Ali Javan

Ali Javan

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Ali Mortimer Javan born December 26, 1926 in Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 is an Iranian American inventor and physicist
Physicist
A physicist is a scientist who studies or practices physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic particles of which all ordinary matter is made to the behavior of the material Universe as a whole...

 at MIT
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. MIT has five schools and one college, containing a total of 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific and technological education and research.Founded in 1861 in...

. He co-invented the gas laser
Gas laser
A gas laser is a laser in which an electric current is discharged through a gas to produce coherent light. The gas laser was the first continuous-light laser and the first laser to operate "on the principle of converting electrical energy to a laser light output...

 in 1960, with William R. Bennett
William R. Bennett, Jr.
William Ralph Bennett Jr. was an American physicist known for his pioneering work on gas lasers. He spent most of his career on the faculty of Yale University.-Career:...

. Ali Javan has been ranked Number 12 on the list of the Top 100 living geniuses.

Academic life


Born in Tehran to Iranian Azeri parents from Tabriz
Tabriz
Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former...

, web-page of 'Farhang-Sara' Born in Tehran of Azerbaijani parentage, Javan came to the United States in 1949 where shortly afterwards he received his Ph.D. at Columbia University in New York City. He's been with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) since 1962. Javan graduated from Alborz High School
Alborz High School
Alborz High School , is a college preparatory high school located in the heart of Tehran, Iran. It is named after the Alborz mountain range north of Tehran.- History :...

, started his university studies at University of Tehran
University of Tehran
The University of Tehran , also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest university. Located in Tehran, the university is among the most prestigious in the country, and is consistently selected as the first choice of many applicants in the annual nationwide entrance exam for top Iranian...

 and continued at Columbia University
Columbia University
Columbia University in the City of New York is a private, Ivy League university in Manhattan, New York City. Columbia is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York, the fifth oldest in the United States, and one of the country's nine Colonial Colleges founded before the...

 after coming to the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 in 1948. He received his Ph.D.
Ph.D.
A Ph.D. is a Doctor of Philosophy, an academic degree.Ph.D. may also refer to:* Ph.D. , a 1980s British group*Piled Higher and Deeper, a web comic strip*PhD: Phantasy Degree, a Korean comic series* PhD Docbook renderer, an XML renderer...

 in physics
Physics
Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

 in 1954. He joined Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. MIT has five schools and one college, containing a total of 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific and technological education and research.Founded in 1861 in...

 as an associate professor of physics in 1961 and has been a professor since 1964.
  • After graduation, Ali Javan became a researcher at Bell Labs
    Bell Labs
    Bell Laboratories is the research and development subsidiary of the French-owned Alcatel-Lucent and previously of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company , half-owned through its Western Electric manufacturing subsidiary.Bell Laboratories operates its...

    , where he first proposed the principle of gas lasers, which led him to co-invent a laser composed of helium and neon.

  • Worked at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. MIT has five schools and one college, containing a total of 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific and technological education and research.Founded in 1861 in...

     as an associate professor of physics in 1961 and full professor after 1964.
  • In 1975, he received the Fredric Ives Medal from the Optical Society of America
  • In 1993, Ali Javan was awarded the Albert Einstein World Medal of Science.

The gas laser


The gas laser
Gas laser
A gas laser is a laser in which an electric current is discharged through a gas to produce coherent light. The gas laser was the first continuous-light laser and the first laser to operate "on the principle of converting electrical energy to a laser light output...

 was the first continuous-light laser and the first laser to operate "on the principle of converting electrical energy to a laser light output." By definition, "a gas laser is a laser in which an electric current is discharged through a gas to produce light." Ali Javan received U.S. patent #3,149,290 together with William Bennett for the "Gas Optical Maser". Ali Javan first tested his invention on December 12, 1960.

Laser beam transmission


On December 13, 1960, the first telephone conversation using laser beam transmission occurred. Ali Javan describes the moment: "I put in a call to the lab. One of the team members answered and asked me to hold the line for a moment. Then I heard a voice [Mr. Balik], somewhat quivering in transmission, telling me that it was the laser light speaking to me."

Importance of the gas laser


The gas laser laid the foundation for fiber optic communication. It is considered the most useful, practical and profitable type of laser in use today. Laser telecommunication via fiber optics is known to be the key technology used in today's Internet
Internet
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide...

. The gas laser is also used in:
  • holography
  • UPC
    Universal Product Code
    The Universal Product Code is a barcode symbology , that is widely used in North America, and in countries including the UK, Australia, and New Zealand for tracking trade items in stores. Its most common form, the UPC-A, consists of 12 numerical digits, which are uniquely assigned to each trade item...

     checkout scanners
  • other construction, medical and monitoring technologies

Honours


In 1975, Professor Ali Javan received the most prestigious honor of Optical Society of America
Optical Society of America
The Optical Society is a scientific society dedicated to advancing the study of light—optics and photonics—in theory and application, by means of publishing, organizing conferences and exhibitions, partnership with industry, and education. The organization has members in more than 100 countries...

, the Frederic Ives Medal, with a citation that praised him for "producing an optical device (the Gas Laser) of unparalleled applicability to scientific research." In 1993, he received the Albert Einstein World Award of Science
Albert Einstein World Award of Science
The Albert Einstein World Award for Science is a yearly award given by the World Cultural Council "as a means of recognition, and as an incentive to scientific and technological research and development", with special consideration for researches which "have brought true benefit and well being to...

.

On May 6, 2006, Professor Ali Javan was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame
National Inventors Hall of Fame
The National Inventors Hall of Fame is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to recognizing, honoring and encouraging invention and creativity through the administration of its programs. The Hall of Fame honors the men and women responsible for the great technological advances that make human,...

, along with another MIT Professor, Robert Langer.
  • Stuart Ballantine Medal of the Franklin Institute
    Franklin Institute
    The Franklin Institute is a museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and one of the oldest centers of science education and development in the United States, dating to 1824. The Institute also houses the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial.-History:On February 5, 1824, Samuel Vaughn Merrick and...

     (1964)
  • Fanny and John Hertz Foundation Medal (1966)
  • Guggenheim Foundation
    John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation
    The John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation was founded in 1925 by Mr. and Mrs. Simon Guggenheim in memory of their son, who died April 26, 1922...

     Fellowship (1966)
  • Frederic Ives Medal of the Optical Society of America
    Optical Society of America
    The Optical Society is a scientific society dedicated to advancing the study of light—optics and photonics—in theory and application, by means of publishing, organizing conferences and exhibitions, partnership with industry, and education. The organization has members in more than 100 countries...

     (1975)
  • Humboldt Foundation Fellowship (1979 and 1995)
  • Albert Einstein World Award of Science
    Albert Einstein World Award of Science
    The Albert Einstein World Award for Science is a yearly award given by the World Cultural Council "as a means of recognition, and as an incentive to scientific and technological research and development", with special consideration for researches which "have brought true benefit and well being to...

     of the World Cultural Council (1993)
  • Inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame
    National Inventors Hall of Fame
    The National Inventors Hall of Fame is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to recognizing, honoring and encouraging invention and creativity through the administration of its programs. The Hall of Fame honors the men and women responsible for the great technological advances that make human,...

     (2006)

See also

  • MIT Physics Department
    MIT Physics Department
    The Physics Department at MIT has over 120 faculty members. It offers academic programs leading to the S.B., S.M., Ph.D. and Sc.D. degrees.As of 2006, the department counts four Nobel Prize winners among its faculty: Samuel C.C. Ting , Jerome I. Friedman , Wolfgang Ketterle and Frank Wilczek...

  • List of Iranian scholars
  • Higher Education in Iran
    Higher education in Iran
    Iran has a large network of private, public, and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education. State-run universities of Iran are under the direct supervision of Iran's Ministry of Science, Research and Technology and Ministry of Health and Medical Education .-Pre-Islamic...


External links