Alexander Lyncestes

Alexander Lyncestes

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For other persons with the same name, see Alexander
Alexander
Alexander is a common male first name, and less common surname. The most famous is Alexander the Great, the King of Macedon who created one of the largest empires in ancient history.- Origin :...



Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος), son of Aeropus II of Macedon
Aeropus II of Macedon
Aeropus II of Macedon , king of Macedon, guardian of Orestes, the son of Archelaus, reigned nearly six years from 399 BC....

, was a native of the upper Macedonian district called Lyncestis, whence he is usually called Alexander of Lynkestis or Alexander Lyncestes. Justin makes the singular mistake of calling him a brother of Lyncestas, while in other passages he uses the correct expression.

He was a contemporary of Philip III of Macedon
Philip III of Macedon
Philip III Arrhidaeus was the king of Macedonia from after June 11, 323 BC until his death. He was a son of King Philip II of Macedonia by Philinna of Larissa, allegedly a Thessalian dancer, and a half-brother of Alexander the Great...

 and Alexander the Great. He had two brothers, Heromenes
Heromenes
Heromenes of Lynkestis, was son of Aeropus and brother of Arrhabaeus and Alexander . Heromenes and Arrhabaeus were accused of conspiring with Pausanias of Orestis to assassinate Philip II of Macedon in October 336 BC and executed by Alexander the Great.-References:*Who's Who in the Age of...

 and Arrhabaeus; all three were under suspicion of involvement in the assassination
Assassination
To carry out an assassination is "to murder by a sudden and/or secret attack, often for political reasons." Alternatively, assassination may be defined as "the act of deliberately killing someone, especially a public figure, usually for hire or for political reasons."An assassination may be...

 of Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon "friend" + ἵππος "horse" — transliterated ; 382 – 336 BC), was a king of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was the father of Alexander the Great and Philip III.-Biography:...

, in 336 BC. Alexander the Great, on his accession, put to death all those who had taken part in the murder, and Alexander the Lyncestian was the only one that was pardon
Pardon
Clemency means the forgiveness of a crime or the cancellation of the penalty associated with it. It is a general concept that encompasses several related procedures: pardoning, commutation, remission and reprieves...

ed, because he was the first who did homage to Alexander the Great as his king. But king Alexander not only pardoned him, but even made him his friend and raised him to high honors, he was first entrusted with the command of an army in Thrace
Thrace
Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. As a geographical concept, Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east...

, and afterwards received the command of the Thessalian cavalry. In this capacity he accompanied Alexander on his eastern expedition. In 334 BC, when Alexander was laying at Phaselis
Phaselis
Phaselis is an ancient Lycian city in the province of Antalya in Turkey. It is located between the Bey Mountains and the forests of Olympos National Park, 16 km west of the touristic town of Kemer and on the 57th kilometre of the Antalya–Kumluca highway...

, he was informed that the Lyncestian was carrying on a secret correspondence with King Darius III of Persia
Darius III of Persia
Darius III , also known by his given name of Codomannus, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC....

, and that a large sum of money was promised, for which he was to murder Alexander. The bearer of the letters from Darius was taken by Parmenion
Parmenion
Parmenion was a Macedonian general in the service of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, murdered on a suspected false charge of treason....

 and brought before Alexander, and the treachery was considered proven. Yet Alexander the Great, dreading to create any hostile feeling in Antipater
Antipater
Antipater was a Macedonian general and a supporter of kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. In 320 BC, he became Regent of all of Alexander's Empire. Antipater was one of the sons of a Macedonian nobleman called Iollas or Iolaus and his family were distant collateral relatives to the...

, the regent of Macedonia, whose daughter was married to the Alexander Lyncestes, thought advisable not to put him to death, and had him merely deposed from his office and kept in custody. In this manner he was dragged about for three years with the army in Asia, until in 330 BC, when, Philotas
Philotas
Philotas was the eldest son of Parmenion, Alexander's most experienced and talented general. When Alexander became king of Macedonia with Parmenion's support Philotas (in Greek, Φιλώτας, died October 330 BC) was the eldest son of Parmenion, Alexander's most experienced and talented general. When...

 having been executed for similar crime, the Macedonians demanded that Alexander Lyncestes should likewise be tried and punished accordingly. Alexander the Great gave way, and as the traitor was unable to exculpate himself, he was put to death at Alexandria Prophthasia, the capital of Drangiana
Drangiana
Drangiana or Zarangiana was a historical region of the Achaemenid Empire. This region comprises territory around lake Hâmûn, wetlands in endorheic Sīstān basin on the Irano-Afghan-Pakistan border, and its primary watershed Helmand river in nowadays southwestern Afghanistan and the "Nok Kondi" of...

.

The object of this traitor was probably to gain possession of the throne of Macedonia, which previous to the reign of Amyntas III of Macedon
Amyntas III of Macedon
Amyntas III son of Arrhidaeus and father of Philip II, was king of Macedon in 393 BC, and again from 392 to 370 BC. He was also a paternal grandfather of Alexander the Great....

had for a time belonged to his family.

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