister of France.-First political experiences:...

     - Vice President of the Council
  • Robert Schuman
    Robert Schuman
    Robert Schuman was a noted Luxembourgish-born French statesman. Schuman was a Christian Democrat and an independent political thinker and activist...

     - Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • René Mayer
    René Mayer
    René Mayer was a French Radical politician of the Fourth Republic who served briefly as Prime Minister during 1953. He led the Mayer Authority from 1955 to 1958.-Mayer's Ministry, 8 January – 28 June 1953:*René Mayer – President of the Council...

     - Minister of National Defense
  • Jules Moch
    Jules Moch
    Jules Salvador Moch was a French politician.-Biography:...

     - Minister of the Interior
  • Paul Reynaud
    Paul Reynaud
    Paul Reynaud was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany. He was the penultimate Prime Minister of the Third Republic and vice-president of the Democratic Republican Alliance center-right...

     - Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs
  • Robert Lacoste
    Robert Lacoste
    Robert Lacoste was French politician. He was a socialist MP of the Dordogne from 1945 to 1958 and from 1962 to 1967, then senator from 1971 to 1980.- Biography :...

     - Minister of Commerce and Industry
  • Daniel Mayer
    Daniel Mayer
    Daniel William Mayer was a member of the French Section of the Workers' International , a socialist party in France, president of the Ligue des droits de l'homme from 1958 to 1975. He founded the Comité d'Action Socialiste in 1941 and was a member of the Brutus Network, a Resistant Socialist group...

     - Minister of Labour and Social Security
  • Robert Lecourt
    Robert Lecourt
    Robert Lecourt was a French politician and lawyer, judge and the fourth President of the European Court of Justice.Lecourt was born in Pavilly, Seine-Maritime...

     - Minister of Justice
  • Yvon Delbos
    Yvon Delbos
    Yvon Delbos was a French Radical-Socialist Party politician and minister.Delbos was born in Thonac, Dordogne, Aquitaine, entered a career as a journalist, and became a member of the Radical-Socialist Party...

     - Minister of National Education
  • André Maroselli - Minister of Veterans and War Victims
  • Pierre Pflimlin
    Pierre Pflimlin
    Pierre Eugène Jean Pflimlin was a French Christian democratic politician who served as the penultimate Prime Minister of the Fourth Republic for a few weeks in 1958, before being replaced by Charles de Gaulle during the crisis of that year.-Life:...

     - Minister of Agriculture
  • Paul Coste-Floret
    Paul Coste-Floret
    Paul Coste-Floret was a French politician. He was born and died in Montpellier, France.- Biography :Professor on the faculty of Algiers, he engaged in the French Resistance. He advised André Philip and director of the cabinet of François de Menthon...

     - Minister of Overseas France
  • Christian Pineau
    Christian Pineau
    Christian Pineau was a noted French Resistance fighter.He was born in Chaumont-en-Bassigny, Haute-Marne, France and died in Paris.His father-in-law was the writer Jean Giraudoux, who was married to Pineau's mother...

     - Minister of Public Works and Transport
  • Pierre Schneiter
    Pierre Schneiter
    François Charles Pierre Schneiter was a French politician.Pierre Schneiter was born in Reims, elder son of Charles Albert Schneiter, a vintner, and Jeanne Marie Alice Sart. Charles Schneiter's father was a watchmaker from Bern, whose ancestors had come from Bavaria. Pierre's only sibling François ...

     - Minister of Public Health and Population
  • René Coty
    René Coty
    René Jules Gustave Coty was President of France from 1954 to 1959. He was the second and last president under the French Fourth Republic.-Early life and politics:...

     - Minister of Reconstruction and Town Planning
  • Henri Queuille
    Henri Queuille
    Henri Queuille was a French Radical politician prominent in the Third and Fourth Republics. After World War II, he served three times as Prime Minister.He was the son of a noblewoman.-First ministry :...

     - Minister of State
  • Paul Ramadier
    Paul Ramadier
    Paul Ramadier was a prominent French politician of the Third and Fourth Republics. Mayor of Decazeville starting in 1919, he served as the first Prime Minister of the Fourth Republic in 1947. On 10 July 1940, he voted against the granting of the full powers to Marshal Philippe Pétain, who...

    - Minister of State