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Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

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Encyclopedia
Anacardiaceae are a family
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

 of flowering plant
Flowering plant
The flowering plants , also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants. Angiosperms are seed-producing plants like the gymnosperms and can be distinguished from the gymnosperms by a series of synapomorphies...

s bearing fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

s that are drupe
Drupe
In botany, a drupe is a fruit in which an outer fleshy part surrounds a shell of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. These fruits develop from a single carpel, and mostly from flowers with superior ovaries...

s and in some cases producing urushiol
Urushiol
Urushiol is an oily organic allergen found in plants of the family Anacardiaceae, especially Toxicodendron spp. . It causes an allergic skin rash on contact, known as urushiol-induced contact dermatitis...

, an irritant
Irritation
Irritation or exacerbation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage. A stimulus or agent which induces the state of irritation is an irritant...

. Anacardiaceae include numerous genera with several of economic importance. Notable plants in this family include cashew
Cashew
The cashew is a tree in the family Anacardiaceae. Its English name derives from the Portuguese name for the fruit of the cashew tree, caju, which in turn derives from the indigenous Tupi name, acajú. It is now widely grown in tropical climates for its cashew nuts and cashew apples.-Etymology:The...

 (in the type genus Anacardium
Anacardium
Anacardium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas.-Selected species:*Anacardium corymbosum Barb.Rodr.*Anacardium excelsum L. - Wild Cashew*Anacardium giganteum Anacardium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae,...

), mango
Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...

, poison ivy, sumac
Sumac
Sumac is any one of approximately 250 species of flowering plants in the genus Rhus and related genera, in the family Anacardiaceae. Sumacs grow in subtropical and temperate regions throughout the world, especially in Africa and North America....

, smoke tree, and marula. The genus Pistacia
Pistacia
Pistacia is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. It contains ten to twenty species that are native to Africa and Eurasia from the Canary Islands, whole Africa, and southern Europe, warm and semi-desert areas across Asia, and also North America from Mexico to warm and...

(which includes the pistachio
Pistachio
The pistachio, Pistacia vera in the Anacardiaceae family, is a small tree originally from Persia , which now can also be found in regions of Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Greece, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Egypt, Sicily and possibly Afghanistan , as well as in the United States,...

 and mastic tree) usually is now included, but has sometimes been placed in its own family, Pistaciaceae.

Selected genera



Actinocheita

Anacardium
Anacardium
Anacardium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas.-Selected species:*Anacardium corymbosum Barb.Rodr.*Anacardium excelsum L. - Wild Cashew*Anacardium giganteum Anacardium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae,...

(Cashew
Cashew
The cashew is a tree in the family Anacardiaceae. Its English name derives from the Portuguese name for the fruit of the cashew tree, caju, which in turn derives from the indigenous Tupi name, acajú. It is now widely grown in tropical climates for its cashew nuts and cashew apples.-Etymology:The...

)

Androtium

Antrocaryon

Apterokarpos

Astronium
Astronium
Astronium is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae.-Selected species:*Astronium fraxinifolium - Goncalo alves*Astronium graveolens - Aroeira*Astronium lecointei...

(=Myracrodruon)

Baronia

Bonetiella

Bouea

Buchanania
Buchanania
Buchanania is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:*Buchanania amboinensis Miq. – native to Papua New Guinea...



Campnosperma
Campnosperma
Campnosperma is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Campnosperma seychellarum, Marchand* Campnosperma zeylanicum, Thwaites* Campnosperma zacharyi, Randrianasolo & Lowry* Campnosperma brevipetiolata...



Cardenasiodendron

Choerospondias
Choerospondias axillaris
Choerospondias axillaris, known as Lapsi लप्सी in Nepali also known in English as the "Nepali hog plum" and 南酸枣 in Mandarin , is a tree in the family Anacardiaceae. It is native to much of Asia from China to India to Japan. Its fruit is about 3 centimeters long and has a soft whitish sour flesh and...



Comocladia

Cotinus (Smoke tree)

Cyrtocarpa

Dracontomelon
Dracontomelon
Dracontomelon is a genus of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae.The most commonly eaten species is Dracontomelon duperreanum, which produces an edible fruit that is eaten in Cambodia, Vietnam and China. In Vietnamese, the plant is called cây sấu and is a common urban tree in Hanoi. and...



Drimycarpus

Ebandoua

Euleria

Euroschinus
Euroschinus
Euroschinus is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Euroschinus aoupiniensis, Hoff - New Caledonia* Euroschinus falcata - Eastern Australia* Euroschinus jaffrei, Hoff - New Caledonia...



Faguetia

Fegimanra

Gluta
Gluta
Gluta is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Gluta capituliflora, Ding Hou* Gluta curtisii, Ding Hou* Gluta lanceolata, Ridley* Gluta papuana, Ding Hou* Gluta travancorica, Bedd....



Haematostaphis

Haplorhus
Haplorhus
Haplorhus is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Haplorhus peruviana, Engler...



Harpephyllum

Heeria

Holigarna

Koordersiodendron

Lannea
Lannea
Lannea is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Lannea acida* Lannea acidissima L. A.Chev.* Lannea alata* Lannea acuminata* Lannea afzelii* Lannea amaniensis* Lannea ambacensis* Lannea ambigua...



Laurophyllus

Lithraea
Lithraea
Lithraea is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae....



Loxopterigium

Loxostylis

Malosma
Malosma
Malosma is a plant genus which contains only a single species, Malosma laurina, with the common names Laurel sumac and Lentisco ....



Mangifera
Mangifera
Mangifera is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. It contains approximately 69 species, with the most well-known being the Common Mango . The center of diversity is in subtropical and tropical southeast Asia, while the highest number of species occur in the Malay...

(Mango
Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...

)

Mauria
Mauria
Mauria is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Mauria killipii, F. Barkley* Mauria membranifolia, Barfod & Holm-Niels.* Mauria trichothyrsa, Loes....



Melanochyla
Melanochyla
Melanochyla is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Melanochyla fasciculiflora, Kochummen* Melanochyla longipetiolata, Kochummen* Melanochyla nitida, King...



Metopium
Metopium
Metopium is a genus of flowering plants in the sumac family, Anacardiaceae.-Selected species:*Metopium brownei Urb.*Metopium toxiferum Krug & Urb.*Metopium venosum Engl.-External links:...



Micronychia

Montagueia

Mosquitoxylum

Nothopegia
Nothopegia
Nothopegia is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include* Nothopegia aureo-fulva, Beddome ex Hook.f.* Nothopegia castanaefolia, Ding Hou* Nothopegia heyneana, Gamble...



Ochoterenaea

Operculicarya
Operculicarya
Operculicarya is a plant genus of the family Anacardiaceae....



Ozoroa
Ozoroa
Ozoroa is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Ozoroa namaquensis, Von Teichman & A.E.van Wyk...



Pachycormus
Pachycormus (plant)
Pachycormus is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family.Species include:*Pachycormus discolor - elephant tree-External links:*...



Parishia

Pegia

Pentaspadon
Pentaspadon
Pentaspadon is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Pentaspadon motleyi, Hook.f....



Pistacia
Pistacia
Pistacia is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. It contains ten to twenty species that are native to Africa and Eurasia from the Canary Islands, whole Africa, and southern Europe, warm and semi-desert areas across Asia, and also North America from Mexico to warm and...

(Pistachio
Pistachio
The pistachio, Pistacia vera in the Anacardiaceae family, is a small tree originally from Persia , which now can also be found in regions of Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Greece, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Egypt, Sicily and possibly Afghanistan , as well as in the United States,...

)

Pleiogynium
Pleiogynium
Pleiogynium is a genus of flowering plant of the family Anacardiaceae. It was defined by German botanist Adolf Engler in 1883. The burdekin plum is a notable member....



Poupartia
Poupartia
Poupartia is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Poupartia borbonica, Gmelin* Poupartia pubescens, Engl.* Poupartia caffra , H.Perrier...



Protorhus

Pseudoprotorhus

Pseudosmodingium

Pseudospondias

Rhodosphaera

Rhus (Sumac
Sumac
Sumac is any one of approximately 250 species of flowering plants in the genus Rhus and related genera, in the family Anacardiaceae. Sumacs grow in subtropical and temperate regions throughout the world, especially in Africa and North America....

)

Schinopsis
Schinopsis
Schinopsis is a genus of South American trees in the family Anacardiaceae. The species within this genus inhabit different regions of the Gran Chaco ecoregion including parts of northern Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay....



Schinus
Schinus
Schinus is a genus of flowering trees and tall shrubs in the sumac family, Anacardiaceae. Members of the genus are commonly known as pepper trees. The Peruvian Pepper Tree is the source of the spice known as pink peppercorns but can become serious invasive species outside their natural habitats...

(Peppertree)

Sclerocarya
Sclerocarya
Sclerocarya is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Sclerocarya gillettii, Kokwaro* Sclerocarya birrea, Marula...

 (Marula)


Semecarpus
Semecarpus
Semecarpus is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Semecarpus acuminata, Thwaites* Semecarpus anacardium* Semecarpus auriculata, Beddome* Semecarpus australiensis, Engl.* Semecarpus coriacea, Thwaites...



Smodingium

Solenocarpus

Sorindeia
Sorindeia
Sorindeia is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Sorindeia calantha, Mildbr....



Spondias
Spondias
Spondias is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. The genus consists of 17 described species, 7 of which are native to the Neotropics and about 10 are native to tropical Asia...



Swintonia
Swintonia
Swintonia is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae. It contains the following species :* Swintonia robinsonii, Ridley* Swintonia spicifera, Hook. f....



Tapirira
Tapirira
Tapirira is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family Anacardiaceae.Selected species:*Tapirira benthanniana*Tapirira chimalapana*Tapirira guianensis*Tapirira marchandii*Tapirira mexicana*Tapirira obtusa...



Thyrsodium
Thyrsodium
Thyrsodium is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Thyrsodium herrerense, Encarnacion...



Toxicodendron
Toxicodendron
Toxicodendron a genus of flowering plants in the sumac family, Anacardiaceae. It contains woody trees, shrubs and vines, including poison ivy, poison oak, and the lacquer tree. All members of the genus produce the skin-irritating oil urushiol, which can cause a severe allergic reaction...

(Poison Ivy, Poison Oak
Poison oak
Poison oak may refer to* Toxicodendron diversilobum, grows on West Coast of North America* Toxicodendron pubescens, grows in the Eastern United Statesdamnnnnn tissss is terribleee...

, Poison Sumac
Poison Sumac
Poison sumac is a woody shrub or small tree growing to 7 m tall. All parts of the plant contain a resin called urushiol that causes skin and mucous membrane irritation to humans...

)

Trichoscypha
Trichoscypha
Trichoscypha is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Trichoscypha bijuga, Engl.* Trichoscypha cavalliensis, Aubrev. & Pellegr.* Trichoscypha mannii, Hook.f....




Description


Trees or shrubs each with inconspicuous flowers, highly poison
Poison
In the context of biology, poisons are substances that can cause disturbances to organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism....

ous, sometimes foul smelling resin
Resin
Resin in the most specific use of the term is a hydrocarbon secretion of many plants, particularly coniferous trees. Resins are valued for their chemical properties and associated uses, such as the production of varnishes, adhesives, and food glazing agents; as an important source of raw materials...

ous or milky sap
Plant sap
Sap is a fluid transported in xylem cells or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant. It transports water and nutrients throughout the plant....

.
Resin-canals located in the inner fibrous bark of plants fibrovascular
Vascular tissue
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants. The primary components of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem. These two tissues transport fluid and nutrients internally. There are also two meristems associated with vascular tissue:...

 system found in the stems, roots and leaves is characteristic of all members of this family; resin-canals located in the pith
Pith
Pith, or medulla, is a tissue in the stems of vascular plants. Pith is composed of soft, spongy parenchyma cells, which store and transport nutrients throughout the plant. In eudicots, pith is located in the center of the stem. In monocots, it extends also into flowering stems and roots...

 is a characteristic of many of the cashew family species and several species have them located in the primary cortex or the regular bark
Bark
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines and shrubs. Bark refers to all the tissues outside of the vascular cambium and is a nontechnical term. It overlays the wood and consists of the inner bark and the outer bark. The inner...

. Tannin sacs are also widespread among the family.

The wood of Anacardiaceae has the frequent occurrence of simple small holes in the vessels, occasionally in some species side by side with scalariform holes (in Campnosperma
Campnosperma
Campnosperma is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Campnosperma seychellarum, Marchand* Campnosperma zeylanicum, Thwaites* Campnosperma zacharyi, Randrianasolo & Lowry* Campnosperma brevipetiolata...

, Micronychia and Anaphrenium argenteum). The simple pits are located along the vessel wall and in contact with the parenchyma.(see Vessel element
Vessel element
A vessel element is one of the cell types found in xylem, the water conducting tissue of plants. Vessel elements are typically found in the angiosperms but absent from most gymnosperms such as the conifers....

)

Leaves are alternate or rarely opposite
and without stipule
Stipule
In botany, stipule is a term coined by Linnaeus which refers to outgrowths borne on either side of the base of a leafstalk...

.

Flowers grow at the end of a branch or stem or at an angle from where the leaf joins the stem and have bract
Bract
In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis, or cone scale. Bracts are often different from foliage leaves. They may be smaller, larger, or of a different color, shape, or texture...

s.
Often with this family bisexual and male flowers on some plants, and bisexual and female flowers on others or flowers having both stamen
Stamen
The stamen is the pollen producing reproductive organ of a flower...

s and pistil
Gynoecium
Gynoecium is most commonly used as a collective term for all carpels in a flower. A carpel is the ovule and seed producing reproductive organ in flowering plants. Carpels are derived from ovule-bearing leaves which evolved to form a closed structure containing the ovules...

s (perfect). Calyx with 3 to 7 cleft sepal
Sepal
A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms . Collectively the sepals form the calyx, which is the outermost whorl of parts that form a flower. Usually green, sepals have the typical function of protecting the petals when the flower is in bud...

s and the same number of petals, occasionally no petals, overlapping each other in the bud. Stamens twice as many or equal to the number of petals, inserted at the base of the
fleshy ring or cup-shaped disk, and inserted below the pistil(s).
stamen stalks separate, anthers able to move.
Flowers have the ovary
Ovary (plants)
In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. Specifically, it is the part of the pistil which holds the ovule and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals...

 free, but the petals and stamen are borne on the calyx.
In the stamenate flowers, ovaries are 1-celled. In the pistillate flowers, ovaries are 1-celled or sometimes 4-5-celled. 1-3 styles and 1 ovule in each cavity.

Fruits rarely opening at maturity
and are most often drupe
Drupe
In botany, a drupe is a fruit in which an outer fleshy part surrounds a shell of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. These fruits develop from a single carpel, and mostly from flowers with superior ovaries...

s.

Seed coats are very thin or are crust like. Little or no endosperm
Endosperm
Endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. This makes endosperm an important source of nutrition in human diet...

. Fleshy cotyledon
Cotyledon
A cotyledon , is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant. Upon germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling. The number of cotyledons present is one characteristic used by botanists to classify the flowering plants...

s.
Solitary seeds with no albumen around the embryo.

Taxonomy


In 1759, Bernard de Jussieu
Bernard de Jussieu
Bernard de Jussieu was a French naturalist, younger brother of Antoine de Jussieu.Bernard de Jussieu was born in Lyon...

 arranged the plants in the royal garden of the Trianon at Versailles, according to his own scheme. That classification included a description of an order called Terebintaceæ which contained a suborder that included Cassuvium (Anacardium
Anacardium
Anacardium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas.-Selected species:*Anacardium corymbosum Barb.Rodr.*Anacardium excelsum L. - Wild Cashew*Anacardium giganteum Anacardium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae,...

), Anacardium (Semecarpus
Semecarpus
Semecarpus is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Semecarpus acuminata, Thwaites* Semecarpus anacardium* Semecarpus auriculata, Beddome* Semecarpus australiensis, Engl.* Semecarpus coriacea, Thwaites...

), Mangifera
Mangifera
Mangifera is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. It contains approximately 69 species, with the most well-known being the Common Mango . The center of diversity is in subtropical and tropical southeast Asia, while the highest number of species occur in the Malay...

, Connarus, Rhus and Rourea. In 1789, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu was a French botanist, notable as the first to propose a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today.-Life:...

, nephew of Bernard de Jussieu, published that classification scheme.

Robert Brown
Robert Brown (botanist)
Robert Brown was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope...

 described a subset of Terebintaceae called Cassuvlæ or Anacardeæ in 1818, using the herbarium
Herbarium
In botany, a herbarium – sometimes known by the Anglicized term herbar – is a collection of preserved plant specimens. These specimens may be whole plants or plant parts: these will usually be in a dried form, mounted on a sheet, but depending upon the material may also be kept in...

 that was collected by Christen Smith
Christen Smith (botanist)
Christen Smith was a Norwegian physician, economist and naturalist, particularly botanist.-Early years:...

 during a fated expedition headed by James Kingston Tuckey
James Kingston Tuckey
James Hingston Tuckey was an Irish-born British explorer and a captain in the Royal Navy. Some references refer to him as James Kingston Tuckey....

 to explore the River Congo. The name and genera were based on the order with the same name that had been described by Bernard de Jussieu
Bernard de Jussieu
Bernard de Jussieu was a French naturalist, younger brother of Antoine de Jussieu.Bernard de Jussieu was born in Lyon...

 in 1759. The herbarium from that expedition contained only one genus from the family, Rhus.

Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in 1824, used Robert Browns name Cassuvlæ or Anacardeæ, wrote another description of the group and filled it with the genera Anacardium
Anacardium
Anacardium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas.-Selected species:*Anacardium corymbosum Barb.Rodr.*Anacardium excelsum L. - Wild Cashew*Anacardium giganteum Anacardium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae,...

, Semecarpus
Semecarpus
Semecarpus is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Semecarpus acuminata, Thwaites* Semecarpus anacardium* Semecarpus auriculata, Beddome* Semecarpus australiensis, Engl.* Semecarpus coriacea, Thwaites...

, Holigarna, Mangifera
Mangifera
Mangifera is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. It contains approximately 69 species, with the most well-known being the Common Mango . The center of diversity is in subtropical and tropical southeast Asia, while the highest number of species occur in the Malay...

, Buchanania
Buchanania
Buchanania is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:*Buchanania amboinensis Miq. – native to Papua New Guinea...

, Pistacia
Pistacia
Pistacia is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. It contains ten to twenty species that are native to Africa and Eurasia from the Canary Islands, whole Africa, and southern Europe, warm and semi-desert areas across Asia, and also North America from Mexico to warm and...

, Astronium
Astronium
Astronium is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae.-Selected species:*Astronium fraxinifolium - Goncalo alves*Astronium graveolens - Aroeira*Astronium lecointei...

, Comocladia and Picramnia
Picramnia
Picramnia is a genus of plant considered to be in the family Picramniaceae, but sometimes placed in Simaroubaceae. The name is conserved against the genera Pseudo-brasilium Adans., and Tariri Aubl., both which have been rejected .-Selected species:* P. acreana Ule* P. andrade-limae...

.

John Lindley
John Lindley
John Lindley FRS was an English botanist, gardener and orchidologist.-Early years:Born in Catton, near Norwich, England, John Lindley was one of four children of George and Mary Lindley. George Lindley was a nurseryman and pomologist and ran a commercial nursery garden...

 described the "Essential character" of Anacardiaceæ, the "Cashew Tribe" in 1831, adopting the order that was described by Jussieu but abandoning the name Terebintaceæ. He includes the genera which were found in de Candolle's Anacardieæ and Sumachineæ: Anacardium
Anacardium
Anacardium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas.-Selected species:*Anacardium corymbosum Barb.Rodr.*Anacardium excelsum L. - Wild Cashew*Anacardium giganteum Anacardium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae,...

, Holigarna, Mangifera
Mangifera
Mangifera is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. It contains approximately 69 species, with the most well-known being the Common Mango . The center of diversity is in subtropical and tropical southeast Asia, while the highest number of species occur in the Malay...

, Rhus and Mauria
Mauria
Mauria is a genus of plant in family Anacardiaceae.Species include:* Mauria killipii, F. Barkley* Mauria membranifolia, Barfod & Holm-Niels.* Mauria trichothyrsa, Loes....

.

The genus Pistacia
Pistacia
Pistacia is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. It contains ten to twenty species that are native to Africa and Eurasia from the Canary Islands, whole Africa, and southern Europe, warm and semi-desert areas across Asia, and also North America from Mexico to warm and...

has sometimes been separated into its own family, Pistaciaceae, based on the reduced flower structure, differences in pollen, and the feathery style of the flowers. However, the nature of the ovary does suggest it belongs in the Anacardiaceae, a position which is supported by morphological and molecular studies, and recent classifications have included Pistacia in the Anacardiaceae.

Taxonomy references







Ecology


The cashew family is more abundant in warm or tropical regions with only a few species living in the temperate zones. Mostly native to tropical Americas
Americas
The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

, Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

 and India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. Pistacia
Pistacia
Pistacia is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. It contains ten to twenty species that are native to Africa and Eurasia from the Canary Islands, whole Africa, and southern Europe, warm and semi-desert areas across Asia, and also North America from Mexico to warm and...

s
and some species of Rhus can be found in southern Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, Rhus species can be found in much of North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

 and Schinus
Schinus
Schinus is a genus of flowering trees and tall shrubs in the sumac family, Anacardiaceae. Members of the genus are commonly known as pepper trees. The Peruvian Pepper Tree is the source of the spice known as pink peppercorns but can become serious invasive species outside their natural habitats...

inhabit South America
South America
South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

 exclusively.

Uses


Members of this family produce cashew
Cashew
The cashew is a tree in the family Anacardiaceae. Its English name derives from the Portuguese name for the fruit of the cashew tree, caju, which in turn derives from the indigenous Tupi name, acajú. It is now widely grown in tropical climates for its cashew nuts and cashew apples.-Etymology:The...

 and pistacia
Pistacia
Pistacia is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. It contains ten to twenty species that are native to Africa and Eurasia from the Canary Islands, whole Africa, and southern Europe, warm and semi-desert areas across Asia, and also North America from Mexico to warm and...

 nuts and others produce mango
Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...

 and marula fruits.

Some members produce a viscous or adhesive fluid which turns black
Black
Black is the color of objects that do not emit or reflect light in any part of the visible spectrum; they absorb all such frequencies of light...

 and is used as a varnish
Varnish
Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials. Varnish is traditionally a combination of a drying oil, a resin, and a thinner or solvent. Varnish finishes are usually glossy but may be designed to produce satin or semi-gloss...

 or for tanning
Tanning
Tanning is the making of leather from the skins of animals which does not easily decompose. Traditionally, tanning used tannin, an acidic chemical compound from which the tanning process draws its name . Coloring may occur during tanning...

 and even as a mordant for red
Red
Red is any of a number of similar colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of light discernible by the human eye, in the wavelength range of roughly 630–740 nm. Longer wavelengths than this are called infrared , and cannot be seen by the naked eye...

dyes.

Medicinally the edible nuts from this family have a reputation for being good for the brain.

External links