Albert Karl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther
FRS, also Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf Günther
(3 October 1830 – 1 February 1914), was a German
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...
-born British zoologist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist.
Günther was born in Esslingen in Swabia
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.-Geography:Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined...
Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....
). He studied theology
Theology is the systematic and rational study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university or school of divinity or seminary.-Definition:Augustine of Hippo...
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...
and later studied medicine in Tübingen
Tübingen is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated south of the state capital, Stuttgart, on a ridge between the Neckar and Ammer rivers.-Geography:...
. He went to the British Museum
The British Museum is a museum of human history and culture in London. Its collections, which number more than seven million objects, are amongst the largest and most comprehensive in the world and originate from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its...
in 1857, where he worked on ichthyology
Ichthyology is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. This includes skeletal fish , cartilaginous fish , and jawless fish...
. After the death of John Edward Gray
John Edward Gray, FRS was a British zoologist. He was the elder brother of George Robert Gray and son of the pharmacologist and botanist Samuel Frederick Gray ....
in 1875, Günther was appointed Keeper of Zoology at the Natural History Museum
The Natural History Museum is one of three large museums on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London, England . Its main frontage is on Cromwell Road...
, a position he held until 1895. The major work of his life was the eight volume Catalogue of Fishes
(1859–1870, Ray Society
The Ray Society was instituted in 1844 and named after John Ray, the 17th century naturalist, as a scientific publishing organization whose activities are devoted mainly to the British flora and fauna. So far the Ray Society has published 169 volumes...
). He also worked on the reptiles and amphibians in the Museum collection
A museum is distinguished by a collection of often unique objects that forms the core of its activities for exhibitions, education, research, etc. This differentiates it from an archive or library, where the contents may be more paper-based, replaceable and less exhibition oriented...
. In 1864 he founded the Record of Zoological Literature
The Zoological Record is a print and electronic index of zoological literature that also serves as the unofficial register of scientific names in zoology....
and served as editor
An editor-in-chief is a publication's primary editor, having final responsibility for the operations and policies. Additionally, the editor-in-chief is held accountable for delegating tasks to staff members as well as keeping up with the time it takes them to complete their task...
for six years.
Günther was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1867 and served as Vice-President 1875–6. He served on the Council of the Zoological Society for nearly forty years (1868–1905). He was elected Fellow of the Linnaean Society in 1877, and was President 1896–1900. He became a naturalized British citizen in 1874. Günther died at Kew Gardens (then in Surrey
Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. The county borders Greater London, Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, Hampshire and Berkshire. The historic county town is Guildford. Surrey County Council sits at Kingston upon Thames, although this has been part of...
) on 1 February 1914.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1858) Handbuch der Medicinischen Zoologie.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1858) Catalogue of the Batrachia salientia in the collection of the British Museum. London.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1858) On the geographical distribution of reptiles. Proc Zool Soc London.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1859–70) Catalogue of the Fishes in the British Museum, eight volumes.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1863) On new specimens of Snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Sep. Annals Mag. Nat. Hist., 1-6.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1863) Third account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Sep. Annals Mag. Nat. Hist., 1-17.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1864) Report on a collection of Reptiles and Fishes made by Dr. Kirk in the Zambesi and Nyassa regions. Sep. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1-12.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1864) Descriptions of new species of Batrachians from West Africa. Sep. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1-4. Folha manuscrita por Bocage no interior com descrição de Cystignathus Bocagei de Bolama.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1865) Fourth account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Sep. Annals Mag. Nat. Hist., 1-10.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1867) Contribution to the anatomy of Hatteria (Rhynchocephalus, Owen). Sep. Philosophical Transactions, II: 1-36.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1867) Descriptions of some new or little-known species of Fishes in the collection of the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Jan. 24: 99-104, 1 estampa.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1868) First account of species of tailless Batrachians added to the collection of the British Museum. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, III: 478-490.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1868) Sixth account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Sep. Annals Mag. Nat. Hist., 1-17.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1868) First account of species of Tailless Batrachians added to the collection of the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (III), June 25: 478-490. 4 pranchas.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1868) Report on a collection of Fishes made at St. Helena by J.C. Meliss. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (II): 225-228.1 estampa.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1868) Descriptions of freshwater Fishes made from Surinam and Brazil. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (II): 229-246. 3 estampas.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1872) Seventh account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Annals Mag. Nat. Hist., 13-37.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1874) Description of a new European species of Zootoca. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, August.
- GUNTHER, Albert (1874) Descriptions of some new or imperfectly known species of Reptiles from the Camaroon Mountains. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, June 16: 444-445. Plate 56 - Chamaeleon montium Buckholz, 1874. B - juvenil. Pl. 57: Rhampholeon spectrum Buckholz e Bothrolycus ater sp. nov. . Del. G.H. Ford..
- GUNTHER, Albert (1875) Second report on collection of Indian Reptiles obtained by the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, March 16 : 224-234. Plates XXX-XXXIV. Col. Tenente Beddome no Sul da Índia e Dr. Jerdon no Norte e nos Himalaias. Plate 30 - Calotes grandisquamis Gunther, 1875 - col. Bedomme no sopé do Canoot Ghat; Pl. XXXIV - Trimeresurus jerdoni sp. nov. - Jerdon, Khassya. G.H. Ford del.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1875) Third report on collections of Indian Reptiles obtained by the British Museum. From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 567-577. 4 estampas.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1876) Statement regarding dr. Welwitsch's Angola Reptiles. Jornal de Sciencias Mathematicas, Physicas e Naturaes, Academia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa, V (20): 275-276. Welwitsch. Seguem declarações de J.V. Barboza du Bocage.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1876) Notes on a small collection brought by Lieut. L. Cameron, from Angola. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pág. 678. Herpetologia. Ahaetulla dorsalis (Bocage). Reptilia. Serpentes.
- GÜNTHER, A. (1876) Remarks on Fishes, with Descriptions of new Species in the British Museum, chiefly from the Southern Seas. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Volume XVII, Fourth Series.
- GÜNTHER, A. (1876) Remarks on some Indian and, more especially, Bornean Mammals. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, III: 424-428. Plate XXXVII - Viverra megaspila Blyth, 1863. J.G. Keulemans del.
- GÜNTHER, A. (1876) Carta para Bocage, do Zoological Department (British Museum), 26 de Junho, a falar de Welwitsch. Arquivo histórico do Museu Bocage, CE/G-88.
- GÜNTHER, A. (1877) Notice of two large extinct lizards formerly inhabiting the Mascarene Islands. Sep. Linnean Society's Journal - Zoology, vol. 13: 321-328.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1878) - On Reptiles from Midian collected by Major Burton. From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 977-978. 1 estampa.
- GÜNTHER, A. (1879) The extinct reptiles of Rodriguez. Sep. Philosoph. Trans. Roy. Soc, 168 (extra-vol.), London: 470-472.
- GUNTHER, Albert (1879) List of the Mammals, Reptiles, and Batrachians sent by Mr. Everett from the Philippine Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London, January 14: 74-79. Plate IV - Dendrophis philippinensis Gunther, 1879 - Norte de Mindanao . Del. R. Mintern.
- GUNTHER, Albert (1882) Observations on some rare Reptiles and a Batrachian now or lately living in the Society's Menagerie. Transactions of the Zoological Society, London VI, part VII (1) : 215-222, pl. 42-46. Chelys fimbriata (Schneid.) - a Matamata habita as águas estagnada do Brasil e Guiana. Pl. 43-44: Metopoceros cornutus (Wagler). A imagem representa o segundo exemplar chegado aos museus da Europa, o primeiro pertencia ao Museu de Paris e tinha vindo de San Domingo. Deste não se conhece a proveniência exacta. Ceratothrys ornata (Bell). Tejus rufescens - Mendoza.
- GÜNTHER, A. (1884) Contributions to our Knowledge of Hydromedusa, a genus of South-American freshwater Turtles. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Fifth Series, Volume XIV: 421-425. Plate XIV.
- GÜNTHER, A. (1884) Note on some East-African Antelopes supposed to be new. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Fifth Series, Volume XIV: 425-429.
- GÜNTHER, Albert (1885) - Note on a supposed melanotic variety of the Leopard, from South Africa. From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, March 3: 243-245, estampa de Felis leopardus.
- GÜNTHER, A. (1888) Contribution to the knowledge of Snakes of Tropical Africa. Annals Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 1: 322-335. Ahoetulla bocagei, sp. nov.. Angola.
- GÜNTHER, A. (1888) Report on a collection of Reptiles and Batrachians sent by Emin Pasha
Mehmed Emin Pasha — he was born Isaak Eduard Schnitzer and baptized Eduard Carl Oscar Theodor Schnitzer — was a physician, naturalist, and governor of the Egyptian province of Equatoria on the upper Nile...
from Monbuttu, Upper Congo. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 50-51.
- GÜNTHER, A. (1895) Notice of Reptiles and Batrachians collected in the Eastern Half of Tropical Africa. Annals Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 15: 523-529.
- Robert Gunther
Robert Theodore Gunther was a historian of science, zoologist, and founder of the Museum of the History of Science, Oxford....
, Albert Günther's son and a historian of science.