Affricate consonant

Affricate consonant

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{{Manner of articulation}} {{IPA chart affricate consonants with audio}} '''Affricates''' are [[consonant]]s that begin as [[stop consonant|stops]] (most often an [[alveolar consonant|alveolar]], such as {{IPA|[t]}} or {{IPA|[d]}}) but release as a [[fricative consonant|fricative]] (such as {{IPA|[s]}} or {{IPA|[z]}} or occasionally into a fricative [[trill consonant|trill]]) rather than directly into the following vowel. == Samples == The [[English language|English]] sounds spelled "ch" and "j" (transcribed {{IPA|[tʃ]}} and {{IPA|[dʒ]}} in [[International Phonetic Alphabet|IPA]]), [[German language|German]] and [[Italian language|Italian]] ''z'' {{IPA|[ts]}} and [[Italian language|Italian]] ''z/ƶ'' {{IPA|[dz]}} are typical affricates. These sounds are fairly common in the world's languages, as are other affricates with similar sounds, such as those in [[Polish language|Polish]] and [[Chinese language|Chinese]]. However, other than {{IPA|[dʒ]}}, voiced affricates are relatively uncommon. For several places of articulation they are not attested at all. Much less common are [[Labiodental consonant|labiodental]] affricates, such as {{IPA|[p͡f]}} in German and [[Izi language|Izi]], or [[Velar consonant|velar]] affricates, such as {{IPA|[k͡x]}} in [[Tswana language|Tswana]] (written ''kg'') or High Alemannic [[Swiss German]] dialects. Worldwide, only a few languages have affricates in these positions, even though the corresponding [[stop consonant]]s {{IPA|[p], [k]}} are virtually universal. Also less common are alveolar affricates where the fricative is [[lateral consonant|lateral]], such as the {{IPA|[tɬ]}} sound found in [[Nahuatl]] and [[Totonacan languages|Totonac]]. Many [[Athabaskan languages]] (such as [[Dene Suline language|Dene Suline]] and [[Navajo language|Navajo]]) have series of coronal affricates that may be unaspirated, aspirated, or ejective in addition to being interdental/dental, alveolar, postalveolar, or lateral, i.e., {{IPA|[t̪͡θ]}}, {{IPA|[t̪͡θʰ]}}, {{IPA|[t̪͡θʼ]}}, {{IPA|[ts]}}, {{IPA|[tsʰ]}}, {{IPA|[tsʼ]}}, {{IPA|[tʃ]}}, {{IPA|[tʃʰ]}}, {{IPA|[tʃʼ]}}, {{IPA|[tɬ]}}, {{IPA|[tɬʰ]}}, and {{IPA|[tɬʼ]}}. ==Notation== Affricates are often represented by the two sounds they consist of (e.g. {{IPA|[pf]}}, {{IPA|[kx]}}). However, single signs for the affricates may be desirable, in order to stress that they function as unitary speech segments (i.e. as [[phoneme]]s). In this case, the IPA recommends joining the two elements of the affricate by a tie bar (e.g. {{IPA|[p͡f]}}, {{IPA|[k͡x]}}). Though they are no longer standard IPA, ligatures are available in [[Unicode]] for the six common affricates {{IPA|[ʦ]}}, {{IPA|[ʣ]}}, {{IPA|[ʧ]}}, {{IPA|[ʤ]}}, {{IPA|[ʨ]}}, and {{IPA|[ʥ]}}. Another method is to indicate the release of the affricate with a superscript: {{IPA|[tˢ]}}, {{IPA|[kˣ]}}. This is derived from the IPA convention of indicating other releases with a superscript. In other phonetic transcription systems, such as the [[Americanist phonetic notation|Americanist]] system, the affricates {{IPA|[ts]}}, {{IPA|[dz]}}, {{IPA|[tʃ]}}, {{IPA|[dʒ]}}, {{IPA|[tɬ]}}, and {{IPA|[dɮ]}} are represented as {{Unicode|‹c›}} or {{Unicode|‹¢›}}; {{Unicode|‹j›}}, {{Unicode|‹ƶ›}}, or (older) {{IPA|‹ʒ›}}; {{Unicode|‹c›}} or {{Unicode|‹č›}}; {{Unicode|‹ǰ›}}, {{Unicode|‹ǧ›}}, or (older) {{Unicode|‹ǯ›}}; {{Unicode|‹ƛ›}}; and {{Unicode|‹λ›}} or {{Unicode|‹dl›}} respectively. Within the IPA, {{IPA|[tʃ]}} and {{IPA|[dʒ]}} are sometimes transcribed with the symbols for the palatal stops, {{IPA|‹c›}} and {{IPA|‹ɟ›}}. ==Affricates vs. stop-fricative sequences== Affricates can contrast phonemically with stop-fricative sequences. Examples include: : [[Polish language|Polish]] affricate {{IPA|/t͡ʂ/}} in ''czysta'' 'clean [[grammatical gender#Masculine, feminine, and neuter|(f.)]]' versus stop–fricative {{IPA|/tʂ/}} in ''trzysta'' 'three hundred', and : [[Klallam language|Klallam]] affricate {{IPA|/t͡s/}} in {{Unicode|''k’ʷə́nc''}} 'look at me' versus stop–fricative {{IPA|/ts/}} in {{Unicode|''k’ʷə́nts''}} 'he looks at it'. In the stop-fricative sequence, the stop has a release burst before the fricative starts; but in the affricate, the fricative element ''is'' the release. Stop-fricative sequences may have a [[syllable]] boundary between the two segments, but not necessarily. In English, {{IPA|/ts/}} and {{IPA|/dz/}} (as in ''nuts'' and ''nods'') are considered phonemically stop-fricative sequences because they may contain a [[morpheme]] boundary (for example, ''nuts'' is composed of ''nut'' and the plural suffix ''s''). But the sounds are phonetically affricates. The English affricate phonemes {{IPA|/t͡ʃ/}} and {{IPA|/d͡ʒ/}} do not require a morpheme boundary. The sounds are sometimes written with the unitary symbols {{Unicode|‹č›}} and {{Unicode|‹ǰ›}}, though it is not considered standard IPA notation. However, English speakers (depending on dialect) do distinguish affricates from stop–fricative sequences: *''cat shit'' {{IPA|/kæt.ʃɪt/}} → {{IPA|[kʰæʔʃɪt̚]}} *''catch it'' {{IPA|/kæt͡ʃ.ɪt/}} → {{IPA|[kʰæt͡ʃɪt̚]}} Here {{IPA|/t/}} [[debuccalization|debuccalizes]] to a [[glottal stop]] before {{IPA|/ʃ/}} in many dialects, making it phonetically distinct from {{IPA|/t͡ʃ/}}. The [[acoustic phonetics|acoustic]] difference between affricates and stop+fricative sequences is rate of [[amplitude]] increase of the frication noise, which is known as the '''rise time'''. Affricates have a short rise time to the peak frication amplitude while sequences of stop and fricative have relatively longer rise time (Howell & Rosen 1983, Johnson 2003, Mitani et al. 2006). ==List of affricates== In the case of coronals, the symbols {{IPA|‹t, d›}} are normally used for the stop portion of the affricate regardless of place. For example, {{IPA|[t͡ʂ]}} is commonly seen for {{IPA|[ʈ͡ʂ]}}. For legibility, the tie bars have been removed from the table entries. The exemplar languages are ones that these sounds have been reported from, but in several cases they may need confirmation. ===Sibilant affricates=== {| class="wikitable" |- ! Sound (voiceless) !! IPA !! Languages !! Sound (voiced) !! IPA !! Languages |- | [[Voiceless alveolar affricate]] || {{IPA|[ts]}} || [[Italian language|Italian]], [[German language|German]] z
[[Hungarian language|Hungarian]], [[Polish language|Polish]] c
[[Serbo-Croatian]] ц/c
[[Japanese language|Japanese]] つ/ツ {{IPA|[tsu͍]}}
[[Pashto language|Pashto]], [[K'iche' language|Mayan K'iche']] | [[Voiced alveolar affricate]] || {{IPA|[dz]}} || Italian z
Hungarian, Polish dz
[[Macedonian language|Macedonian]] ѕ/dz
Japanese ([[yotsugana|some dialects]])
|- | [[Voiceless postalveolar affricate]] || {{IPA|[t̠ʃ]}} || [[English language|English]], K'ich'e ch
Italian ci
German tsch
Hungarian cs
Serbo-Croatian ч/č
Spanish ch
| [[Voiced postalveolar affricate]] || {{IPA|[d̠ʒ]}} || English j, "soft g"
Italian j, "soft g"
German dsch
Hungarian dzs
Serbo-Croatian џ/dž
|- | [[Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate]] || {{IPA|[t̠ɕ]}} || Polish ć
Serbo-Croatian ћ/ć
Japanese ち/チ {{IPA|[tɕi]}}
Mandarin q | [[Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate]] || {{IPA|[d̠ʑ]}} || Polish dź
Serbo-Croatian ђ/đ
Japanese じ/ジ, ぢ/ヂ {{IPA|[dʑi]}} |- | [[Voiceless retroflex affricate]] || {{IPA|[ʈʂ]}} || Polish cz
Slovak č
Mandarin ch | [[Voiced retroflex affricate]] || {{IPA|[ɖʐ]}} || Polish dż
Slovak dž
Russian дж
Mandarin zh |} Some [[Northwest Caucasian languages]] such as [[Abkhaz phonology|Abkhaz]] contrast all eight of these. When a language only has one type of affricate, it is usually a sibilant; this is the case in e.g. [[Arabic language|Arabic]] ({{IPA|[d̠ʒ]}}), most dialects of [[Spanish language|Spanish]] ({{IPA|[t̠ʃ]}}), and [[Thai language|Thai]] ({{IPA|[t̠ɕ]}}). ===Non-sibilant affricates=== {| class="wikitable" |- ! Sound (Voiceless) !! IPA !! Languages !! Sound (Voiced) !! IPA !! Languages |- | [[Voiceless bilabial affricate]] || {{IPA|[pɸ]}} || Present allophonically in [[Taos phonology|Taos]], also reportedly in [[Scouse]] [[English language|English]] {{Verify source|date=October 2008}} | [[Voiceless bilabial affricate]] || {{IPA|[bβ]}} ||   |- | [[Voiceless labiodental affricate|Voiceless bilabial-labiodental affricate]] || {{IPA|[pf]}} || [[German language|German]], [[Teke language|Teke]] | [[Voiced labiodental affricate|Voiced bilabial-labiodental affricate]] || {{IPA|[bv]}} ||   |- | [[Voiceless labiodental affricate]] || {{IPA|[p̪f]}} || XiNkuna [[Tsonga language|Tsonga]] | [[Voiced labiodental affricate]] || {{IPA|[b̪v]}} || XiNkuna Tsonga |- | [[Voiceless dental affricate]] || {{IPA|[t̪θ]}} || [[Luo language|Luo]], [[Dene Suline language|Dene Suline]], [[Cun language|Cun]], some varieties of [[Venetian language|Venetian]] and other North Italian dialects | [[Voiced dental affricate]] || {{IPA|[d̪ð]}} || Dene Suline |- | Voiceless retroflex nonsibilant affricate || {{IPA|[tɻ̝̊]}} || [[Mapudungun language|Mapudungun]] {{Verify source|date=October 2008}}, [[Malagasy language|Malagasy]] | Voiced retroflex nonsibilant affricate || {{IPA|[dɻ̝]}} || [[Malagasy language|Malagasy]] |- | [[Voiceless palatal affricate]] || {{IPA|[cç]}} || [[Skolt Sami language|Skolt Sami]], [[Hungarian language|Hungarian]] | [[Voiced palatal affricate]] || {{IPA|[ɟʝ]}} || Skolt Sami, Hungarian, some [[Spanish language|Spanish]] dialects). Not reported to contrast with a [[voiced palatal plosive]] {{IPA|[ɟ]}} |- | [[Voiceless velar affricate]] || {{IPA|[kx]}} || [[Tswana language|Tswana]], [[High Alemannic German]] || rowspan="3" colspan="3" | |- | [[Voiceless uvular affricate]] || {{IPA|[qχ]}} || [[Nez Percé language|Nez Percé]], [[Wolof language|Wolof]], [[Bats language|Bats]] |- | [[Voiceless epiglottal affricate]] || {{IPA|[ʡʜ]}} || [[Haida language|Haida]]. Not reported to contrast with an [[epiglottal stop]] {{IPA|[ʡ]}} |} ===Lateral affricates=== {| class="wikitable" |- ! Sound !! IPA !! Languages |- | [[Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate]] || {{IPA|[tɬ]}} || [[Nahuatl language|Nahuatl]], [[Navaho language|Navaho]], [[Tswana language|Tswana]], etc. |- | [[Voiced alveolar lateral affricate]] || {{IPA|[dɮ]}} || [[Gwich'in language|Gwich'in]], [[Sandawe language|Sandawe]]. Not reported to ever contrast with a [[voiced alveolar lateral fricative]] {{IPA|[ɮ]}}. |- | [[Voiceless palatal lateral affricate]] || {{IPA|[cʎ̥˔]}} || also [c]; as ejective {{IPA|[cʎ̥˔ʼ]}}/[cʼ] in [[Dahalo language|Dahalo]]; as {{IPA|[tʎ̥˔]}}/[t] in [[Hadza language|Hadza]] |- | [[Voiceless velar lateral affricate]] || {{IPA|[kʟ̝̊]}} || also [k]; as a prevelar in [[Archi language|Archi]] and as an ejective {{IPA|[kʟ̝̊ʼ]}}/[kʼ] in [[Zulu language|Zulu]]{{citation needed|date=December 2009}} |} ===Trilled affricates=== {| class="wikitable" |- ! Sound !! IPA !! Languages |- | Voiced prenasalized [[Bilabial trill|trilled bilabial]] affricate || {{IPA|[mbʙ]}} || [[Kele language (New Guinea)|Kele]] and [[Malekula_Central_languages|Avava]] |- | Voiceless dental bilabially trilled affricate || {{IPA|[t̪ʙ̥]}} || [[Wari’ language|Wari’]] |- | Voiced prenasalized trilled alveolar affricate || {{IPA|[ndr]}} || [[Fijian language|Fijian]] and [[Malekula_Central_languages|Avava]] |- | Voiceless alveolar trilled affricate || {{IPA|[tʳ]}} || [[Ngkoth language|Ngkoth]] |- | Voiced alveolar trilled affricate || {{IPA|[dʳ]}} || [[Nias language|Nias]] |} ===Heterorganic affricates=== While most affricates are [[homorganic]], Navajo and [[Chiricahua language|Chiricahua Apache]] have a heterorganic alveolar-velar affricate {{IPA|[tx]}} (McDonough & Ladefoged 1993, Hoijer & Opler 1938). Other heterorganic affricates are reported for [[Northern Sotho]] (Johnson 2003) and other [[Bantu languages]] such as [[Phuthi language|Phuthi]], which has alveolar-labiodental affricates {{IPA|[tf]}} and {{IPA|[dv]}}, and [[Sesotho language|Sesotho]], which has bilabial-palatoalveolar afficates {{IPA|[pʃ]}} and {{IPA|[bʒ]}}. [[Djeoromitxi language|Djeoromitxi]] (Pies 1992) has {{IPA|[ps]}} and {{IPA|[bz]}}. ===Phonation, coarticulation and other variants=== The more common of the voiceless affricates are all attested as [[ejective consonant|ejectives]] as well: {{IPA|[tθʼ, tsʼ, tɬʼ, tʃʼ, tɕʼ, tʂʼ, cʎ̥ʼ, kxʼ, kʟ̝̊ʼ]}}. Several Khoisan languages such as [[!Xóõ language|!Xóõ]] are reported to have voiced ejective affricates, but these may actually be consonant clusters: {{IPA|[dtsʼ, dtʃʼ]}}. Affricates are also commonly [[Aspiration (phonetics)|aspirated]]: {{IPA|[ɱp̪fʰ, tθʰ, tsʰ, tɬʰ, tʃʰ, tɕʰ, tʂʰ]}}, occasionally [[breathy voice|murmured]]: {{IPA|[ɱb̪vʱ, d̠ʒʱ]}}, and sometimes [[prenasalized stop|prenasalized]]: {{IPA|[ⁿdz, ⁿdzʱ, ᶯɖʐ, ᶯɖʐʱ]}}. [[Labialization|Labialized]], [[palatalization|palatalized]], [[velarization|velarized]], and [[pharyngealization|pharyngealized]] affricates also occur. Affricates may also have phonemic length, that is, affected by a [[chroneme]], as in [[Italian language|Italian]] and [[Karelian language|Karelian]]. == See also == * [[Apical consonant]] * [[Hush consonant]] * [[Laminal consonant]] * [[List of phonetic topics]] == External links == * [http://calleteach.wordpress.com/2010/01/10/sounds-of-english-affricates/ Affricates in English] {{IPA navigation}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Affricate Consonant}}