Alexandrine Parakeet

Alexandrine Parakeet

Overview
The Alexandrine Parakeet or Alexandrian Parrot (Psittacula eupatria) is a member of the psittaciformes order and of the psittacines family. The species is named after Alexander the Great, who is credited with the exporting of numerous specimens of this bird from Punjab
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

 into various Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an and Mediterranean countries and regions, where they were considered prized possessions for the nobles
Nobility
Nobility is a social class which possesses more acknowledged privileges or eminence than members of most other classes in a society, membership therein typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be...

 and royalty.

The species name eupatria has its origins from Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 and/or could be a Greco-Latin combination.
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Encyclopedia
The Alexandrine Parakeet or Alexandrian Parrot (Psittacula eupatria) is a member of the psittaciformes order and of the psittacines family. The species is named after Alexander the Great, who is credited with the exporting of numerous specimens of this bird from Punjab
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

 into various Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an and Mediterranean countries and regions, where they were considered prized possessions for the nobles
Nobility
Nobility is a social class which possesses more acknowledged privileges or eminence than members of most other classes in a society, membership therein typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be...

 and royalty.

The species name eupatria has its origins from Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 and/or could be a Greco-Latin combination. Where the prefix eu translates into good or noble and the suffix patria is a Latin word translating into fatherland or ancestry. Consequently, the scientific name means of noble fatherland or of noble ancestry.

Sub-species with distribution


The following sub-species, many of them allopatric are recognised based on geographical distribution:
  • Psittacula eupatria eupatria, Alexandrine Parakeet (nominate race) - East India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

     to Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
    Andhra Pradesh
    Andhra Pradesh , is one of the 28 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of India. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city by population is Hyderabad.The total GDP of Andhra Pradesh is $100 billion and is ranked third...

     in the South, Sri Lanka
    Sri Lanka
    Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

    .
  • Psittacula eupatria avensis, Indo-Burmese Alexandrine Parakeet - Northeast India to Amherst
    Kyaikkami
    Kyaikkami is a resort town in the Mon State of south-east Myanmar.Formerly known as Amherst, named after William Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst, then governor-general, it is situated on a peninsula about south of the town of Mawlamyine. It is a popular destination for local pilgrims and some tourists...

     in Myanmar
    Myanmar
    Burma , officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar , is a country in Southeast Asia. Burma is bordered by China on the northeast, Laos on the east, Thailand on the southeast, Bangladesh on the west, India on the northwest, the Bay of Bengal to the southwest, and the Andaman Sea on the south....

  • Psittacula eupatria magnirostris, Andaman Islands' Alexandrine Parakeet - Andaman Islands
    Andaman Islands
    The Andaman Islands are a group of Indian Ocean archipelagic islands in the Bay of Bengal between India to the west, and Burma , to the north and east...

  • Psittacula eupatria nipalensis, Nepalese Alexandrine Parakeet - Eastern Afghanistan
    Afghanistan
    Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

    , Pakistan
    Pakistan
    Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

    , North
    North India
    North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

     and central India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    , Nepal
    Nepal
    Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

    , Bhutan
    Bhutan
    Bhutan , officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked state in South Asia, located at the eastern end of the Himalayas and bordered to the south, east and west by the Republic of India and to the north by the People's Republic of China...

     to Assam
    Assam
    Assam , also, rarely, Assam Valley and formerly the Assam Province , is a northeastern state of India and is one of the most culturally and geographically distinct regions of the country...

     in Northeast India.
  • Psittacula eupatria siamensis, Laos' or Siamese Alexandrine Parakeet - Vietnam
    Vietnam
    Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

    , Cambodia
    Cambodia
    Cambodia , officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia...

    , Laos
    Laos
    Laos Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao, officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south and Thailand to the west...

    , north and east Thailand
    Thailand
    Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...



The species has naturalized (species that live and reproduce outside its natural distribution range) itself in numerous European countries. Particularly in Germany, in the south of England, in Belgium, in western Turkey and in the Netherlands where it generally lives amongst or along side flocks of naturalized Psittacula krameri (Ringnecked or Rose-ringed Parakeet
Rose-ringed Parakeet
The Rose-ringed Parakeet , also known as the Ringnecked Parakeet, is a gregarious tropical parakeet species that has an extremely large range. Since the trend of the population appears to be increasing, the species has been evaluated as Least Concern by IUCN in 2009.Rose-ringed parakeets are...

).

The Alexandrine Parakeet's call is a powerful screech but deeper than that of its very close-relative the Psittacula krameri (Ringnecked or Rose-Ringed Parakeet)

Description




The Alexandrine Parakeet is a large Parakeet species measuring 58 cm (23 in) in total length with a wing length averaging 18.9–21.5 cm (7.5–8.5 in). It is mainly green with a blue-grey sheen on its cheeks and nape
Nape
The nape is the back of the neck. In technical anatomical/medical terminology, the nape is referred to by the word nucha, which also gives the adjective corresponding to "nape" in English, "nuchal"....

s, particularly in males. The abdomen is yellowish-green, the upperside of the middle tail feathers is blueish-green, the upperside of the external tail feathers is green while the underside of the tail feathers are all yellow. All Alexandrine Parakeets (irrespective of age, gender and/or sub-species) boldly display a maroon (reddish-brown) patch at the top of their wing coverts (commonly called 'shoulder' patch). The shoulder patch is seen in parakeets at their first feathering before fledging from their nests. The lower and upper mandible are red with yellow tips. The adult's iris
Iris (anatomy)
The iris is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupils and thus the amount of light reaching the retina. "Eye color" is the color of the iris, which can be green, blue, or brown. In some cases it can be hazel , grey, violet, or even pink...

es are yellowish-white and the periopthalmic rings are light grey. The legs are grey except in the P. e. siamensis (Laos' or Siamese sub-species) where they are yellowish-grey.

The species is dimorphic
Sexual dimorphism
Sexual dimorphism is a phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species. Examples of such differences include differences in morphology, ornamentation, and behavior.-Examples:-Ornamentation / coloration:...

 in adulthood (3 years and older). The immatures are monomorphic and are similar but duller in appearance to that of the adult females. Adult males always show pitch-black neck rings and large pink bands on their napes (commonly called nape bands). Often males only display a little band of blueish-grey above their bold pink nape-bands. Adult females frequently show neck ring shadows that are anywhere between light and dark shades of grey. Females never display true black feathers in their neck-rings. Immatures of either genders are very similar to adult females but as with all genuine parakeet
Parakeet
Parakeet is a term for any one of a large number of unrelated small to medium sized species of parrot, that generally have long tail feathers...

 species, the young Alexandrine Parakeets always display shorter middle-tail feathers and thus shorter tails than adults. The adult feathering usually is acquired between 18–30 months of age, but may sometimes show up as young as 12 and/or as old as a full 36 months of age. Consequently, it may be difficult to identify the sex Alexandrine Parakeets by sight with absolute certainty until they are a full 36 months of age.

The young males can be identified as soon as they display one (or more) pitch-black feathers of their neck rings and/or one (or more) pink feathers of their nape bands. Often, the young males develop their neck rings and nape bands in two or sometimes three successive moulting seasons. Adult parakeets with neither pitch-black feathers in their neck rings nor pink feathers in their nape bands are usually females.

The P. e. nipalensis ssp. (Nepalese Alexandrine Parakeet) is the largest of the species measuring 62 cm (24.5 in) in total length with a wing length averaging between 20–24 cm (8–9.5 in). It is thus recognized as the world's largest genuine Parakeet (short to mid sized Long-Tailed Parrot) species. It looks much like the Nominate sub-species. However, the feathers on the chest and abdomen in both genders display whitish-grey sheens, the cheeks and napes are washed with blue and the adult males display large pink nape bands.

The P. e. magnirostris ssp. (Andaman Island's Alexandrine Parakeet) is slightly larger than the nominate sub-species, displaying a wing length anywhere between 20–22.5 cm (8–9 in). It looks much like the nominate race. However, the feathers on the chest and abdomen in both genders display whitish-grey sheens. The maroon 'shoulder' patch is of a much redder (or less brownish) colour than of that of the nominate. The beak is larger and more massive. The adult males display large pink nape bands, the blue sheens above the nape-bands are restricted and sometimes absent in some specimens.

The P. e. avensis ssp. (Indo-Burmese Alexandrine Parakeet) is of same size as the nominate species, also measuring 58 cm (23 in), displaying a wing length averaging anywhere between 19.4–22 cm (7.5–8.5 in) and looks much like the Nominate ssp. However, the top of the head and the nape are of a yellowish-green, the blue sheens are restricted to the cheeks and thus absent in the nape. The adult males display thinner and pinker nape-bands.

The P. e. siamensis ssp. (Laos or Siamese Alexandrine Parakeet) is the smallest of the species, measuring 56 cm (22 in), displaying a wing length averaging anywhere between 17.9–20.5 cm (7–8 in) and looks much like the Nominate ssp. However, the top of the head and the nape display pale-blue sheens that extends to the crown in some specimens. The cheeks are yellowish-green, the 'shoulder' patch is of a nearly brownless red colour and the legs display a pronounced yellowish shade.

Aviculture


The bird is popular among aviculturists
Aviculture
Aviculture is the practice of keeping and breeding birds and the culture that forms around it. Aviculture is generally focused on not only the raising and breeding of birds, but also on preserving avian habitat, and public awareness campaigns....

. It is ideal for outdoor aviaries and is generally very hardy, however it cannot tolerate temperatures less than 5 °C (41 °F). They breed well in aviaries. The parakeet is one of the oldest captive Parakeet species on the Eurasian continent. It gets its name from the legendary Emperor Alexander The Great, who had numerous specimens exported back to various Mediterranean countries by his legionaries. The parakeet has since then been popular among the nobles throughout the Empire's Anatolian, European and Mediterranean countries.The species has naturalized (species that live and reproduce outside its natural distribution range) itself in numerous European countries. Particularly in Germany, in the south of England, in Belgium, in the Netherland where it generally lives amongst or along side flocks of naturalized Psittacula krameri.

Captivity



It is an active species, adventurous and curious, likes water (bathing, misting, raining and showering) and readily accepts diverse and/or new foods. It chews vigorously and hence it is important to keep the perch non-toxic without chemical products such as disinfectants, fungicide
Fungicide
Fungicides are chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores. Fungi can cause serious damage in agriculture, resulting in critical losses of yield, quality and profit. Fungicides are used both in agriculture and to fight fungal infections in animals...

, insecticide
Insecticide
An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against the eggs and larvae of insects respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and the household. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind...

s or pesticide
Pesticide
Pesticides are substances or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest.A pesticide may be a chemical unicycle, biological agent , antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest...

s, and provide plenty of safe-to-chew toys. Alexandrines have very powerful beaks and enjoy the exercise of destroying wooden and plastic toys. The more toys you give the bird to chew, the less likely it will be to chew things it shouldn't. A bored Alexandrine is among the most potentially destructive creatures you can have in your home by weight. Alexandrines are very bright birds and take to reward-based training very well. They may be potty-trained very effectively and are quite willing to learn complex trick behaviors when rewarded with their favorite treats. When housing an Alexandrine care should be taken to make sure the cage is large enough that the bird can stand on a perch and fully stretch it's wings, and that there is enough room that the long tail featherrs are not constantly coming into contact with the bars of the cage. With their long tails and high activity levels Alexandrines require larger cages than many birds in their size class. The Alexandrine Parakeet has an average lifespan of 40 years in captivity and as with all other parakeets, they are among the top mimics.

Natural breeding habits


Breeding season is from November to April in their natural distribution range. Average clutch size is 2–4 eggs measuring 34.0 x 26.9 mm (1 x 1.3 in). The average incubation period is 28 days usually starting with the laying of the second egg. The chicks fledge around seven weeks of age. They are reared for about three weeks and are typically weaned between 12 to 16 weeks of age. They are critically endangered in Pakistan, especially in Punjab province. This is mostly due to loss of habitat, like cutting of old tress and excessive poaching of their new born chicks. Although it is officially banned in Pakistan to sell these parrots but they can be found openly being sold in markets of Lahore.Trapping pressure to cater to the demands of the pet trade have caused a drastic decline in this species. It is illegal to trade in Alexandrine Parakeets in India and yet these birds are sold in broad daylight in urban bird markets, suggesting that the Indian government is allocating insufficient resources towards the protection of this species.

Natural diet


The diet consists of seeds, nuts, fruits, berries, buds, flowers and nectars (Salmalia, Butea
Butea
Butea or Flame of the Forest is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the pea family, Fabaceae. It has two species. Butea monosperma, also known as Flame of the Forest or Bastard Teak in English, Kingshuk or Palash in Bengali or Hindi, Kesudo or Khakhro in Gujarati, is native to India and...

, Erythrina
Erythrina
Erythrina is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae. It contains about 130 species, which are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. They are trees, growing up to in height...

, Bassia latifolia). Rarely Alexandrines have been observed actively hunting insects, making them one of the few parrot species known to do so, however infrequently. It causes considerable damage to cultures of corn, grains, rice and or chards.

Diet in captivity


A fresh mix (with or without dehydrated fruits and/or vegetables) of various seeds, grains and nuts generally represent the typical basic diet. Many high-quality pelleted parrot foods are available and most Alexandrines will take to them readily. Pellets are generally nutritionally supeior to packaged seed mixes found in pet stores, and contain less fat. Alexandrines are not particularly prone to obesity, but high-fat diets may lead to fatty-liver disease, which can be fatal, and at the very least will lead to shortened life-span and reduced quality of life. Even when feeding a pelleted base diet, about 10% seed is appropriate. Variety is important both nutritionally and for your bird's enjoyment. Alexandrines are generally not picky eaters and will try almost anything once. Among the food items you can supplement the base diet with are: Cooked and fresh foods, whole grain
Whole grain
Whole grains are cereal grains that contain cereal germ, endosperm, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm. Whole grains can generally be sprouted while refined grains generally will not sprout. Whole-meal products are made by grinding whole grains in order to make...

s and cereals, oatmeal, cooked pasta (in moderation), they enjoy edible blossoms and flowers, such as carnations, chamomile
Chamomile
Chamomile or camomile is a common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae. These plants are best known for their ability to be made into an infusion which is commonly used to help with sleep and is often served with either honey or lemon. Because chamomile can cause uterine...

, chives
Chives
Chives are the smallest species of the edible onions. A perennial plant, they are native to Europe, Asia and North America.. Allium schoenoprasum is the only species of Allium native to both the New and the Old World....

, dandelion, daylily
Daylily
Daylily is the general nonscientific name of a species, hybrid or cultivar of the genus Hemerocallis . Daylily cultivar flowers are highly diverse in colour and form, as a result of hybridization efforts of gardening enthusiasts and professional horticulturalists...

, eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Members of the genus dominate the tree flora of Australia...

, fruit tree
Fruit tree
A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by people — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds. In horticultural usage, the term 'fruit tree' is limited to those that provide fruit for...

's blossoms, herbs' blossoms, hibiscus
Hibiscus
Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is quite large, containing several hundred species that are native to warm-temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world...

, honeysuckle
Honeysuckle
Honeysuckles are arching shrubs or twining vines in the family Caprifoliaceae, native to the Northern Hemisphere. There are about 180 species of honeysuckle, 100 of which occur in China; Europe, India and North America have only about 20 native species each...

, impatiens
Impatiens
Impatiens is a genus of about 850–1,000 species of flowering plants, widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere and tropics. Together with the puzzling Hydrocera triflora, this genus makes up the family Balsaminaceae...

, lilac
Lilac
Syringa is a genus of about 20–25 species of flowering woody plants in the olive family , native to woodland and scrub from southeastern Europe to eastern Asia, and widely and commonly cultivated in temperate areas elsewhere....

, nasturtiums, pansies, passion flower
Passion flower
Passiflora, known also as the passion flowers or passion vines, is a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants, the namesakes of the family Passifloraceae. They are mostly vines, with some being shrubs, and a few species being herbaceous. For information about the fruit of the passiflora...

 (passifloræ), rose
Rose
A rose is a woody perennial of the genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae. There are over 100 species. They form a group of erect shrubs, and climbing or trailing plants, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers are large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows...

s, sunflowers, tulips, and violets, fruits with all pits discarded, larger seeds such as apple
Apple
The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family . It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apple grow on small, deciduous trees that blossom in the spring...

 varieties should also be removed. banana
Banana
Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe, including yellow, purple, and red....

, all berries varieties, all citrus
Citrus
Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. Citrus is believed to have originated in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeastern India, Myanmar and the Yunnan province of China...

 varieties, grapes, kiwi
Kiwi
Kiwi are flightless birds endemic to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae.At around the size of a domestic chicken, kiwi are by far the smallest living ratites and lay the largest egg in relation to their body size of any species of bird in the world...

, mango
Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...

, melons, nectarine, papaya
Papaya
The papaya , papaw, or pawpaw is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae...

, peach
Peach
The peach tree is a deciduous tree growing to tall and 6 in. in diameter, belonging to the subfamily Prunoideae of the family Rosaceae. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a peach...

, all pear
Pear
The pear is any of several tree species of genus Pyrus and also the name of the pomaceous fruit of these trees. Several species of pear are valued by humans for their edible fruit, but the fruit of other species is small, hard, and astringent....

 varieties, plum
Plum
A plum or gage is a stone fruit tree in the genus Prunus, subgenus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera in the shoots having a terminal bud and solitary side buds , the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one...

. Vegetables, such as carrot, squash, cooked yams, broccoli, cucumber, beetroot, turnip, etc. legumes/pulses and commercial greens and weed
Weed
A weed in a general sense is a plant that is considered by the user of the term to be a nuisance, and normally applied to unwanted plants in human-controlled settings, especially farm fields and gardens, but also lawns, parks, woods, and other areas. More specifically, the term is often used to...

s such as bok-choi
Chinese cabbage
Chinese cabbage can refer to two distinct varieties of Chinese leaf vegetables used often in Chinese cuisine. These vegetables are both related to the Western cabbage, and are of the same species as the common turnip...

, broccoli
Broccoli
Broccoli is a plant in the cabbage family, whose large flower head is used as a vegetable.-General:The word broccoli, from the Italian plural of , refers to "the flowering top of a cabbage"....

, cauliflower
Cauliflower
Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed...

 leaves, cabbage
Cabbage
Cabbage is a popular cultivar of the species Brassica oleracea Linne of the Family Brassicaceae and is a leafy green vegetable...

 leaves, chicory
Chicory
Common chicory, Cichorium intybus, is a somewhat woody, perennial herbaceous plant usually with bright blue flowers, rarely white or pink. Various varieties are cultivated for salad leaves, chicons , or for roots , which are baked, ground, and used as a coffee substitute and additive. It is also...

, collard greens, dandelion leaves, endives, espadrille, kelp
Kelp
Kelps are large seaweeds belonging to the brown algae in the order Laminariales. There are about 30 different genera....

, mustard plant
Mustard plant
Mustards are several plant species in the genera Brassica and Sinapis whose small mustard seeds are used as a spice and, by grinding and mixing them with water, vinegar or other liquids, are turned into the condiment known as mustard or prepared mustard...

 leaves, seaweeds, spirulina and water cress. Wild harvested greens
Greens
Greens may refer to:*Leaf vegetables such as collard greens, mustard greens, spring greens, winter greens, spinach, etc.-Politics:Supranational* Green politics* Green party, political parties adhering to Green politics* Global Greens...

 and weed
Weed
A weed in a general sense is a plant that is considered by the user of the term to be a nuisance, and normally applied to unwanted plants in human-controlled settings, especially farm fields and gardens, but also lawns, parks, woods, and other areas. More specifically, the term is often used to...

s such as Bromus
Bromus
Bromus is a large genus of the grass family . Estimates in the scientific literature of the number of species have ranged from 100 to 400, but plant taxonomists currently recognize around 160–170 species...

, chickweed
Chickweed
Chickweed, a common name, can refer to:* Cerastium - Mouse-ear Chickweed* Holosteum - Jagged Chickweed* Moenchia - Upright Chickweed* Paronychia - Chickweed* Stellaria pro parte - Chickweed...

s, cocksfoot or orchard
Dactylis
Dactylis is a genus of grasses in the subfamily Pooideae, native to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. They are known in English as cock's-foot or cocksfoot grasses, also sometimes as orchard grasses.-Taxonomy:...

 grasses, dandelions, dogstooth
Erythronium dens-canis
Erythronium dens-canis is a small herbaceous flowering plant in the Liliaceae, native to Europe, where it is the only naturally occurring species....

, elymus
Elymus (genus)
Elymus is a genus of perennial grasses in the tribe which contains many of the main cereal grains. Plants of this genus are known generally as wildrye or wheatgrass...

, fescue
Fescue
Festuce is a genus of about 300 species of perennial tufted grasses, belonging to the grass family Poaceae . The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution, although the majority of the species are found in cool temperate areas...

s, marram grasses, milk thistle
Milk thistle
The milk thistle is a thistle of the genus Silybum Adans., a flowering plant of the daisy family . They are native to the Mediterranean regions of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East...

s, oats
OATS
OATS - Open Source Assistive Technology Software - is a source code repository or "forge" for assistive technology software. It was launched in 2006 with the goal to provide a one-stop “shop” for end users, clinicians and open-source developers to promote and develop open source assistive...

 and wild oat
Avena
The oats are a genus of 10-15 species of true grasses . They are native to Europe, Asia and northwest Africa. One species is widely cultivated elsewhere, and several have become naturalized in many parts of the world...

s, plantain
Plantago
Plantago is a genus of about 200 species of small, inconspicuous plants commonly called plantains. They share this name with the very dissimilar plantain, a kind of banana. Most are herbaceous plants, though a few are subshrubs growing to 60 cm tall. The leaves are sessile, but have a narrow...

 (the weed), poa
Poa
Poa is a genus of about 500 species of grasses, native to the temperate regions of both hemispheres. Common names include meadow-grass , bluegrass , tussock , and speargrass. "Poa" is Greek for fodder...

 genus (i.e. Blue, Meadow's, Spear, Tussock grasses) may also be given. Well cooked poultry, pork and beef may be given in small quantities, as well as hard-cooked egg (with the shell mixed in), and active culture yogurts. High-protein foods should be fed more often during moulting and breeding. Generally if it is safe for humans to eat, then it is safe for parrots, with a few exceptions. Avocado
Avocado
The avocado is a tree native to Central Mexico, classified in the flowering plant family Lauraceae along with cinnamon, camphor and bay laurel...

 and rhubarb
Rhubarb
Rhubarb is a group of plants that belong to the genus Rheum in the family Polygonaceae. They are herbaceous perennial plants growing from short, thick rhizomes. They have large leaves that are somewhat triangular-shaped with long fleshy petioles...

are reportedly highly toxic for all Parrot species and should be avoided. Onions and large quantities of garlic may lead to anemia in parrots and intake of these should be limited, even though they are not immediately toxic. Parrots do not possess the needed enzymes to properly digest raw dairy products, and although many parrots love cheese and milk, intake should be limited. Avoid any foods that contain caffeine (including chocolate) and foods with high processed sugar content, and that are high in salt or contain sulfites. Birds should never be given alcohol. Alexandrines are social eaters and will appreciate any tidbits of bird-safe human food shared with them at meal times.

Cultural depictions


Thailand, Mongolia and Iran have issued stamps depicting the Alexandrine Parakeet.

External links


Informative websites:

Conservation related links: