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Alcázar

Alcázar

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{{See also|Alcazar (disambiguation)}} [[File:Alcazar de Segovia.JPG|thumb|The [[Alcázar of Segovia]].]] [[File:Alcázar de Jérez.JPG|thumb|right|Alcázar at [[Jerez de la Frontera]].]] [[File:Alcazar of the Christian Monarchs - Gardens.jpg|thumb|In the gardens of the [[Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos]] (Alcázar of Córdoba), in [[Córdoba, Spain|Córdoba]].]] An '''''alcázar''''' ({{IPA-es|alˈkaθar|lang}}, {{IPA-gl|alˈkaθaɾ|lang}}), '''''alcácer''''' ({{IPA-pt|ɐɫˈkasɛɾ|lang}}) or '''''alcàsser''''' ({{IPA-ca|əɫˈkasər|lang}}) is a type of [[castle]] in [[Spain]] and [[Portugal]]. The term derives from the [[Arabic language|Arabic]] word القصر ([[Arabic transliteration|trans.]] ''[[ksar|al-qasr]]'') meaning "fort, castle or palace"; and the Arabic word is derived from the Latin word, 'castrum', meaning an army camp or fort. Many cities in Spain have a castle or ''alcázar''; Spain also has Moorish citadels known as [[alcazaba]]. Not every 'alcazar' or 'alcazaba' in Iberia was built by Arabs; many castles with these names were built after the Arabs had withdrawn from the peninsula. ==Landmark alcázars== *The [[Alcázar of Segovia]] was built in the 12th century. During the Middle Ages when in the [[Kingdom of Castile]], the alcázar of [[Segovia]] was the favorite residence of [[List of Castilian monarchs|Castilian monarchs]], and almost each king added new parts to the building, transforming the original fortress into a courtier residence and prolonging the construction of the castle until the 16th century, when king [[Philip II of Spain|Philip II]] added the conical spires and the slate roofs. A fire in 1862 destroyed part of the roofs, but they were restored in the very same style they were built 300 years ago. *The [[Alcázar of Madrid]] was a palace built by Emperor Charles V (rebuilt by his son, Philip II) and was the main royal residence in [[Madrid]] until the [[Parque del Buen Retiro|Buen Retiro]] Palace partly superseded it in the 17th century. It was destroyed by fire in 1734, and the present [[Royal Palace of Madrid]] was built on the site. This was called ''Palacio Nuevo'' and has never been called alcázar. *The [[Alcázar of Toledo]] was used as a military academy in modern times. The "[[Siege of the Alcázar]]" in the [[Spanish Civil War]] refers to this castle, which was held by the Nationalist Colonel [[José Moscardó Ituarte]] against [[Second Spanish Republic|Republican]] forces. Republican forces captured Moscardó's 24-year-old son Luis, and on 23 July 1936 informed Moscardó that if he did not turn over the alcázar within ten minutes his son would die. When Moscardó did not surrender, Luis was executed, not immediately but one month later, on 23 August. *The [[Alcázar of Seville]], on the site of the [[Almohades]] palace called al-Muwarak, was built in the 1360s by Moorish craftsmen in [[Mudéjar]] style, and often remodeled. It was first used by [[Pedro of Castile]] with his mistress [[Maria de Padilla]]. The structures and gardens are a UNESCO [[World Heritage Site]]. *[[Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos]], also called the Alcázar of Córdoba, in [[Córdoba, Spain]] was a Moorish palace after the 13th century [[Reconquista]] of Córdoba. The Moors had expanded a Visigoth fortress into a large compound with gardens and a large library. This Alcázar was the summer home of King [[Ferdinand II of Aragon|Ferdinand]] and Queen [[Isabella I of Castile|Isabella]], and the site of their meeting with [[Christopher Columbus]] before his famous voyage to the Americas. ===Outside Spain=== Outside Spain, in [[Palermo]], Sicily, the district called ''Cassaro'' corresponds to the Punic settlement of Zis, on high ground that was refortified by Arabs and called القصر ''al qasr'', and was further expanded as the site of the later Norman palace. In Portugal there is a city called [[Alcácer do Sal]] (''Al Qaşr''), which was an administrative regional seat for the [[Moors]] during the Islamic [[Al-Andalus]] era on the [[Iberian Peninsula]]. ==External links== *[http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/The_Alcazar.html Entry in Great Buildings website - Alcázar of Segovia.] {{coord missing|Spain}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Alcazar}}