Ali al-Hadi

Ali al-Hadi

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‘Alī al-Hādī also known as ‘Alī an-Naqī was the tenth of the Twelve Imams. His full name is ‘Alī ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Alī. The exact date of his birth and death are unknown, but it is generally accepted that he was born between 827–830 CE (2nd Rajab, 212 AH-214 AH) and he died in 868 CE.

Early years


‘Alī al-Hādī was born in Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 to the ninth Shī‘ah Imām, Muhammad al-Taqi
Muhammad al-Taqi
Muhammad al-Taqī or Muhammad al-Jawād was the ninth of the Twelve Imams of Twelver Shi'ism. His given name was Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn Mūsā, and among his titles, al-Taqī and al-Jawād are the most renowned...

, (also known as Imam Muhammad al-Jawad), and Lady Sumānah who was originally a Berber
Berber people
Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are continuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. Historically they spoke the Berber language or varieties of it, which together form a branch...

 (from the Maghreb
Maghreb
The Maghreb is the region of Northwest Africa, west of Egypt. It includes five countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Mauritania and the disputed territory of Western Sahara...

 i.e. Northwest Africa). His father bestowed upon him the surname Abu'l-Hasan, after the surnames given to his grandfather Imam Ali ar-Ridha and his great grandfather Imam Musa al-Kadhim
Musa al-Kadhim
' was the seventh of the Twelve Imams of Twelver Shi'a Islam. He was the son of Imam and his mother was Hamidah Khātūn, a student and former Zanjiyyah slave...

.

According to Shi'a accounts, after his father's assassination at the will of Al-Mu'tasim
Al-Mu'tasim
Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun was an Abbasid caliph . He succeeded his half-brother al-Ma'mun...

, the Abbasid caliph ordered Umar bin al-Faraj to find a teacher in Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 for the young Imam that would preach hatred toward the ahl al-bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt is an Arabic phrase literally meaning People of the House, or family of the House. The phrase "ahl al-bayt" was used in Arabia before the advent of Islam to refer to one's clan, and would be adopted by the ruling family of a tribe. Within the Islamic tradition, the term refers to the...

. After finding al-Junaydi to perform the task, the teacher set to work. However, al-Junaydi often reported on the Imam's intelligence. Imam al-Hadi would often provide perspectives on literature that al-Junaydi hadn't thought of, and at his young age he had even developed a comprehensive understanding of the Qu'ran and the revelations within. Al-Junaydi, impressed and astounded by the young boy, concluded that it could only be by divine causes that the Imam could be so knowledgeable, and in doing so he dropped what animosity he had held towards the family of the Prophet.

In Medina


Imam al-Hadi utilized the Prophet's Mosque in Medina as a place to teach people about knowledge, principles, and morals that could be derived from Islam. The Imam was dedicated to teaching so much that he would pay for students' supplies if they needed it (in addition to the regular charity he gave to the poor). Due to his kindness, most people in Medina that interacted with him were loyal to him.

Despite the general population's love for the Imam, one man despised the Imam for the support he had amongst the people. Abdullah bin Muhammad was the wali
Wali
Walī , is an Arabic word meaning "custodian", "protector", "sponsor", or authority as denoted by its definition "crown". "Wali" is someone who has "Walayah" over somebody else. For example, in Fiqh the father is wali of his children. In Islam, the phrase ولي الله walīyu 'llāh...

 of Medina, and he told al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861...

 that Imam al-Hadi was dangerous because some Islamic nations were giving him money with which he could use to buy weapons; those weapons could then be used to revolt against al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861...

. When Imam al-Hadi learned of what Abdullah bin Muhammad had told the caliph, he sent a letter to al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861...

 assuring him that the warning had no bearing, and that it was merely a product of a grudge he had held against the ahl al-bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt is an Arabic phrase literally meaning People of the House, or family of the House. The phrase "ahl al-bayt" was used in Arabia before the advent of Islam to refer to one's clan, and would be adopted by the ruling family of a tribe. Within the Islamic tradition, the term refers to the...

.

Al-Mutawakkil responded to the letter with another, stating that he had deposed the wali and that the Imam should come to Samarra and be under house arrest so that the caliph could "protect" him. At the same time, al-Mutawakkil ordered Yahya bin Harthama to go to Medina to both investigate Abdullah's claims and to bring Imam al-Hadi to Samarra'. When the Imam received the letter, he knew that in being invited to live in Samarra', he was actually being banished from Medina. While he hated to leave, he also knew that if he rejected the invitation, he would eventually be forcibly removed, which was a situation he wished to avoid. Yahya thus searched the Imam's house and found nothing more than copies of the Qu'ran; afterward he had but one task left.

In Samarra


Yahya thus forced the Imam and his family to leave Medina towards Samarra. Their caravan stopped off in Bahgdad, where Yahya visited the governor Isaaq bin Ibrahim adh-Dhahiri. The two talked, and the governor warned Yahya that if he were to say anything about the Imam that was negative, al-Mutawakkil would have him killed; the blame would thus be on Yahya's shoulders for the death of a member of the ahl al-bayt on the Day of Judgement (Islamic eschatology
Islamic eschatology
Islamic eschatology is concerned with the al-Qiyāmah . Like the other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches the bodily resurrection of the dead, the fulfillment of a divine plan for creation, and the judgement of the soul; the righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah while the unrighteous...

).
After arriving at Samarra, Yahya met with al-Mutawakkil and spoke only good things about the Imam, and he told him that he didn't find anything in his home that supported Abdullah's claims. Al-Mutawakkil dropped his anger towards the Imam and met with him. Even as the caliph had not reason to be suspicious of Imam al-Hadi, he insisted upon him to stay in Samarra' under house arrest. While the Imam was under house arrest, al-Mutawakkil maintained a strange relationship with the Imam. The caliph turned to and trusted the Imam over his own personal jurisprudents when he was presented with legal predicaments, however, part of the caliph still held resentment toward him.

On one occasion, al-Mutawakkil organized a conference to be held in his palace. He had asked Ibn as-Sakkit to ask the Imam a question that he didn't think the Imam would could answer, so that al-Mutawakkil could embarrass and defame him before the theologians and jurisprudents he had invited. Not only was the Imam capable of answering as-Sakkit's question, but he also answered the questions that Yahya bin Aktham had been told to prepare as backup. Despite Ibn as-Sakkit's agreeance to the task, he actually ended up dying at the hands of al-Mutawakkil; the caliph asked him "Are my sons more respectable than Hasan and Husayn?" To which as-Sakkit replied,"...Imam Ali's slave Qamber is more respectable than both of your sons.". In addition to this attempt to humiliate the Imam, al-Mutawakkil imposed penalities upon anyone that was found giving the Imam gifts, giving him money, or trying to obtain knowledge about Islam from him. Furthermore, even with the Imam suffering under the caliph's house arrest, al-Mutawakkil order on several occasions the arrest of the Imam and the searching of his house on suspicion of having money and weapons with which he could revolt; each time the Imam was cleared of the charges.

Failed assassination and the death of al-Mutawakkil


Al-Mutawakkil had grown tired of people preaching of the knowledge and piety of Imam al-Hadi, but mostly he had grown angry hearing the Shi'a talk of how the Imam was more worthy of the caliphate than he was. It was at this point that the caliph hired several non-Muslims to kill the Imam. After explaining what he wanted done, Imam al-Hadi arrived with several palace guards. When al-Mutawakkil saw him, he started to reflect on what he had ordered and had become afraid for his fate in the afterlife. He immediately embraced the Imam, referring to him as "my master," and kissed him on the forehead. His actions confused the men he had hired, and as such they refrained from killing the Imam. The caliph, having given up on killing Ali al-Hadi, decided he would try to humiliate him instead. He ordered that the officials, notables, and the Imam(so it wouldn't look like the act was intended for him) would have to travel on foot during a hot summer day while the caliph remained mounted on his horse. The Imam, having almost suffered a heat stroke, recited the Qur'anic verse,"Enjoy yourself in your abode for three days, that is a promise not to be belied." Another account of this prediction stated that the Imam was imprisoned by the caliph, and it was that act which provoked the Imam to foretell of his death. Within three days of that event, plotters assassinated the caliph; one of the assassins was actually his son, al-Muntasir.

Death


The Abbasid caliph (there is disagreement between whether it was al-Mu'tamid
Al-Mu'tamid
This article is about the Abbasid Caliph al-Mu'tamid of Baghdad. For the Andalusi Arabic poet who was also the Abbadid king of Seville, see Muhammad Ibn Abbad Al Mutamid...


or al-Mu'tazz
Al-Mu'tazz
Al-Mu'tazz was the title of the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 866 to 869. Placed upon the throne by the Turks, he proved but too apt a pupil of his Turkish masters.He became the caliph at 19 he was the youngest Abbasaid Caliph to assume power. He was surrounded by parties each jealous of the other...


) felt the same way that his predecessor al-Mutawakkil did about Imam al-Hadi. He was jealous of how people talked of the Imam's virtues and knowledge, and he had him poisoned in 868 C.E. The poison reacted violently and caused great amounts of pain upon the Imam until his death. His son and successor, Hasan al-Askari
Hasan al-Askari
Hasan al-‘Askarī was the eleventh of the Twelve Imams. His given name was Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Muhammad...

, performed the purification rituals and buried his father in a grave outside the house he had been confined to during his house-arrest under al-Mutawakkil. Some accounts say that there was a great crowd that attended his funeral, while others have claimed that it was only his son who was there. His burial spot is now the al-‘Askarī Mosque, one of the holiest Shī‘ah shrines.

Epithets given to the Imam


Ali al-Hadi was given a vast amount of descriptive names throughout his life, each with a specific meaning. He was called An-Nasih (loyal), to describe his dedication to his nation. He was called Al-Mutawakkil (reliant on Allah), however he disliked this name because it was the same as the epithet for Ja'far al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861...

, a known critic of the ahl al-bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt is an Arabic phrase literally meaning People of the House, or family of the House. The phrase "ahl al-bayt" was used in Arabia before the advent of Islam to refer to one's clan, and would be adopted by the ruling family of a tribe. Within the Islamic tradition, the term refers to the...

. Ali al-Hadi was given other epithets such as at-Taqiy (pious), al-Murtadha (being pleased with Allah), al-Faqeeh (jurisprudent), al-Aalim (knowledgeable), al-Ameen (trustee of religion and life), at-Tayyib (generous), al-Askari (military), al-Muwadhdhih (explainer of the verdicts of the Qu'ran and the sunnah
Sunnah
The word literally means a clear, well trodden, busy and plain surfaced road. In the discussion of the sources of religion, Sunnah denotes the practice of Prophet Muhammad that he taught and practically instituted as a teacher of the sharī‘ah and the best exemplar...

), ar-Rasheed (wise), ash-Shaheed (the martyr), al-Wafiy (loyal), and al-Khalis (pure from defect). These epithets were both characteristic of the way al-Hadi presented himself and the way the Muslims in the 9th century perceived him.

Character


There were many times throughout the Imam's life that he exhibited extreme generosity. In one instance, two men came to the Imam, with one complaining of the others debt to him. To solve the problem, the Imam gave to both men 30,000 dinars. Another account described how a nomadic man came to Imam al-Hadi to tell him of how he was heavily in debt and in need of assistance. Imam al-Hadi, being short of money himself, gave the man a note saying that he was in debt to the nomad, and instructed him to meet the Imam in Samarra, where he had a meeting, and to insist that the Imam pay back the debt. The nomad did as he was told, and the Imam apologized to the nomad in front of those at the meeting for being incapable of paying him back. The officials at the meeting reported the Imam's debt to the calph, al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861...

, who then sent the Imam 30,000 dirham
Dirham
Dirham or dirhem is a unit of currency in several Arab or Berber nations, and formerly the related unit of mass in the Ottoman Empire and Persian states...

s, with which he then presented to the nomad. Essentially, the way in which the Imam lived his life gives enough evidence to understand exactly why he was given the epithet at-Tayyib.

In Twelver Shi'ism, he is described as being endowed with the knowledge of the languages of the Persians
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

, Slavs, Indians and Nabataeans
Nabataeans
Thamudi3.jpgThe Nabataeans, also Nabateans , were ancient peoples of southern Canaan and the northern part of Arabia, whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus , gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates to the Red Sea...

 in addition to foreknowing unexpected storms and as accurately prophesying other events. In the presence of al-Mutawakkil, he unmasked a woman falsely claiming to be Zaynab
Zaynab bint Ali
Zaynab bint Ali was the daughter of the Rashid Caliph and first Shi'i Imam, Ali and granddaughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah....

, daughter of Ali
Ali
' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

, by descending into a lions' cage in order to prove that lions do not harm true descendants of Ali (a similar miracle is also attributed to his grandfather, Ali al-Rida
Ali al-Rida
‘Alī ibn Mūsā al-Rizā was the seventh descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the eighth of the Twelve Imams, according to Shia sect of Islam...

). A theological treatise on human free will
Free will
"To make my own decisions whether I am successful or not due to uncontrollable forces" -Troy MorrisonA pragmatic definition of free willFree will is the ability of agents to make choices free from certain kinds of constraints. The existence of free will and its exact nature and definition have long...

 and some other short texts and statements ascribed to al-Hadi are quoted by Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn ʻAlī ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn Shuʻbah al-Harrānī.

The Imam worked on his farm to support and feed his family. Through working on the farm, he relieved himself and his family of any tendencies towards lavishness; whatever they needed they would provide for themselves. It was reported that when people would ask Ali al-Hadi why he worked on a farm, he would then state, "Who was better than me and than my father, worked with spade in his farm." When they would inquire as to who he was talking about, he would tell them that he was referring to the Prophet Muhammad; the fact that he emulated the Prophet Muhammad so much that he lived in the same manner that he did helps in understanding why he was given the epithet of at-Taqiy.

Narrations


Imam al-Hadi understood the importance of the teachings of the Prophet, and because of this he dedicated his time to obtaining them so that people could find guidance with regards to morals, disciplines, intellectual issues, and social issues. In addition to narrating Hadith
Hadith
The term Hadīth is used to denote a saying or an act or tacit approval or criticism ascribed either validly or invalidly to the Islamic prophet Muhammad....

, he narrated saying from Imam Ali
Ali
' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

, Imam Muhammad al-Baqir
Muhammad al-Baqir
Muḥammad ibn ‘Alī al-Bāqir was the Fifth Imām to the Twelver Shi‘a and Fourth Imām to the Ismā‘īlī Shī‘a. His father was the previous Imām, ‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn, and his mother was Fatimah bint al-Hasan...

, Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
Jaʿfar ibn Muhammad al-Sādiq was a descendant of Muhammad and a prominent Muslim jurist. He is revered as an Imam by the adherents of Shi'a Islam and as a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Sunni Muslims. The Shi'a Muslims consider him to be the sixth Imam or leader and spiritual...

, Imam Musa al-Kadhim
Musa al-Kadhim
' was the seventh of the Twelve Imams of Twelver Shi'a Islam. He was the son of Imam and his mother was Hamidah Khātūn, a student and former Zanjiyyah slave...

, and Imam Ali ar-Ridha. Imam al-Hadi thought it very important for people to comprehend and follow Hadith and the sayings of the infallible imams, and he instructed those Muslims who understood them to adhere to them, and those who didn't should approach their present infallible Imam and ask them to explain it to them.

Jurisprudence


Imam al-Hadi was dedicated to upholding Shariah law with regards to its verdicts, teachings, and principles. He was considered to be one of the most knowledgeable men of his time concerning the matter, and there were many occasions where even al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861...

 would refer to him for help. To this day, some Shi'a practices are derived from that which was determined by the Imam. On one account, a man wanted to know that if a Shi'a Muslim died and there happened to be Murjites present (followers of Islamic school Murji'ah) while the washed wanted to wash the corpse, whether the washer should wash the body like the Murjites (no turban or palm branch) or not. The Imam determined that he should wash the body according to the way of the ahl al-bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt is an Arabic phrase literally meaning People of the House, or family of the House. The phrase "ahl al-bayt" was used in Arabia before the advent of Islam to refer to one's clan, and would be adopted by the ruling family of a tribe. Within the Islamic tradition, the term refers to the...

, and that the palm branch should be put on secretely so the Murjites couldn't see it happen.
Another account detailed one man's predicament concerning Shi'a jurisprudents regarding the clothes one could wear during prayer. It is unlawful to wear clothing during prayer made of animals whose meat Muslims aren't allowed to eat, but this particular man lived in an area whereby those were the only clothes available; he feared that if he took them off for prayer, he would freeze. The Imam thus told him that if needed to wear the fur of an animal, it should come from fennec or beaver
Beaver
The beaver is a primarily nocturnal, large, semi-aquatic rodent. Castor includes two extant species, North American Beaver and Eurasian Beaver . Beavers are known for building dams, canals, and lodges . They are the second-largest rodent in the world...

, thus establishing a tradition whereby men could pray in the fur of only those two animals.
The Imam also dealt with the question that some had about the validity of a prayer when someone walks in front of them. Imam al-Hadi replied that the prayers were indeed valid, and they would be accepted by God.
The Imam was asked questions regarding the act of fasting during Ramadan
Ramadan
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, which lasts 29 or 30 days. It is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, smoking and sex during daylight hours and is intended to teach Muslims about patience, spirituality, humility and...

. Ali al-Hadi decided and set into tradition that only when a Muslim first sees the sun do they have to begin fasting. He also stated that women who were breast feeding were not obliged to fast; only if a wet nurse
Wet nurse
A wet nurse is a woman who is used to breast feed and care for another's child. Wet nurses are used when the mother is unable or chooses not to nurse the child herself. Wet-nursed children may be known as "milk-siblings", and in some cultures the families are linked by a special relationship of...

 could be employed is a woman allowed to fast. These are but a few of the many times that Imam al-Hadi was consulted in matters of jurisprudence, and they help to explain the epithet of al-Faqeeh that was given to him.

Theological argumentations


Imam al-Hadi lived during a time when people had grand misunderstandings about the theology surrounding Islam. As such, the Imam not only found it necessary to confute these misconceptions, but he contributed to the books of "argumentation" that were compiled by Shi'a scholars to further refute misguided beliefs about the religion.

One such issue the Imam dealt with was whether or not it was possible to see God. Imam al-Hadi said that it was impossible to see Him, because, "When the seer equals the seen thing in the cause of sight between them, sight takes place, but those who compare between the seer(man) and Allah they are mistaken because they have liken Allah to man..." Essentially, to say that you can see God is to say that you have the same qualities as God, which, in this case, is the ability to be seen.
Another issue that the Imam dealt with was the believe that God has a body (embodiment of God). Imam al-Hadi chastised those who believed it and stated that, "He, who claims that Allah is a body, is not from us and we are free from him in this world and the afterworld...body(substance) is created and it is Allah Who has created and bodied it." To attribute Allah with embodiment is to characterize Him with need and to limit Him to a body. Essentially, it is wrong to equate God with created things due to His nature as our creator.

Imam al-Hadi also expressed strong feelings about the impossibility of describing God's Essence. The rationale behind his objection was that God is so Great that as humans, we are incapable of conceiving how truly amazing He is, and that the only one that can truly describe God is God Himself. He then uses this as a segue into the belief that true Muslims, the Prophet, and the infallible imams cannot be described either, because their obedience to God draws them closer to the Essence of God, and descriptions cannot wholly encompass their virtuous qualities that result from submitting to God.

Heretics and Imam al-Hadi


Ibn Hasakah preached to the people that Imam al-Hadi was in fact God. On top of that, he told people that he was a prophet sent by Imam al-Hadi to guide the Muslims, and with that declaration he also claimed that prayer, zakat
Zakat
Zakāt , one of the Five Pillars of Islam, is the giving of a fixed portion of one's wealth to charity, generally to the poor and needy.-History:Zakat, a practice initiated by Muhammed himself, has played an important role throughout Islamic history...

, hajj
Hajj
The Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is one of the largest pilgrimages in the world, and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so...

, and fasting were no longer required. Upon hearing this, Imam al-Hadi immediately rejected what Ibn Hasakah had said and ordered that those who preach such blasphemy should be both rejected and killed. Muhammad bin Nusayr al-Fihiri an-Namiri was also a heretic claiming the Imam to be God. He claimed that it was permitted to marry close relatives, such as a sister or a daughter, and he permitted sodomy and promoted the idea of transmigration of the soul. Other heretics went as far as to claim that words such as "zakat
Zakat
Zakāt , one of the Five Pillars of Islam, is the giving of a fixed portion of one's wealth to charity, generally to the poor and needy.-History:Zakat, a practice initiated by Muhammed himself, has played an important role throughout Islamic history...

" or "prayer" didn't mean praying or giving alms, but instead that the words referred to a man and not to an actual action. Again, Imam al-Hadi immediately rejected the claims and he ordered that Muslims reject them as well. In addition, he ordered their deaths, as made evident when he said,"...if you overcome any of them (extremists), break his head with a stone!" His commands act to show the extreme importance the Imam placed on making sure that all Muslims remained pure of blasphemy so that they wouldn't be led astray into hellfire.

Shrine bombing



On February 22, 2006, a bomb attack in Iraq badly damaged the shrine of Askari, the burial place of al-Hadi and his son Hasan al-‘Askarī
Hasan al-Askari
Hasan al-‘Askarī was the eleventh of the Twelve Imams. His given name was Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Muhammad...

; another attack was executed on June 13, 2007, which led to the destruction of the two minarets of the shrine.

Descendants


His direct descendants are called Naqvi
Naqvi
The surname "Naqvi" are the descendants of Islamic Prophet Muhammad through the lineage of Ali al-Hadi...

's (also spelled as Naqhavi or Naqavi in Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and the Arab world respectively). They primarily reside in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 as well as a small but prominent minority in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

.

External links