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Amaranthaceae

Amaranthaceae

Overview
The flowering plant
Flowering plant
The flowering plants , also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants. Angiosperms are seed-producing plants like the gymnosperms and can be distinguished from the gymnosperms by a series of synapomorphies...

 family Amaranthaceae, the Amaranth
Amaranth
Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of herbs. Approximately 60 species are recognized, with inflorescences and foliage ranging from purple and red to gold...

 family, contains about 176 genera and 2,400 species.

Most of these species are herb
Herb
Except in botanical usage, an herb is "any plant with leaves, seeds, or flowers used for flavoring, food, medicine, or perfume" or "a part of such a plant as used in cooking"...

s or subshrub
Subshrub
A subshrub or dwarf shrub is a short woody plant. Prostrate shrub is a similar term.It is distinguished from a shrub by its ground-hugging stems and lower height, with overwintering perennial woody growth typically less than 10–20 cm tall, or by being only weakly woody and/or persisting...

s; very few are tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

s or climbers. Some species are succulent.

The leaves
Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants....

 are simple, opposite or alternate, their margins entire or coarsely toothed, and without stipule
Stipule
In botany, stipule is a term coined by Linnaeus which refers to outgrowths borne on either side of the base of a leafstalk...

s. In most cases, there are neither basal or terminal aggregations of leaves.

The flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

s are solitary or aggregated in cymes, spikes
Raceme
A raceme is a type of inflorescence that is unbranched and indeterminate and bears pedicellate flowers — flowers having short floral stalks called pedicels — along the axis. In botany, axis means a shoot, in this case one bearing the flowers. In a raceme, the oldest flowers are borne...

, or panicle
Panicle
A panicle is a compound raceme, a loose, much-branched indeterminate inflorescence with pedicellate flowers attached along the secondary branches; in other words, a branched cluster of flowers in which the branches are racemes....

s and typically perfect (bisexual) and actinomorphic.
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Encyclopedia
The flowering plant
Flowering plant
The flowering plants , also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants. Angiosperms are seed-producing plants like the gymnosperms and can be distinguished from the gymnosperms by a series of synapomorphies...

 family Amaranthaceae, the Amaranth
Amaranth
Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of herbs. Approximately 60 species are recognized, with inflorescences and foliage ranging from purple and red to gold...

 family, contains about 176 genera and 2,400 species.

Description


Most of these species are herb
Herb
Except in botanical usage, an herb is "any plant with leaves, seeds, or flowers used for flavoring, food, medicine, or perfume" or "a part of such a plant as used in cooking"...

s or subshrub
Subshrub
A subshrub or dwarf shrub is a short woody plant. Prostrate shrub is a similar term.It is distinguished from a shrub by its ground-hugging stems and lower height, with overwintering perennial woody growth typically less than 10–20 cm tall, or by being only weakly woody and/or persisting...

s; very few are tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

s or climbers. Some species are succulent.

The leaves
Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants....

 are simple, opposite or alternate, their margins entire or coarsely toothed, and without stipule
Stipule
In botany, stipule is a term coined by Linnaeus which refers to outgrowths borne on either side of the base of a leafstalk...

s. In most cases, there are neither basal or terminal aggregations of leaves.

The flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

s are solitary or aggregated in cymes, spikes
Raceme
A raceme is a type of inflorescence that is unbranched and indeterminate and bears pedicellate flowers — flowers having short floral stalks called pedicels — along the axis. In botany, axis means a shoot, in this case one bearing the flowers. In a raceme, the oldest flowers are borne...

, or panicle
Panicle
A panicle is a compound raceme, a loose, much-branched indeterminate inflorescence with pedicellate flowers attached along the secondary branches; in other words, a branched cluster of flowers in which the branches are racemes....

s and typically perfect (bisexual) and actinomorphic. A few species have unisexual flowers. The bracteate
Bracteate
A bracteate is a flat, thin, single-sided gold medal worn as jewelry that was produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration Period of the Germanic Iron Age...

 flowers are regular with 4-5 petal
Petal
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They often are brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals lying...

s, often joined. There are 1-5 stamen
Stamen
The stamen is the pollen producing reproductive organ of a flower...

s. The hypogynous ovary
Ovary (plants)
In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. Specifically, it is the part of the pistil which holds the ovule and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals...

 has 3-5 joined sepal
Sepal
A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms . Collectively the sepals form the calyx, which is the outermost whorl of parts that form a flower. Usually green, sepals have the typical function of protecting the petals when the flower is in bud...

s.

The fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

 can be an utricle, nut
Nut (fruit)
A nut is a hard-shelled fruit of some plants having an indehiscent seed. While a wide variety of dried seeds and fruits are called nuts in English, only a certain number of them are considered by biologists to be true nuts...

, or circumscissile capsule
Capsule (fruit)
In botany a capsule is a type of simple, dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. A capsule is a structure composed of two or more carpels that in most cases is dehiscent, i.e. at maturity, it splits apart to release the seeds within. A few capsules are indehiscent, for example...

, rarely a berry
Berry
The botanical definition of a berry is a fleshy fruit produced from a single ovary. Grapes are an example. The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire ovary wall ripens into an edible pericarp. They may have one or more carpels with a thin covering and fleshy interiors....

.

Distribution


This is a widespread and cosmopolitan family found mostly in subtropical and tropical regions, although many species belong in cool temperate regions. Many of the species are halophyte
Halophyte
A halophyte is a plant that grows where it is affected by salinity in the root area or by salt spray, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs, and seashores. An example of a halophyte is the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora . Relatively few plant species are...

s, tolerating salty
Sodium chloride
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaCl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms...

 soils, or grow in dry steppes or semideserts.

Economic importance


Some species, like spinach
Spinach
Spinach is an edible flowering plant in the family of Amaranthaceae. It is native to central and southwestern Asia. It is an annual plant , which grows to a height of up to 30 cm. Spinach may survive over winter in temperate regions...

 (Spinacia oleracea) or forms of beet
Beta (plant)
Beta is a genus in the flowering plant family Amaranthaceae. The best known member is the common Beet, Beta vulgaris, but several other species are recognised...

 (Beta vulgaris) (Beetroot
Beetroot
The beetroot, also known as the table beet, garden beet, red beet or informally simply as beet, is one of the many cultivated varieties of beets and arguably the most commonly encountered variety in North America, Central America and Britain.-Consumption:The usually deep-red roots of beetroot are...

, Chard
Chard
Chard , is a leafy green vegetable often used in Mediterranean cooking. While the leaves are always green, chard stalks vary in color. Chard has been bred to have highly nutrious leaves at the expense of the root...

), are used as vegetables. Forms of Beta vulgaris are fodder beet (Mangelwurzel
Mangelwurzel
Mangelwurzel or mangold wurzel , also called mangold, mangel beet, field beet and fodder beet, is a cultivated root vegetable derived from Beta vulgaris...

) and Sugar beet
Sugar beet
Sugar beet, a cultivated plant of Beta vulgaris, is a plant whose tuber contains a high concentration of sucrose. It is grown commercially for sugar production. Sugar beets and other B...

. The seeds of Amaranthus and Quinoa
Quinoa
Quinoa , a species of goosefoot , is a grain-like crop grown primarily for its edible seeds. It is a pseudocereal rather than a true cereal, or grain, as it is not a member of the grass family...

 (Chenopodium quinoa) are edible and used like cereals.

Some species are considered weed
Weed
A weed in a general sense is a plant that is considered by the user of the term to be a nuisance, and normally applied to unwanted plants in human-controlled settings, especially farm fields and gardens, but also lawns, parks, woods, and other areas. More specifically, the term is often used to...

s, but a number of others are popular garden ornamental plant
Ornamental plant
Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as house plants, for cut flowers and specimen display...

s, especially species from Alternanthera
Alternanthera
Alternanthera is a genus of approximately 80 herbaceous plant species in Amaranthaceae, the amaranth family. It is a widespread genus with a cosmopolitan distribution....

, Amaranthus, Celosia
Celosia
Celosia is a small genus of edible and ornamental plants in the amaranth family, Amaranthaceae. The generic name is derived from the Greek word κηλος , meaning "burned," and refers to the flame-like flower heads. Species are commonly known as woolflowers, or, if the flower heads are crested by...

, and Iresine
Iresine
Iresine is a genus of flowering plants in the amaranth family, Amaranthaceae. It contains 20 to 25 species, all of which are native to the American tropics. The generic name is derived from the Greek word εριος , meaning "wooly", referring to the trichome-covered flowers...

.

Taxonomy


The Amaranth
Amaranth
Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of herbs. Approximately 60 species are recognized, with inflorescences and foliage ranging from purple and red to gold...

 family contains about 176 genera and 2,400 species.
In the APG II system
APG II system
The APG II system of plant classification is the second, now obsolete, version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy that was published in April 2003 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. It was a revision of the first APG system, published in 1998, and was superseded in 2009...

, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system
APG system
The APG system of plant classification is the first, now obsolete, version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy that was published in 1998 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. It was superseded in 2003 by a revision, the APG II system, and then in 2009 by a further...

, of 1998), the family is placed in the order Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, carnations, amaranths, ice plants, and many carnivorous plants. Many members are succulent, having fleshy stems or leaves.-Description:...

. It includes the plants formerly treated as the family Chenopodiaceae
Chenopodiaceae
Chenopodiaceae were a family of flowering plants, also called the Goosefoot Family. They are now included within family Amaranthaceae. The vast majority of Chenopods are weeds, and many are salt and drought tolerant. A few food crops also belong to the family: spinach, beets, chard, quinoa, and...

. The monophyly of this new, broadly defined Amaranthaceae has been strongly supported by both morphological and phylogenetic analyses. The main differences between Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae are membraneous petals and stamens often united in a ring structure.

The former Amaranthaceae (in their narrow circumscription) are classified in two subspecies, Amaranthoideae
Amaranthoideae
The Amaranthoideae is a subfamily of the Amaranthaceae.The genera Amaranthus and Celosia contain many ornamental species as well as species whose seeds are used as pseudo-cereals and leaves as leaf vegetables....

 and Gomphrenoideae
Gomphrenoideae
The Gomphrenoideae is a subfamily of the Amaranthaceae....

 and contain about 65 genera and 900 species in tropical Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

 and North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

.

Current studies classified the species of former Chenopodiaceae to several distinct subfamilies
(Betoideae
Betoideae
The Betoideae is a small subfamily of the flowering plant family Amaranthaceae, formerly classified in family Chenopodiaceae.- Description :...

,
Camphorosmoideae
Camphorosmoideae
The Camphorosmoideae is a species-rich subfamily of the Amaranthaceae, formerly in family Chenopodiaceae.- Description :The members of Camphorosmoideae are mostly subshrubs or annuals. They differ from the similar Salsoloideae by the absence of bracteoles. Stigmas are filiform with papillae on the...

,
Chenopodioideae
Chenopodioideae
The Chenopodioideae is a subfamily of the flowering plant family Amaranthaceae, formerly classified in family Chenopodiaceae.Food species include several Chenopodium species , Orache , and Spinach .-Genera:The subfamily includes about 25 genera.* Tribus Atripliceae C. A...

,
Corispermoideae
Corispermoideae
The Corispermoideae is a subfamily of the Amaranthaceae, formerly in family Chenopodiaceae.- Description :The species of the subfamily Corispermoideae are all annual plants. Leaves are mostly alternate, sessile or petiole-like attenuate, laminate, scleromorphic...

,
Polycnemoideae
Polycnemoideae
Polycnemoideae is a subfamily of plants in the Amaranthaceae family.- Description :The subfamily Polycnemoideae is distinguishable from all other members of Amaranthaceae by normal secondary growth. The stomata of the leaves are arranged in parallel to the midveins. The flowers have conspicuous...

,
Salicornioideae
Salicornioideae
The Salicornioideae is a subfamily of the Amaranthaceae, formerly in family Chenopodiaceae.- Description :The Salicornioideae have articulated, succulent stems and strongly reduces leaves. The flowers are aggregated in thick, dense spike-shaped thyrses....

,
Salsoloideae
Salsoloideae
The Salsoloideae is a subfamily of the Amaranthaceae, formerly in family Chenopodiaceae.- Description :These are herbs, subshrubs, shrubs and some trees. Stems and leaves are often succulent. The ovary contains a spiral embryo....

, and
Suaedoideae
Suaedoideae
Suaedoideae is a subfamily of plants in the Amaranthaceae family.- Genera :* Bienertia Bunge ex Boiss., with one or two species.* Suaeda Forssk. ex J.F.Gmel. , with about 84 species...

).

Genera


A short synoptic list of genera is given here. For further and more detailed information see on the subfamily pages.
Subfamily Genera
Amaranthoideae
Amaranthoideae
The Amaranthoideae is a subfamily of the Amaranthaceae.The genera Amaranthus and Celosia contain many ornamental species as well as species whose seeds are used as pseudo-cereals and leaves as leaf vegetables....

Achyranthes
Achyranthes
Achyranthes is a genus of medicinal and ornamental plants in the Amaranthaceae family.Species include:* Achyranthes arborescens* Achyranthes aspera Achyranthes is a genus of medicinal and ornamental plants in the Amaranthaceae family.Species include:* Achyranthes arborescens* Achyranthes aspera...

, Achyropsis, Aerva
Aerva
Aerva is a genus of plant in family Amaranthaceae.-Selected species:Compiled from several different lists:* Aerva artemisioides* Aerva congesta* Aerva coriacea Schinz* Aerva humbertii Cavaco...

, Allmania, Allmaniopsis, Amaranthus, Arthraerva,Bosea
Bosea
Bosea The genus of evergreen, woody shrubs contains 3 species that are geographically widely separated; one in the Canary Islands, one in Cyprus and one in the western Himalayas...

, Calicorema, Celosia
Celosia
Celosia is a small genus of edible and ornamental plants in the amaranth family, Amaranthaceae. The generic name is derived from the Greek word κηλος , meaning "burned," and refers to the flame-like flower heads. Species are commonly known as woolflowers, or, if the flower heads are crested by...

, Centema, Centemopsis, Centrostachys, Chamissoa
Chamissoa
Chamissoa is a genus of plants in the Amaranthaceae family. This genus is sometimes included in the Chenopodiaceae family. Species include:*Chamissoa altissima Kunth - False chaff flower...

, Charpentiera
Charpentiera
Charpentiera is a flowering plant genus in the pigweed family, Amaranthaceae. It consists of five species endemic to Hawaii, where they are known as pāpala, and one species found only on the island of Tubuai in the Austral Islands...

, Chionothrix, Cyathula
Cyathula
Cyathula is a genus of medicinal and ornamental plants in the Amaranthaceae family, species of which grow in Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. The genus is also sometimes placed in the Chenopodiaceae family.-External links:* * * *...

, Dasysphaera, Deeringia, Digera, Eriostylos, Hebanthodes, Henonia, Herbstia
Herbstia
Herbstia is a genus of crabs, containing the following eleven species:*Herbstia camptacantha *Herbstia condyliata *Herbstia crassipes Herbstia is a genus of crabs, containing the following eleven species:*Herbstia camptacantha (Stimpson, 1871)*Herbstia condyliata (Fabricius, 1787)*Herbstia...

, Hermbstaedtia, Indobanalia, Kyphocarpa, Lagrezia, Lecosia, Leucosphaera, Lopriorea, Marcelliopsis,Mechowia, Nelsia, Neocentema, Nothosaerva, Nyssanthes, Omegandra, Pandiaka, Pedersenia, Pleuropetalum
Pleuropetalum
Pleuropetalum is a genus of plant in family Amaranthaceae. It contains the following species :* Pleuropetalum darwinii, Hook.f....

, Pleuropterantha, Polyrhabda, Pseudosericocoma, Psilotrichopsis, Psilotrichum
Psilotrichum
Psilotrichum is a genus of plant in family Amaranthaceae.Species include:* Psilotrichum aphyllum, C.C.Towns....

, Ptilotus
Ptilotus
Ptilotus is a genus of mostly perennial herbs or shrubs in the family Amaranthaceae. The species are all native to drier areas of mainland Australia, although one also occurs in Tasmania and another in Malesia on the islands of Flores and Timor. Common names for species in this genus include Mulla...

, Pupalia, Quaternella, Rosifax, Saltia
Saltia
Saltia is a genus of moths of the Noctuidae family, endemic to the high mountains of East Africa. Two species have been described, both collected by George Salt in 1948:Saltia acrophylax Tams 1952...

, Sericocoma, Sericocomopsis, Sericorema, Sericostachys, Stilbanthus, Trichuriella, Volkensinia
Gomphrenoideae
Gomphrenoideae
The Gomphrenoideae is a subfamily of the Amaranthaceae....

 
Alternanthera
Alternanthera
Alternanthera is a genus of approximately 80 herbaceous plant species in Amaranthaceae, the amaranth family. It is a widespread genus with a cosmopolitan distribution....

, Blutaparon
Blutaparon
Blutaparon is a genus of plant in family Amaranthaceae. It contains the following species :* Blutaparon rigidum, Mears...

, Froelichia
Froelichia
Froelichia is a genus of plant in family Amaranthaceae.Species include:* Froelichia arizonica* Froelichia drummondii* Froelichia floridana* Froelichia gracilis* Froelichia juncea, B.L. Rob. & Greenm....

, Gomphrena
Gomphrena
Gomphrena the Globe amaranths, is a genus of plants in the family Amaranthaceae.Species include:*Gomphrena globosa - Globe amaranth*Gomphrena haageana - Strawberry globe amaranth*Gomphrena perennis - Glyphosate resistant...

, Guilleminea
Guilleminea
Guilleminea is a small genus of plants in the amaranth family. They are sometimes known as matweeds. These are prostrate, mat-forming perennial herbs growing from taproots. The best known species is perhaps Guilleminea densa, the small matweed, which is present on most continents and is often a...

, Irenella
Irenella
Irenella is a genus of plant in family Amaranthaceae. It contains the following species :* Irenella chrysotricha, Suess....

, Iresine
Iresine
Iresine is a genus of flowering plants in the amaranth family, Amaranthaceae. It contains 20 to 25 species, all of which are native to the American tropics. The generic name is derived from the Greek word εριος , meaning "wooly", referring to the trichome-covered flowers...

, Lithophila
Lithophila
Lithophila is a genus of plant in family Amaranthaceae.Species include:* Lithophila radicata, Standl.* Lithophila subscaposa, Standl....

, Pfaffia
Pfaffia
Pfaffia is a genus of plants in the family Amaranthaceae. This genus is sometimes placed in Chenopodiaceae family.-Selected species:*Pfaffia cinera*Pfaffia denutata*Pfaffia glomerata...

, Pseudogomphrena, Pseudoplantago, Tidestromia
Tidestromia
Tidestromia is a genus with about seven species of annual or subshrub perennial plants native to desert and semi-arid regions of the western United States, Mexico and tropical America in the family Amaranthaceae. A common name of some species is Honeysweet. The stems are reddish and contrast...

, Woehleria, Xerosiphon
Xerosiphon
Xerosiphon is a genus of plants in the Amaranthaceae family. This genus is sometimes included in the Chenopodiaceae family. Species include:*Xerosiphon aphyllus...

Betoideae
Betoideae
The Betoideae is a small subfamily of the flowering plant family Amaranthaceae, formerly classified in family Chenopodiaceae.- Description :...

 
Acroglochin, Aphanisma, Beta
Beta (plant)
Beta is a genus in the flowering plant family Amaranthaceae. The best known member is the common Beet, Beta vulgaris, but several other species are recognised...

, Hablitzia, Oreobliton, Patellifolia
Camphorosmoideae
Camphorosmoideae
The Camphorosmoideae is a species-rich subfamily of the Amaranthaceae, formerly in family Chenopodiaceae.- Description :The members of Camphorosmoideae are mostly subshrubs or annuals. They differ from the similar Salsoloideae by the absence of bracteoles. Stigmas are filiform with papillae on the...

 
Bassia
Bassia
Bassia is a plant genus of the Amaranthaceae family.-Description:The species of genus Bassia are annuals or perennial subshrubs. Their leaves are very variable and show different C4 "kochioid" types of leaf anatomy. The flowers are normally inconspicuous, in spike-like inflorescences without...

, Camphorosma, Chenolea, Didymanthus, Dissocarpus, Enchylaena
Enchylaena
Enchylaena is a genus of two species of small perennial shrubs endemic to Australia. Plants of this genus are commonly known as barrier saltbushes.The genus was published by Robert Brown in 1810, along with the species Enchylaena tomentosa...

, Eokochia, Eremophea, Eriochiton, Grubovia, Maireana
Maireana
Maireana is a genus of around 57 species of perennial shrubs and herbs in the family Amaranthaceae which are endemic to Australia. Species in this genus were formerly classified within the genus Kochia...

, Malacocera, Neobassia, Neokochia, Osteocarpum, Roycea, Sclerolaena, Sedobassia, Spirobassia, Threlkeldia
Threlkeldia
Threlkeldia is a genus of annuals or short-lived perennials in the family Amaranthaceae. There are two species, both of which are endemic to Australia...

Chenopodioideae
Chenopodioideae
The Chenopodioideae is a subfamily of the flowering plant family Amaranthaceae, formerly classified in family Chenopodiaceae.Food species include several Chenopodium species , Orache , and Spinach .-Genera:The subfamily includes about 25 genera.* Tribus Atripliceae C. A...

 
Archiatriplex, Atriplex
Atriplex
Atriplex is a plant genus of 100-200 species, known by the common names of saltbush and orache . The genus is quite variable and widely distributed. It includes many desert and seashore plants and halophytes, as well as plants of moist environments...

, Axyris, Baolia, Ceratocarpus, Chenopodium
Chenopodium
Chenopodium is a genus of about 150 species of perennial or annual herbaceous flowering plants known as the goosefoots, which occur almost anywhere in the world. It is placed in the family Amaranthaceae in the APG II system; older classifications separate it and its relatives as Chenopodiaceae, but...

, Cycloloma, Dysphania, Einadia
Einadia
Einadia is a plant genus in the family Amaranthaceae. The species, which are native to Australia and New Zealand, include:*Einadia hastata A.J.Scott - Saloop*Einadia nutans A.J.Scott - Nodding Saltbush...

, Exomis , Extriplex, Grayia
Grayia (plant)
Grayia is a monotypic genus of plants containing the sole species Grayia spinosa, which is known by the common names hop sage and spiny hop sage.-Distribution:...

, Halimione, Holmbergia, Krascheninnikovia
Krascheninnikovia
Krascheninnikovia is a genus of flowering plants in the amaranth family known generally as winterfat. They are known from Eurasia and western North America. These are hairy perennials or small shrubs which may be monoecious or dioecious...

, Manochlamys, Microgynoecium, Micromonolepis, Monolepis
Monolepis
Monolepis is a small genus of flowering plants in the amaranth family known generally as povertyweeds. They are annual herbs with fleshy, lance-shaped to triangular pointed leaves and clusters of grainy flowers...

, Proatriplex, Rhagodia
Rhagodia
Rhagodia is a genus of shrubs native to Australia. They are common in salt marsh and may be succulent, like other salt tolerant species its members are commonly known as saltbushes.Species include:...

, Scleroblitum, Spinacia
Spinacia
Spinacia is the spinach genus.-External links:*...

, Stutzia, Suckleya
Corispermoideae
Corispermoideae
The Corispermoideae is a subfamily of the Amaranthaceae, formerly in family Chenopodiaceae.- Description :The species of the subfamily Corispermoideae are all annual plants. Leaves are mostly alternate, sessile or petiole-like attenuate, laminate, scleromorphic...

 
Agriophyllum, Anthochlamys, Corispermum
Corispermum
Corispermum is a genus of plants in the goosefoot family. Common names given to members of the genus involve bugseed, tickseed, and tumbleweed. In general, these are erect annual plants with flat, thin leaves and topped with inflorescences of flowers with long bracts...

Polycnemoideae
Polycnemoideae
Polycnemoideae is a subfamily of plants in the Amaranthaceae family.- Description :The subfamily Polycnemoideae is distinguishable from all other members of Amaranthaceae by normal secondary growth. The stomata of the leaves are arranged in parallel to the midveins. The flowers have conspicuous...

 
Hemichroa, Nitrophila
Nitrophila
Nitrophila is a small genus of flowering plants in the amaranth family sometimes known by the common name niterworts. The genus name is Greek for "soda-loving", as the plant grows in alkaline or salty soils, such as those rich in borax. These are rhizomatous perennials with fleshy foliage that...

, Polycnemum
Salicornioideae
Salicornioideae
The Salicornioideae is a subfamily of the Amaranthaceae, formerly in family Chenopodiaceae.- Description :The Salicornioideae have articulated, succulent stems and strongly reduces leaves. The flowers are aggregated in thick, dense spike-shaped thyrses....

 
Allenrolfea
Allenrolfea
Allenrolfea is a monotypic plant genus containing the single species Allenrolfea occidentalis, the iodinebush. This is a low-lying shrub of the Southwestern United States, California, Idaho, and northern Mexico....

, Arthrocnemum, Halocnemum, Halopeplis, Halostachys, Heterostachys, Kalidium, Microcnemum, Salicornia, Sarcocornia
Sarcocornia
Sarcocornia is a genus of succulent salt tolerant coastal plants.-Species:*S. alpini*S. blackiana *S. fruticosa*Sarcocornia globosa...

, Tecticornia
Tecticornia
Tecticornia is a genus of succulent, salt tolerant plant largely endemic to Australia. In 2007, the genus Halosarcia, along with three other Australian genera was incorporated intothe genus....

Salsoloideae
Salsoloideae
The Salsoloideae is a subfamily of the Amaranthaceae, formerly in family Chenopodiaceae.- Description :These are herbs, subshrubs, shrubs and some trees. Stems and leaves are often succulent. The ovary contains a spiral embryo....

 
Anabasis
Anabasis (plant)
Anabasis is a genus of the family Amaranthaceae .- Systematics :The genus name Anabasis was published in 1753 by Carl von Linné in Species Plantarum. Type species is Anabasis aphylla L....

, Arthrophytum, Caroxylon, Climacoptera, Cornulaca, Cyathobasis, Fredolia, Girgensohnia, Halarchon, Halimocnemis, Halocharis, Halogeton
Halogeton
Halogeton is a plant genus of the family Amaranthaceae. The genus name, Halogeton, derives from the Greek words for "salt" and for "neighbor."-Description:...

, Halothamnus
Halothamnus
Halothamnus is a genus of the former Chenopodiaceae that is now included into the family Amaranthaceae. The scientific name means saltbush, from the Greek ἅλς "salt" and θαμνος "bush"...

, Haloxylon
Haloxylon
Haloxylon is a genus of shrubs or small trees, belonging to the plant family Amaranthaceae. Haloxylon and its species are known by the common name saxaul.-Description:...

, Hammada, Horaninowia, Iljinia, Kali
Kali (plant)
Kali is a genus of the subfamily Salsoloideae in the family Amaranthaceae. Common names of various members of this genus include tumbleweed, for its wind-blown seed dispersal habit; and Tartar thistle and Russian thistle for its origins....

, Kaviria, Lagenantha, Nanophyton, Noaea, Nucularia, Ofaiston, Petrosimonia, Piptoptera, Physandra, Pyankovia, Rhaphidophyton, Salsola
Salsola
Salsola is a genus of the subfamily Salsoloideae in the family Amaranthaceae. A common name of various members of this genus is saltwort, for its salt tolerance.-Description:...

, Sympegma, Traganum, Traganopsis, Turania, Xylosalsola
Suaedoideae
Suaedoideae
Suaedoideae is a subfamily of plants in the Amaranthaceae family.- Genera :* Bienertia Bunge ex Boiss., with one or two species.* Suaeda Forssk. ex J.F.Gmel. , with about 84 species...

 
Bienertia, Suaeda
Suaeda
Suaeda is a genus of plants also known as seepweeds and seablites. Most species are confined to saline or alkaline soil habitats, such as coastal salt-flats and tidal wetlands. Many species have thick, succulent leaves, a characteristic seen in various plant genera that thrive in salty habitats...


External links


Genera of Amaranthaceae at Germplasm Resources Information Network (USDA)
Germplasm Resources Information Network
Germplasm Resources Information Network or GRIN is an online software project of National Genetic Resources Program of USDA to provide germplasm information about plants, animals, microbes and invertebrates.-Sub-Projects:...