(addʒɔrnaˈmento "A bringing up to date" was one of the key words used during the Second Vatican Council
The Second Vatican Council addressed relations between the Roman Catholic Church and the modern world. It was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church and the second to be held at St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican. It opened under Pope John XXIII on 11 October 1962 and closed...
both by bishop
A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox Churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Independent Catholic Churches, and in the...
s and clergy
Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. A clergyman, churchman or cleric is a member of the clergy, especially one who is a priest, preacher, pastor, or other religious professional....
attending the sessions, and by the media and Vaticanologist
Vaticanologist or Vaticanist is a term coined in the mid-to-late twentieth century to describe journalists, academics and commentators whose area of expertise is in studying and understanding the manner by which the Holy See and the Roman Catholic Church operates...
s covering it. It was used to mean a spirit of change and open-mindedness. It was the name given to the pontifical program of John XXIII in a speech he gave on January 25, 1959.
Code of Canon law
Originally, the word referred merely to an adjournment
An adjournment is a suspension of proceedings to another time or place. To adjourn means to suspend until a later stated time or place.-Law:In law, to adjourn means to suspend proceedings to another time or place, or to end them....
of the Code of Canon law, as John XXIII said himself in his 1959 speech. However, the Code of canon law was only completed in 1983, after a long delay of 18 years after the end of the Council. The Canon law project was soon broadened into a larger process of Church reform.
Gaudium et Spes
The conciliar document most often associated with the aggiornamento is Gaudium et Spes
Gaudium et Spes , the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, was one of the four Apostolic Constitutions resulting from the Second Vatican Council...
. The document was not drafted before the council met, but arose from the floor of the council and was one of the last to be promulgated.
French theologian Yves Congar
Yves Marie Joseph Congar was a French Dominican cardinal and theologian.-Early life:Born in Sedan, in northeast France, in 1904, Congar's home was occupied by the Germans for much of World War I...
was a lead reformist during the Council, which he even described as an October Revolution
The October Revolution , also known as the Great October Socialist Revolution , Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a political revolution and a part of the Russian Revolution of 1917...
in the Church
. Congar, who had previously been condemned by the Holy Office, was invited to the Council, where he played a significant role in the discussions between the Curial minority and the Episcopal majority.
The rival term used was ressourcement
(ʁəsuʁsəmɑ̃) which meant a return to earlier sources, traditions and symbols of the early Church.
Many clergy could be categorised as belonging to either camp. Aggiornamento
s were seen as looking to the future in a post-Tridentine
The Council of Trent was the 16th-century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It is considered to be one of the Church's most important councils. It convened in Trent between December 13, 1545, and December 4, 1563 in twenty-five sessions for three periods...
Church, while ressourcement
members were seen as attempting to look back to the church before Trent for a simpler liturgy and less Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...
-orientated leadership style.
Neither was satisfied with the Church as it stood immediately before the Council. Both however sought inspiration for the expected new style conciliar church in different eras.
Paul VI went on to adopt Pope John's motto for himself, as he stated in Ecclesiam Suam
Ecclesiam Suam is an encyclical of Pope Paul VI on the Catholic Church given at St. Peter's, Rome, on the Feast of the Transfiguration, August 6 , 1964, the second year of his Pontificate. It is considered an important document, which identified the Catholic Church with the Body of Christ...
: We cannot forget Pope John XXIII's word aggiornamento which We have adopted as expressing the aim and object of Our own pontificate. Besides ratifying it and confirming it as the guiding principle of the Ecumenical Council, We want to bring it to the notice of the whole Church. It should prove a stimulus to the Church to increase its ever growing vitality and its ability to take stock of itself and give careful consideration to the signs of the times, always and everywhere "proving all things and holding fast that which is good" with the enthusiasm of youth.
Some conservatives had warned about excessive progressivism
Progressivism is an umbrella term for a political ideology advocating or favoring social, political, and economic reform or changes. Progressivism is often viewed by some conservatives, constitutionalists, and libertarians to be in opposition to conservative or reactionary ideologies.The...
and had repeated the final sentence of the 1861 Syllabus of Errors
The Syllabus of Errors was a document issued by Holy See under Pope Pius IX on December 8, 1864, Feast of the Immaculate Conception, on the same day as the Pope's encyclical Quanta Cura.- Format :...
: The Roman Pontiff can, and ought to, reconcile himself, and come to terms with progress, liberalism and modern civilization
Cardinal Francis Spellman, who had been nominated by Pius XII, was reportedly cautious of aggiornamento
and, before departing to Rome, declared, "No change will get past the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, designed by Frédéric Bartholdi and dedicated on October 28, 1886...
." The Cardinal believed that predominantly liberal
Liberal Christianity, sometimes called liberal theology, is an umbrella term covering diverse, philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century and onward...
clergymen were being appointed to the Council's commissions, and opposed the introduction of vernacular
A vernacular is the native language or native dialect of a specific population, as opposed to a language of wider communication that is not native to the population, such as a national language or lingua franca.- Etymology :The term is not a recent one...
into the Mass
"Mass" is one of the names by which the sacrament of the Eucharist is called in the Roman Catholic Church: others are "Eucharist", the "Lord's Supper", the "Breaking of Bread", the "Eucharistic assembly ", the "memorial of the Lord's Passion and Resurrection", the "Holy Sacrifice", the "Holy and...
, saying, "The Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...
language, which is truly the Catholic language, is unchangeable, is not vulgar, and has for many centuries been the guardian of the unity of the Western Church."
Paul VI, although he had vowed to continue Pope John's program, was nevertheless opposed to much of his era's clerical radicalism, as he indicated in the encyclical Humanae Vitae
Humanae Vitae is an encyclical written by Pope Paul VI and issued on 25 July 1968. Subtitled On the Regulation of Birth, it re-affirms the traditional teaching of the Catholic Church regarding married love, responsible parenthood, and the continuing proscription of most forms of birth...
John Paul II
s were particularly associated with the much repeated phrase in the Church in the 1960s the sign of the times
Sign of the times is a phrase strongly associated with Roman Catholicism in the era of the Second Vatican Council. It was taken to mean that the Church should listen to, and learn from, the world around it. In other words, it should learn to read the 'sign of the times'...
, meaning an attempt to learn from the world and read the 'signs of the times'.
The theological method of Pope John Paul II
Blessed Pope John Paul II , born Karol Józef Wojtyła , reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican City from 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005, at of age. His was the second-longest documented pontificate, which lasted ; only Pope Pius IX ...
represented an attempt to wed the two concepts by drawing upon the ancient deposit of faith to address contemporary issues in an engaging way.
In the Psych
Psych is an American detective comedy-drama television series created by Steve Franks and broadcast on USA Network. It stars James Roday as Shawn Spencer, a young crime consultant for the Santa Barbara Police Department whose "heightened observational skills" and impressive detective instincts...
episode entitled "Spellingg Bee", the word is a sore subject for pharmaceutical salesman Burton "Gus" Guster. In a flashback from 1989, it is revealed that Shawn Spencer, Gus' best friend and fake psychic, purposefully aided him in misspelling the word so he would lose the Bee.