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Adana is a city in southern Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 and a major agricultural and commercial center. The city is situated on the Seyhan River
Seyhan River
The Seyhan River is the longest river in Turkey that is flowing into Mediterranean Sea. The river is 560 km and flows southwest from its headwaters in the Tahtalı-Mountains in Anti-Taurus Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea via a broad delta...

, 30 kilometres inland from the Mediterranean, in south-central Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

. It is the administrative seat of the Adana Province
Adana Province
Adana Province is a province of Turkey located in south-central Anatolia. With a population of 2,085,225, it is the fifth most populous province in Turkey. The administrative seat of the province is the city of Adana, home to 78% of the residents of the province...

 and has a population of 1.6 million, making it the fifth most populous city in Turkey.

Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area
Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area
Adana-Mersin metropolitan area lies in the core area of Çukurova and with a population of 3 million, it is one of Turkey's major business and cultural centres. The metropolitan area stretches over 100 km from east to west and 25 km from north to south and includes the cities of Mersin, Tarsus,...

, with a population of 3 million, stretches over 100 kilometres from east to west and 25 kilometres from north to south; encompassing the cities of Mersin
Mersin
-Mersin today:Today, Mersin is a large city spreading out along the coast, with Turkey's second tallest skyscraper , huge hotels, an opera house, expensive real estate near the sea or up in the hills, and many other modern urban...

, Tarsus
Tarsus (city)
Tarsus is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea. It is part of the Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Turkey with a population of 2.75 million...

, Adana and Ceyhan
Ceyhan
Ceyhan is a city in southeast Turkey and with 105,000 inhabitants it is the second largest city of Adana Province after the capital Adana. Ceyhan is the transportation hub for Middle Eastern, Central Asian and Russian oil and natural gas. It is situated on the Ceyhan River, from which it takes...

. It is the fourth largest metropolitan area in Turkey and one of the country's leading centres of commerce and culture.

Adana lies in the heart of Çukurova
Çukurova
Çukurova , historically known as Cilicia, is a geographic, economic and cultural region in south-central Turkey, covering the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay...

, a geographical, economical and cultural region that covers the provinces of Mersin
Mersin Province
The Mersin Province is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the other major town is Tarsus, birthplace of St Paul...

, Adana
Adana Province
Adana Province is a province of Turkey located in south-central Anatolia. With a population of 2,085,225, it is the fifth most populous province in Turkey. The administrative seat of the province is the city of Adana, home to 78% of the residents of the province...

, Osmaniye
Osmaniye Province
Osmaniye Province is a Turkish province located in southern Turkey. It became a province in 1996. The province was part of Adana Province. It covers an area of 3,767 km² and has a population of 479,221 . The province is situated in Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region.The...

 and Hatay
Hatay Province
Hatay Province is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast. It is bordered by Syria to the south and east and the Turkish provinces of Adana and Osmaniye to the north. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region that covers the provinces of...

. Home to approximately six million people, the region is mostly a large stretch of flat, fertile land regarded as one of the most agriculturally productive areas of the world.

Etymology


According to numerous sources, the name Adana is derived from the Hittite URUAdaniya of Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna , is the name of an ancient Anatolian kingdom in the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of southeastern Anatolia, near the Gulf of İskenderun in modern-day Turkey. It encircled the Taurus Mountains and the Ceyhan river. The center of the kingdom was the city of...

, while others assert that it is related to the legendary character Danaus
Danaus
In Greek mythology Danaus, or Danaos , was the twin brother of Aegyptus and son of Achiroe and Belus, a mythical king of Egypt. The myth of Danaus is a foundation legend of Argos, one of the foremost Mycenaean cities of the Peloponnesus...

, or to the Danaoi, a mythological
Greek mythology
Greek mythology is the body of myths and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. They were a part of religion in ancient Greece...

 Greek
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

 tribe who came from Egypt and established themselves in the Greek city Argos
Argos
Argos is a city and a former municipality in Argolis, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Argos-Mykines, of which it is a municipal unit. It is 11 kilometres from Nafplion, which was its historic harbour...

.The earlier Egyptian texts for a country Danaja are inscriptions from Thutmosis II (1437 BC) and Amenophis III (1390-1352 BC). After the collapse of the Mycenean civilization (1200 BC) some refugeees from the Aegean area went to the coast of Cilicia.The inhabitants Dananayim or Danuna are identified as one group of the sea-peoples who attacked Egypt on 1191 BC during the reign of Ramesses III. Denyen are identified as inhabitants of the city Adana. It is also possible that the name is connected with the PIE
Pie
A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients....

 da-nu (river) Da-na-vo (people living by the river), Skythian nomad people, water demons in Rigveda (Danavas).

In the Iliad
Iliad
The Iliad is an epic poem in dactylic hexameters, traditionally attributed to Homer. Set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles...

of Homer
Homer
In the Western classical tradition Homer , is the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, and is revered as the greatest ancient Greek epic poet. These epics lie at the beginning of the Western canon of literature, and have had an enormous influence on the history of literature.When he lived is...

, the city is called Adana. In Hellenistic
Hellenistic civilization
Hellenistic civilization represents the zenith of Greek influence in the ancient world from 323 BCE to about 146 BCE...

 times, it was known as Antiochia in Cilicia or Antiochia ad Sarum ' onMouseout='HidePop("80291")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Seyhan_River">Sarus
Seyhan River
The Seyhan River is the longest river in Turkey that is flowing into Mediterranean Sea. The river is 560 km and flows southwest from its headwaters in the Tahtalı-Mountains in Anti-Taurus Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea via a broad delta...

"). The editors of The Helsinki Atlas tentatively identify Adana as Quwê (as contained in cuneiform
Cuneiform script
Cuneiform script )) is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. Emerging in Sumer around the 30th century BC, with predecessors reaching into the late 4th millennium , cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs...

 tablets), the Neo-Assyrian capital of Quwê
Quwê
Quwê – also spelled Que, Kue, Qeve, Coa, Kuê and Keveh – was a "Neo-Hittite" Assyrian vassal state or province at various times from the 9th century BCE to shortly after the death of Ashurbanipal around 627 BCE in the lowlands of eastern Cilicia, and the name of its capital city,...

 province. The name also appears as Coa, and may be the place referred to in the Bible
Bible
The Bible refers to any one of the collections of the primary religious texts of Judaism and Christianity. There is no common version of the Bible, as the individual books , their contents and their order vary among denominations...

, where King Solomon obtained horses. (I Kings 10:28; II Chron. 1:16). The Armenian
Armenian language
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia as well as in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. The language is also widely spoken by Armenian communities in the Armenian diaspora...

 name of the city is Atana or Adana.

According to an ancient Greco-Roman legend
Roman mythology
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans...

, the name has its origins in Adanus and Sarus, the two sons of Uranus
Uranus (mythology)
Uranus , was the primal Greek god personifying the sky. His equivalent in Roman mythology was Caelus. In Ancient Greek literature, according to Hesiod in his Theogony, Uranus or Father Sky was the son and husband of Gaia, Mother Earth...

, who came to a place near the Seyhan (Sarus) River, where they built Adana. An older legend relates the city's name to Adad
Adad
Adad in Akkadian and Ishkur in Sumerian and Hadad in Aramaic are the names of the storm-god in the Babylonian-Assyrian pantheon. All three are usually written by the logogram dIM...

 (also known as Tesup or Ishkur), the Thunder God in the Akkadian, Sumerian
Sumerian religion
Sumerian religion refers to the mythology, pantheon, rites and cosmology of the Sumerian civilization. The Sumerian religion influenced Mesopotamian mythology as a whole, surviving in the mythologies and religions of the Hurrians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and other culture...

, Babylonian, Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

n and Hittite
Hittite mythology
Most of the narratives embodying Hittite mythology are lost, and the elements that would give a balanced view of Hittite religion are lacking among the tablets recovered at the Hittite capital Hattusa and other Hittite sites: "there are no canonical scriptures, no theological disquisitions or...

 mythologies
Mythology
The term mythology can refer either to the study of myths, or to a body or collection of myths. As examples, comparative mythology is the study of connections between myths from different cultures, whereas Greek mythology is the body of myths from ancient Greece...

, who was believed to live in the nearby forest, and whose name was given to the region. The Hittites' names and writings have been found in the area, evidencing this possibility. The theory goes that since the Thunder God brought so much rain and this rain in turn brought such great abundance in this particular region, this god was loved and respected by its inhabitants and, in his honor, the region was called the "Uru Adaniyya"; in other words "the Region of Ada".

Adana's name has had many different versions over the centuries: Adanos, Ta Adana, Uru Adaniya, Erdene, Edene, Ezene, Batana, Atana, Azana, Addane.

Geography


Adana is located at the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, where it serves as the gateway to the Çukurova plain, which has historically been known in the West as the Cilicia
Cilicia
In antiquity, Cilicia was the south coastal region of Asia Minor, south of the central Anatolian plateau. It existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Byzantine empire...

 plain. This large stretch of flat, fertile land lies southeast of the Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, dividing the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau. The system extends along a curve from Lake Eğirdir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the east...

.

From Adana, crossing the Çukurova westwards, the road from Tarsus enters the foothills of the Taurus Mountains. The temperature decreases with every foot of ascent, as the road reaches an altitude of nearly 4000 feet (1,219.2 m). It goes through the famous Cilician Gates
Cilician Gates
The Cilician Gates or Gülek Pass is a pass through the Taurus Mountains connecting the low plains of Cilicia to the Anatolian Plateau, by way of the narrow gorge of the Gökoluk River. Its highest elevation is about 1000m....

, the rocky pass through which armies have coursed since the dawn of history, and continues to the Anatolian plain.

The north of the city is surrounded by the Seyhan reservoir and HEP, which was completed in 1956. The dam was constructed for hydroelectric power (HEP) and to irrigate the lower Çukurova plain. Two irrigation channels in the city flow to the plain, passing through the city center from east to west. There is another canal for irrigating the Yüreğir plain to the southeast of the city.

Climate


Adana has a typical Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

. Winters are mild and wet and summers are hot and dry. The highest recorded temperature was on 8 July 1978 with 44 °C (111.2 °F). The lowest recorded temperature was -6.4 °C.

History


The history of the Tepebağ tumulus in the middle of Adana dates to the Neolithic Period, 6000 B.C., and the time of the first human settlements. It is considered to be the oldest city of the Çukurova region. A place called Adana is mentioned by name in a Sumer
Sumer
Sumer was a civilization and historical region in southern Mesopotamia, modern Iraq during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age....

ian epic, the Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literature. Scholars believe that it originated as a series of Sumerian legends and poems about the protagonist of the story, Gilgamesh king of Uruk, which were fashioned into a longer Akkadian epic much...

, but the geography of this work is too imprecise to identify its location.

According to the Hittite
Hittite language
Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centred on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia...

 inscription of Kava
Kava
Kava or kava-kava is a crop of the western Pacific....

, found in Hattusa
Hattusa
Hattusa was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. It was located near modern Boğazkale, Turkey, within the great loop of the Kızıl River ....

 (Boğazkale
Bogazkale
Boğazkale is a district of Çorum Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It is located at 87 km from the city of Çorum. Population of the town is about 1,500. The mayor is Ali Rıza Soysat ....

), Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna , is the name of an ancient Anatolian kingdom in the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of southeastern Anatolia, near the Gulf of İskenderun in modern-day Turkey. It encircled the Taurus Mountains and the Ceyhan river. The center of the kingdom was the city of...

 was the first kingdom that ruled Adana, under the protection of the Hittites by 1335 BC. At that time, the name of the city was Uru Adaniyya, and the inhabitants were called Danuna
Denyen
The Denyen are one of the groups constituting the Sea Peoples, who were of Indo-European origin.-Origin:Archeologists have described them as being of Indo-European origin....

. Beginning with the collapse of the Hittite Empire, c. 1191-1189 BC, invasions from the west caused a number of small kingdoms to take control of the plain, as follows: Kue Assyrians, 9th century BC; Persians
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

, 6th century BC; Alexander the Great in 333 BC; Seleucids; the pirates of Cilicia; Roman
Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

 statesman Pompey the Great
Pompey
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey or Pompey the Great , was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic...

; and the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia , also known as the Cilician Armenia, Kingdom of Cilician Armenia or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia...

 (Cilician Kingdom).

The history of Adana is intrinsically linked to the history of Tarsus; they often seem to be the same city, moving as the neighbouring Seyhan River changed its position. Their respective names also changed over the course of the centuries. Adana was of relatively minor importance during the Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

's influential period, while nearby Tarsus was the metropolis
Metropolis
A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications...

 of the area. During the era of Pompey
Pompey
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey or Pompey the Great , was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic...

, the city was used as a prison for the pirates of Cilicia. For several centuries thereafter, it was a waystation on a Roman military road leading to the East. After the permanent split of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 in 395 AD, the area became a part of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

, and was probably developed during the time of Julian the Apostate
Julian the Apostate
Julian "the Apostate" , commonly known as Julian, or also Julian the Philosopher, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363 and a noted philosopher and Greek writer....

. With the construction of large bridges, roads, government buildings, irrigation and plantation, Adana and Cilicia became the most developed and important trade centers of the region. Ayas
Ayas (city)
Ayas is a small town in Yumurtalık district, Adana Province, Turkey, located east of the mouth of the Ceyhan River. It was the ancient Aegea and medieval Ajazzo or Lajazzo. It passed between the Mamluks and the Armenians several times in the 13th and 14th centuries, and was definitively taken by...

 (today Yumurtalık
Yumurtalik
Yumurtalık is a small city and a district in Adana Province of Turkey. It is a Mediterranean port at a distance of about from Adana center. Yumurtalık's population does not exceed 5,000 in winter, but in summer, it rises to 30 to 40,000 people since many inhabitants of Adana have holiday homes here...

), and Kozan
Kozan, Adana
Kozan is a city in Adana Province, Turkey, 68 km north of the city of Adana, in the northern section of the Çukurova plain. The city is the capital of Kozan district. The Kilgen Stream, a tributary of the Ceyhan River , flows through Kozan crossing the plain south into the Mediterranean Sea....

 (formerly Sis) were the other major urban and administrative centers in the area, especially during the period of the Cilicians.

Middle Ages


In the mid 7th century, the city was captured by the Arabs. According to an Arab historian of that era, the name of the city was derived from Ezene, the prophet Yazene's grandson.

The Byzantines
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

 recaptured Adana in 964. After the victory of Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan was the third sultan of the Seljuq dynasty and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty...

 at the Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
The Battle of Manzikert , was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq Turks led by Alp Arslan on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert...

 in 1071, the Seljuq Turks overran much of the Byzantine Empire. They had reached and captured Adana sometime before 1071 and continued to hold the place until Tancred
Tancred, Prince of Galilee
Tancred was a Norman leader of the First Crusade who later became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch...

, a leader of the First Crusade
First Crusade
The First Crusade was a military expedition by Western Christianity to regain the Holy Lands taken in the Muslim conquest of the Levant, ultimately resulting in the recapture of Jerusalem...

, captured the city in 1097.
In 1132, it was captured by the forces of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, under its king, Leo I
Leo I of Armenia
Leo I, also Levon I or Leon I, was the fifth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” ....

. It was taken by Byzantine forces in 1137, but the Armenians regained it around 1170. In 1268, there was a terrible earthquake
1268 Cilicia earthquake
The Cilicia earthquake in 1268 was a tremendous earthquake in which over 60,000 people perished . The earthquake occurred in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, in southern Asia Minor. The epicenter was northeast of the city of Adana....

 which destroyed much of the city. Adana was rebuilt and remained a part of the Kingdom of Cilician Armenia until 1359, when the city was ceded by Constantine III to the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 in return for obtaining a peace treaty. The Mamluks' capture of the city allowed many Turkish families to settle in it. The Ramadanids family, one of the Oghuz families brought by the Mamluks, ruled Adana until the Ottomans
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 captured the city.

Modern era


From the end of the Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 to the modern era (1517–1918), the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 ruled the area.
In the 1830s, in order to secure Egypt's independence from the Ottoman Empire, the army of Muhammad Ali Pasha, the vali
Wali
Walī , is an Arabic word meaning "custodian", "protector", "sponsor", or authority as denoted by its definition "crown". "Wali" is someone who has "Walayah" over somebody else. For example, in Fiqh the father is wali of his children. In Islam, the phrase ولي الله walīyu 'llāh...

 of Ottoman Egypt and Sudan
Khedive
The term Khedive is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy. It was first used, without official recognition, by Muhammad Ali Pasha , the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan, and vassal of the Ottoman Empire...

, invaded Syria on two occasions, and reached the Adana plain. The soldiers of Muhammad Ali Pasha destroyed Adana Castle and the Walls, a major hit to city's history. The subsequent peace treaty secured Egypt's independence, but (at the insistence of Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) required the evacuation of all Egyptian forces from Syria, and its return to Ottoman sovereignty. In the aftermath, Adana was established as a province in its own right.

The Adana massacre
Adana massacre
The Adana massacre occurred in Adana Province, in the Ottoman Empire, in April 1909. An massacre of Armenian Christians in the city of Adana amidst governmental upheaval resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district...

 occurred in the Ottoman Vilayet of Adana in April 1909. A religious-ethnic clash in the province amid governmental upheaval resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district. Reports estimated that the massacres in the entire Vilayet of Adana resulted in about 25,000 deaths. In 1915, Ottoman troops rounded up all Armenians (approx. 20,000) living in the city of Adana and marched them out into the Syrian desert in the course of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian Massacres and, by Armenians, as the Great Crime—refers to the deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I...

, resulting in the complete eradication of the Armenian communities in and around the city.
After World War I, the Ottoman government surrendered control of the city to French troops, and the four battalions of the French Armenian Legion
French Armenian Legion
The Armenian Legion, established with the French-Armenian Agreement , was a foreign legion unit within French Army. The Armenian legion was established under the goals of the Armenian national liberation movement and was an armed unit besides the Armenian volunteer units and Armenian militia during...

 were sent to occupy Adana and oversee the repatriation of Armenian refugees. The French forces were, however, spread too thinly in the region and, as they came under withering attacks by Muslim elements both opposed and loyal
Turkish National Movement
The Turkish National Movement encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries which resulted in the creation and shaping of the Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I....

 to Mustafa Kemal Pasha, eventually reversed their policies in the region. The Armenian Legion was gradually disbanded, the repatriation was halted, and the French ultimately abandoned all pretensions to Cilicia, which they had originally hoped to attach to their mandate over Syria
French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon
Officially the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire...

. On October 20, 1921, the Treaty of Ankara
Treaty of Ankara (1921)
The Ankara Agreement was signed on October 20, 1921 between France and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey...

 was signed between France and the Turkish Grand National Assembly
Grand National Assembly of Turkey
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey , usually referred to simply as the Meclis , is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution. It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 in the midst of the Turkish War of Independence...

. Based on the terms of the agreement, France recognized the end of the Cilicia War, and French troops together with the remaining Armenian volunteers withdrew from the city on January 5, 1922.

On 30 January 1943, British prime minister Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

 secretly met with Turkish president İsmet İnönü
Ismet Inönü
Mustafa İsmet İnönü was a Turkish Army General, Prime Minister and the second President of Turkey. In 1938, the Republican People's Party gave him the title of "Milli Şef" .-Family and early life:...

 inside a train wagon at the Yenice Station, 23 kilometres outside of Adana (the so-called Adana Meeting or Adana Conference). Churchill wanted Turkey to join the Second World War on the side of the Allies
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

; the details of which were later discussed at the Second Cairo Conference
Second Cairo Conference
The Second Cairo Conference of December 4–6, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed Turkey's possible contribution to the Allies in World War II...

 in December 1943, which was attended by İnönü, Churchill and Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt , also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war...

.

The city was hit by a 6.2 magnitude earthquake (1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake
1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake
The 1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake, aka 1998 Adana earthquake, was an approximately 6.2 magnitude. earthquake that struck southern Turkey, historically known as Cilicia, on June 27, 1998, at about 16:55 local time....

) on June 27, 1998. The disaster killed 145 and left 1,500 people wounded and many thousand homeless in the city. The total economic loss was estimated about US$ 1 billion.

Chronology


Luvi Kingdom (1900 BC), Hittite
Hittites
The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia.They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia c. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height c...

 Empire (1900-1200 BC), Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

n Empire (713-663 BC), Persian Empire (550-333 BC), Hellenistic
Hellenistic civilization
Hellenistic civilization represents the zenith of Greek influence in the ancient world from 323 BCE to about 146 BCE...

  (333-323 BC), Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
The Seleucid Empire was a Greek-Macedonian state that was created out of the eastern conquests of Alexander the Great. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia, today's Turkmenistan, Pamir and parts of Pakistan.The Seleucid Empire was a major centre...

 (312-133 BC), Pirates of Cilicia (178-112 BC), Romans
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 (112-95 and 55 BC - 395 AD), Armenian Kingdom under the reign of Tigranes the Great
Tigranes the Great
Tigranes the Great was emperor of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state east of the Roman Republic. He was a member of the Artaxiad Royal House...

 (95-55 BC) Byzantines(395-638; 964-1071), Abbasid
Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

s, Great Seljuq Sultanate, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia , also known as the Cilician Armenia, Kingdom of Cilician Armenia or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia...

 (1078–1359), Mamluk
Mamluk
A Mamluk was a soldier of slave origin, who were predominantly Cumans/Kipchaks The "mamluk phenomenon", as David Ayalon dubbed the creation of the specific warrior...

s, Ramadanid Principality, Ottoman Emire, Republic of Turkey.

Governance



The city of Adana is referred as the area that is within the borders of Adana Metropolitan Municipality. This area covers 30 km (18.64 mi) around the City Hall excluding the areas out of the Province. Four levels of government are involved in the administration of the city; central government, provincial administration, metropolitan municipality and the district municipalities. The central government in Ankara
Politics of Turkey
Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a strictly secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and of a multi-party system...

 holds most of the power; health, education, police and many other city related services are administered by Ankara through an appointed Governor. Central government is also the law-maker, adjudicator and auditor of all the other levels of government and the neighborhood administration. Semi-democratic provincial governing body, Adana Province Special Administration has minor powers, dealing mainly with construction and maintenance of primary schools, daycares and other state buildings and some level of social services. The city is represented with 33 members, elected from its 5 metropolitan districts, at the 61-member Adana Provincial Parliament. Municipal governance has two-tier structure where the Metropolitan Municipality is the upper and the district municipalities are the lower tier. Metropolitan municipality takes care of construction and maintenance of major roads and parks, operating local transit and fire services. District municipalities are responsible from neighborhood streets, parks, operating garbage collection and cemetery services. The district municipalities are further divided into neighborhoods(mahalle
Mahalle
Mahalle is an Arabic word, adopted into Turkish which is variously translated as district, quarter, ward, or "neighborhood." It is an official administrative unit in many Middle Eastern countries. In the Ottoman Empire the mahalle was the smallest administrative entity...

), the smallest administrative units of the city.

Metropolitan Municipality



Adana Municipality was incorporated in 1871 though the city was continued to be governed with the muhtesip
Muhtesip
Muhtesip is an inspection and auditing system used before the municipal governance came in effect in the Islamic world. The muhtesip was authorized to audit the businesses if they were selling their products at the price limits set by the government. Muhtesip also inspected if the food sold were...

 system until 1877 by the first mayor Gözlüklü Süleyman Efendi. First modern municipal governance had begun with the second mayor Kirkor Bezdikyan and the successor Sinyor Artin. The roads were widened and paved with cobblestone, drainage canals and trenches were opened, more importantly first municipal regulations were put in effect. After the foundation of the republic, major infrastructure projects were completed and first planned neighborhoods were built north of the city. Turhan Cemal Beriker served as the mayor and the governor for 12 years at this period. With the completion of Seyhan Dam
Seyhan Dam
The Seyhan Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Seyhan River north of Adana, TurkeyThe dam was built in the 1950s as the first in a series of hydroelectric projects funded by the World Bank. The construction project was authorized by Prime Minister Adnan Menderes. The project manager was Süleyman...

 in 1956, the city had seen explosive growth and seeing special interest from then prime minister Adnan Menderes
Adnan Menderes
Adnan Menderes was the first democratically elected Turkish Prime Minister between 1950–1960. He was one of the founders of the Democratic Party in 1946, the fourth legal opposition party of Turkey. He was hanged by the military junta after the 1960 coup d'état, along with two other cabinet...

 who initiated large-scale infrastructure projects like citywide underground sewer systems and rezoning of residential areas into roads and public spaces. From 1984 to present, cityscape has seen revolutionary changes with the revitalization of Seyhan river and the construction of large parks and boulevards.

Metropolitan Municipality Law was introduced in 1989 and the municipal governance was split between metropolitan municipality and district municipalities. Adana Municipality then became the Metropolitan Municipality and two new district municipalities were founded; Seyhan and Yüreğir. Karaisalı was annexed to the city in 2006, Çukurova and Sarıçam districts were founded in 2008 by the partitioning of Seyhan and Yüreğir districts respectively.

Metropolitan municipality consists of three organs; Metropolitan Council, Mayor and the Encümen. Each district municipal council elects one-fifth of their members to represent the district at the metropolitan council. Thus, metropolitan council consists of 35 councillors, 10 from Seyhan district, 8 from Yüreğir, 8 from Çukurova, 6 from Sarıçam, 2 from Karaisalı and the metropolitan mayor who is elected directly by the voters. Encümen, the executive committee, consists of 10 members, 5 being metropolitan councillors and the other 5 are the directors at the metropolitan hall who are appointed to the Encümen by the metropolitan mayor.

Aytaç Durak
Aytaç Durak
Aytaç Durak is a Turkish politician, and has been the mayor of Adana since 1984, excluding one term . He is the longest serving locally elected city mayor in Turkey, currently at his 5th term. Adding his 17 years as a municipal councillor, he will have served the municipality of Adana for 42 years...

 is the mayor of Adana and the longest serving city mayor in Turkey currently at his fifth term. Following an allegation made by a metropolitan councillor against him, Durak was suspended from mayoral duties on March 28, 2010 by the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Ankara. Councillor Zihni Aldırmaz is elected by the council to serve as the Acting Mayor until the investigations are completed.

Districts


The City of Adana consists of the municipal sections of the 5 metropolitan districts; Seyhan, Yüreğir, Çukurova, Sarıçam and Karaisalı. Seyhan district is fully within the city limits whereas Yüreğir, Çukurova, Sarıçam and Karaisalı districts have rural areas outside the city.


Seyhan district
Seyhan
Seyhan is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. It is completely within the city of Adana and the municipality of Seyhan is a lower-tier municipality which serves to the entire district....

, located west of Seyhan River, is the cultural and business center of the city. D-400 state road (also called Turhan Cemal Beriker Boulevard within the city limits) is like an economical border dividing the district into north and south. Seyhan's north of D-400, is economically the most developed part of the city. Along D-400, hotels, cultural centers, commercial and public buildings line up. Old town, located south of D-400, is the market place where traditional and modern shops serve the residents. South of the old town is a low-income residential area.


Çukurova district
Çukurova, Adana
Çukurova is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. A large portion of the district is within the city of Adana, incorporated under the same name as a lower-tier municipality. It is a modern residential district which came into being in the last 30 years as the city expanded north...

, not to be confused with the Çukurova region, is a modern residential district that lies north of the Seyhan district and south of the Seyhan Reservoir. The district was planned in mid 1980s to direct the urban sprawl to low-fertile 3,000 hectare land north of the city. Named as New Adana, the project consisted of 200,000 homes including villa
Villa
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house. Since its origins in the Roman villa, the idea and function of a villa have evolved considerably. After the fall of the Roman Republic, villas became small farming compounds, which were increasingly fortified in Late Antiquity,...

s along the lake shore and high-rise apartment buildings along the newly opened wide boulevards of Turgut Özal, Süleyman Demirel and Kenan Evren.

Yüreğir district
Yüregir
Yüreğir is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. It lies east of the Seyhan River, south and west of Sarıçam and north of Yumurtalık. Large portion of the district is within the city of Adana, incorporated as a lower-tier municipality....

, located east of the river, consists mainly of low-income residential areas and large scale industries. With the construction of new bridges on the river and the extension of metro line to the district, Yüreğir became increasingly important, Adana Court of Justice re-locating to the district and 47.5 hectare health campus planned to be built at the Kazım Karabekir neighborhood. An extensive urban redevelopment plan is under effect in the district which will convert the neighborhoods of Sinanpaşa, Yavuzlar, Köprülü and Kışla into modern residential areas.

District of Sarıçam
Sarıçam
Sarıçam is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. Southern section of the district is part of the city of Adana, incorporated as a lower-tier municipality. It is located north of the Yüreğir district, east of the Seyhan River and the Seyhan Reservoir...

 lies north and east of Yüreğir, consisting of former municipalities that are amalgamated to the City of Adana in 2008. Some of the large institutions of the city are in Sarıçam: Çukurova University, İncirlik Air Base and the Organized Industrial Region.

Karaisalı
Karaisali
Karaisalı is a small city and a district in Adana Province of Turkey, administratively a part of the Metropolitan Municipality of Adana.The area contains the reservoirs of Çatalan and Nergizlik...

 is a small district outside the urban area, lying north of the Seyhan Reservoir. The district is largely rural, includes large recreational areas along the Seyhan river and cottage country at the high lands to the north.

Neighborhoods


Neighborhoods (Mahalle
Mahalle
Mahalle is an Arabic word, adopted into Turkish which is variously translated as district, quarter, ward, or "neighborhood." It is an official administrative unit in many Middle Eastern countries. In the Ottoman Empire the mahalle was the smallest administrative entity...

) are administrative units within the district municipalities and are administered by the muhtar and the Neighborhood Seniors Council. Although elected by the neighborhood residents, muhtar is not granted any powers, thus function as an administrator of the central government. Muhtar can voice neighborhood issues to the district municipality and do have a seat at the Adana City Assembly, an umbrella organization for the coordination of public institutions in the city. Despite the fact that neighborhood administration can not provide social services nor have funding to increase the involvement of the residents in the neighborhood issues, many residents still like to identify themselves strongly with their neighborhoods especially at the low-income areas.

There are a total of 254 neighborhoods in the city. Seyhan has 99 neighborhoods, 69 of them in the urban area and 30 are the neighborhoods of the former municipalities and the former villages that are converted into neighborhoods. Yüreğir has 99 neighborhoods, 38 in the urban area and 61 rural. There are 29 neighborhoods in Sarıçam, 16 neighborhoods in Çukurova in and 11 in Karaisalı district. Population of a neighborhood can range from 150 to 63,000 depending on if the neighborhood is in the core urban area or in the rural areas. Some neighborhoods, especially in the Çukurova district, are very large, almost at the size of a town, making residents access to muhtars difficult.

Tepebağ
Tepebağ
Tepebağ is a historical neighborhood in the old town of Adana. It is situated on a hill overlooking to the Seyhan River steps away from the Taşköprü, and reflects the traditional housing architecture of the city. Tumulus at Tepebağ is the area of the first settlements in Adana.-History:Throughout...

, Kayalıbağ, Kuruköprü, Ulucami, Sarıyakup and Alidede are the historical neighborhoods of Adana. The planned neighborhoods of the republican era, Reşatbey, Cemalpaşa, Kurtuluş and Çınarlı are the core of cultural life in the city. Güzelyalı, Karslılar and Kurttepe are the scenic neighborhoods overlooking to the Seyhan reservoir.

Economy


Adana is one of the first industrialized cities, as well as one of the most economically developed cities of Turkey. With the construction of Seyhan Dam
Seyhan Dam
The Seyhan Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Seyhan River north of Adana, TurkeyThe dam was built in the 1950s as the first in a series of hydroelectric projects funded by the World Bank. The construction project was authorized by Prime Minister Adnan Menderes. The project manager was Süleyman...

 and improvements in agricultural techniques, there was an explosive growth in agricultural production during 1950s. Large-scale industries were built along D-400 state road and Karataş
Karatas
Karataş is a small city and a district in Adana Province, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, 47 km from the city of Adana, between the rivers of Seyhan and Ceyhan, the Pyramos of Antiquity...

 road. Service industry, especially banking, also developed during this period.

Adana is the marketing and distribution center for Çukurova agricultural region, where cotton, wheat, corn, soy bean, barley, grapes and citrus fruits are produced in great quantities. Farmers of Adana produce half of the corn and soy bean in Turkey. 34% of Turkey's peanut and 29% of Turkey's orange is harvested in Adana. Most of the farming and agricultural-based companies of the region have their offices in Adana.

Adana is an industrialized city where large-scale industry is based mostly on agriculture. Textile and leather are the major industry constituting 29% of Adana's manufacturing, plant oil and processed food manufacturing plants are also numerous. As of 2008, Adana has 11 companies in Turkey's top 500 industrial firms. The largest company of Adana, Temsa
TEMSA
Temsa Global is a coach, bus and light truck manufacturer located in Adana, Turkey. The company is part of the Sabanci Group, a large Turkish industrial and commercial conglomerate...

 Global, in automotive manufacturing, has more than 2,500 employees and manufactures 4,000 buses annually. Marsan-Adana is the largest margarine and plant oil factory in Turkey. Advansa Sasa is Europe's largest polyester manufacturer employing 2,650. Organized Industrial Region of Adana has an area of 1,225 hectar and hosts almost 300 plants, mostly medium-scale.

A leading commercial center in southern Turkey, city hosts regional headquarters of many corporates and public institutions. TÜYAP Exhibition and Congress Center hosts fairs, business conferences and currently it is the main meeting point for businesses in Çukurova. Academic oriented 2000-seater Congress Center is expected to open in 2010 at Çukurova University campus. Tourism industry is developing as luxury hotels are built on the banks of Seyhan River and along D-400 state road. Hilton International, Seyhan and Sürmeli hotels are the 5-star hotels of the city. Sheraton and Türkmen hotels on the east bank of the river are currently under construction.

Media in Adana runs by national and local agencies. Yeni Adana is the oldest living newspaper in Adana dating back to 1918. Ekspres, Toros and Bölge are other local newspapers who serve not only Adana, but Cukurova in general. Çukurova TV is the largest broadcasting company.Kanal A, Akdeniz TV and Kent TV are the other major broadcasters. Many national newspapers have their regional publishing centers in Adana. Hürriyet
Hürriyet
-External links:* * ** * *...

publishes a supplement paper, Hürriyet Çukurova, the most popular regional newspaper that has circulation of 48,000.

Traditional shops, modern shops and malls create a mixture of shopping opportunities in Adana. Çakmak Street is the traditional shopping street that is located in the old town. There are also several historical bazaars around Büyük Saat and Yağ Camii. Ziyapaşa Boulevard is the street of elegance where pricey brands are located. The streets around Ziyapaşa and the streets of northern Adana, Özal, Demirel and Evren boulevards also host high-end shops. There are four American-style shopping malls in the city; M1 and Carrefour at the west end, Galleria and Optimum Outlet on the banks of Seyhan River.

Adana was named among the 25 European Regions of the Future for 2006/2007 by Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign direct investment
Foreign direct investment or foreign investment refers to the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor.. It is the sum of equity capital,other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in...

magazine. Chosen alongside Kocaeli
Izmit
İzmit is a city in Turkey, administrative center of Kocaeli Province as well as the Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality. It is located at the Gulf of İzmit in the Sea of Marmara, about east of Istanbul, on the northwestern part of Anatolia. The city center has a population of 294.875...

 for Turkey, Adana scored the highest points for cost effectiveness against Kocaeli's points for infrastructure development, while Adana and Kocaeli tied on points for the categories of human resources and quality of life.

Demographics


In 2008, the borders were expanded by addition of rural Karaisalı district and the rural areas of Çukurova (district), Yüreğir and Sarıçam. Thus, the population of the metropolitan Adana as of December, 2010 is 1,591,518. Adana is made up of the municipal populations of the five metropolitan districts; Seyhan, Çukurova, Yüreğir, Sarıçam and Karaisalı. Municipal populations of the metropolitan districts of Adana since 2008 are:
District Metropolitan Population
2008 2009 2010
Seyhan
Seyhan
Seyhan is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. It is completely within the city of Adana and the municipality of Seyhan is a lower-tier municipality which serves to the entire district....

752,308 722,852 723,277
Yüreğir
Yüregir
Yüreğir is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. It lies east of the Seyhan River, south and west of Sarıçam and north of Yumurtalık. Large portion of the district is within the city of Adana, incorporated as a lower-tier municipality....

411,299 415,047 417,693
Çukurova
Çukurova, Adana
Çukurova is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. A large portion of the district is within the city of Adana, incorporated under the same name as a lower-tier municipality. It is a modern residential district which came into being in the last 30 years as the city expanded north...

267,453 327,460 343,770
Sarıçam
Sarıçam
Sarıçam is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. Southern section of the district is part of the city of Adana, incorporated as a lower-tier municipality. It is located north of the Yüreğir district, east of the Seyhan River and the Seyhan Reservoir...

86,727 90,879 99,313
Karaisalı
Karaisali
Karaisalı is a small city and a district in Adana Province of Turkey, administratively a part of the Metropolitan Municipality of Adana.The area contains the reservoirs of Çatalan and Nergizlik...

7,328 7,307 7,465
Total 1,525,115 1,563,545 1,591,518


Two-thirds of the residents of Adana live on the west bank of Seyhan River on where the city was first founded. In 2009, 3 neighborhoods of Seyhan district were ceded to Çukurova district, causing Seyhan population to decrease. Seyhan is the most diverse district. Çukurova district has a good community of seniors from all over Turkey who prefer to enjoy their retirement in the warm climate of Çukurova region.

The major ethnic groups in Adana are the Turks
Turkish people
Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" , are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania...

, Arabs and Kurds. New generations of Arabs do not speak Arabic as they are mostly assimilated into Turkish culture. Arab community is concentrated in Yüreğir on the east bank of Seyhan River. Kurds, once a small community in Adana, with the massive migration during 1990s, now form almost a third of Adana. Kurds mostly live in southern neighborhoods of the city. Conos, a tribe of Roma people of Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

, settled in Adana during Balkan Wars. Conos mainly live around Sinanpaşa neighborhood. Around eight-thousand Romani people live in Adana Province including Conos. There's also a sizeable community of migrants from Balkans
Balkans
The Balkans is a geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe...

 and Caucasia
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

 who also settled in Adana during Balkan Wars and before.

Adana is home to a community of around two-thousand British and Americans serving to the Incirlik NATO Air Base
Incirlik Air Base
The Incirlik Air Base is located in İncirlik, five miles east of Adana, Turkey's fifth largest city, and from the Mediterranean Sea.The U.S...

; some of them residing at the base, many of them residing in the city. Before 2003, the community numbered up to 22,000, but declined after, when many troops stationed to Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

.

The majority of Adana residents adhere to Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam. Sunni Muslims are referred to in Arabic as ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah wa āl-Ǧamāʿah or ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah for short; in English, they are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis or Sunnites....

. The majority of Turks, most of the Kurds and some of the Arabs are Sunni Muslim. Adana is also a stronghold of Alevi
Alevi
The Alevi are a religious and cultural community, primarily in Turkey, constituting probably more than 15 million people....

 community, many Alevis moving to the city from Kahramanmaraş
Kahramanmaras
-Industry:Kahramanmaraş's industry is mainly based on textile and ice cream. Kahramanmaraş is one of the biggest textile industry cities of Turkey. Companies like Kipaş, İskur, Arsan and Bozkurt are one of the richest companies in the city...

 after the incidents in 1978
Maraş Massacre
The Maraş Massacre or Kahramanmaraş Massacre of December 1978 was the massacre of more than hundred civilians, mostly Alevis, a minority Muslim group in Turkey. The prime perpetrators were Greywolves...

. Arabs of Adana are mostly Alawi which is often confused with Alevis. Nusayri and Fellah terms are also used for Alawi Arabs who are currently the oldest community of Adana. Arabs that migrate to Adana from Şanlıurfa Province
Sanliurfa Province
Şanlıurfa Province or simply Urfa Province is a province in Southeast Anatolia, Turkey. The city of Şanlıurfa is the capital of the province which bears its name. The population is 1,663,371 ....

 are Sunni Muslims. There is a tiny community of Roman Catholics and few Jewish families.

Architecture


The golden age for the architecture of Adana was the late 15th and the 16th century when Ramadanid principality chose Adana as their capital. City grow rapidly during that period with many new neighborhoods had been built. Most of the historical landmarks of Adana are built during this period, thus Mamluk
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt was the final independent Egyptian state prior to the establishment of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1805. It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid Dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. The sultanate's ruling caste was composed of Mamluks, Arabised...

 and Seljuqid architecture are dominant in Adana's architectural history. Taşköprü
Stone Bridge (Adana)
- External links :**...

 is the only remaining landmark from Roman-Byzantine era, and few public buildings were built during the Ottoman rule.
The first traces of settlement in the quarter of Tepebağ
Tepebağ
Tepebağ is a historical neighborhood in the old town of Adana. It is situated on a hill overlooking to the Seyhan River steps away from the Taşköprü, and reflects the traditional housing architecture of the city. Tumulus at Tepebağ is the area of the first settlements in Adana.-History:Throughout...

, can be traced to be the neolithic age. The quarter is next to the Taşköprü stone bridge, situated on a hill which gives its name Tepebağ (Garden on the hill). The city administration has launched campaign to preserve the heritage of this area, particularly the Ottoman houses. Ataturk stayed in one of these houses on Seyhan Caddesi which now houses the Atatürk Museum
Atatürk Museum
Atatürk Museum ) is a national museum dedicated to the life of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the Republic of Turkey. It is located in the district of Şişli, on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey....

.
Several bridges cross the Seyhan river within the city, the most notable being the Taşköprü, a 4th century Roman bridge
Roman bridge
Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built. Roman bridges were built with stone and had the arch as its basic structure....

. Currently used by pedestrians and cyclists, it was the oldest bridge in the world to be open to motorized vehicles until 2007. Demirköprü
Demirköprü
Demirköprü is a railway bridge spanning the Seyhan River in Adana. Opened in 1912, it extends 530 meters between Reşatbey and Sinanpaşa neighborhoods. Demirköprü is a steel bridge constructed by German Engineers in part of the Berlin-Baghdad Railway project. It was last renovated in 2006. -...

 is a railway bridge that was built in 1912 in part of the Berlin-Baghdad Railway project. Regülatör bridge, at the southern section of the city, is a road bridge as well as a regulator for the river water. There are also three footbridges, Seyhan and Mustafakemalpaşa road bridges, the bridge of the metro
Adana Metro
Adana Metro is a rail rapid transit system extending 14 km on the north-south corridor of Adana. It has 13 stations and can transport 21,600 passengers per hour one-way...

 and the bridge of the motorway spanning the river.
Büyük Saat (The Great Clock Tower), built by the local governor of Adana in 1882, is the tallest clock tower in Turkey rising 32 m (104.99 ft) high. It was damaged during French occupation, but was rebuilt in 1935, and its image can be found in the city's coat of arms. Kazancılar Çarşısı (Bazaar of Kazancilar), founded around the Büyük Saat.

Ramazanoğlu Hall
Ramazanoğlu Hall
Ramazanoğlu Hall is the old government residence of the Ramadanids located in Adana. Currently used as a cultural center, it is one of the oldest samples of a mansion in Turkey...

 was built in 1495 during the reign of Halil Bey. A three-storey building, made of stone and brick, it is one of the oldest sample of a house in Turkey. This hall is the Harem section, where the Ramadanid family lived. Selamlık section, where the government offices were, do not exist today.

Çarşı Hamam (Turkish bath of the Bazaar) was built in 1529 by Ramazanoğlu Piri Pasha and it is the largest hamam in Adana. It is built with five domes and inside is covered with marbles. During the time it was built, water was brought from Seyhan River by water wheels and canals.

Irmak Hamam (Turkish bath of the River), located next to Seyhan District Hall, was built in 1494 by Ramazanoğlu Halil Bey on the ruins of an ancient Roman bath. Its water comes from the river. Other historical hamams in the city are Mestenzade Bath and Yeni Bath.

Mosques
Sabancı Merkez Camii, though not being historical, is the most visited mosque in Adana, as it is one of the largest mosques in the Middle East. Built in loyalty to Ottoman Architecture, the mosque was opened to service in 1998 to a capacity of 28,500 prayers. The mosque possesses six minarets, four of them having height of 99 meters. Dome has a diameter of 32 meters and it is 54 meters high from praying area. It is located on the west bank of Seyhan River at the corner of Seyhan Bridge and can be seen from a wide area.

Ulu Cami, a külliye
Külliye
Külliye, deriving from the Arabic word "kull" is a term which designates a complex of buildings, centered around a mosque and managed within a single institution, often based on a vakıf , and composed of a medrese, a darüşşifa, kitchens, bakery, hammam, other buildings for various benevolent...

 built in 1541 during Ramadanid era, is the most interesting medieval structure of Adana with its mosque, madrasah
Madrasah
Madrasah is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious...

 and türbe
Turbe
Türbe is the Turkish word for "tomb", and for the characteristic mausoleums, often relatively small, of Ottoman royalty and notables. It is related to the Arabic turba, which can also mean a mausoleum, but more often a funerary complex, or a plot in a cemetery.-Characteristics:A typical türbe...

. The mosque has black and white marble with decorative window surrounds and it is famous for the 16th century Iznik
Iznik
İznik is a city in Turkey which is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Church, the Nicene Creed, and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea...

 tiling used in its inner space. The minaret is a unique sample with the Mamluk effects it bears and with its orthogonal plan scheme.

Yağ Camii was originally built as Church of St. James, then converted into a mosque by Ramazanoğlu Halil Bey in 1501. Later, his successor Piri Mehmet Paşa added its minaret
Minaret
A minaret مناره , sometimes مئذنه) is a distinctive architectural feature of Islamic mosques, generally a tall spire with an onion-shaped or conical crown, usually either free standing or taller than any associated support structure. The basic form of a minaret includes a base, shaft, and gallery....

 in 1525 and its madrasah
Madrasah
Madrasah is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious...

 in 1558. It is in the Seljuqid Grand Mosque style and has an attractive gate made of yellow stone.

Yeni Camii (New Mosque) was built in 1724 by Abdülrezzak Antaki, and still known as Antaki Mosque by some. The influence of Mamluk
Mamluk
A Mamluk was a soldier of slave origin, who were predominantly Cumans/Kipchaks The "mamluk phenomenon", as David Ayalon dubbed the creation of the specific warrior...

 architecture is visible. It is built in rectangular order and has an interesting stonework on south walls.

Alemdar Mescidi, Şeyh Zülfi Mescidi, Kızıldağ Ramazanoğlu Mosque, Hasan Aga Camii (16th Century wooden architecture constructed without nails) are some other mosques with historical value.

Churches

In the 19th century, the city had four churches; 2 Armenian, 1 Greek and 1 Latin. Saint Paul Catholic Church (Bebekli Kilise) was built in 1870 and used as an Armenian Church until 1915. It is currently serving to the Roman Catholic community of the city. It is located in the old town, close to 5 Ocak Square. On Abidinpaşa Street, there used to stand a larger Armenian Church. During the republic period, the church was demolished and Central Bank (Merkez Bankası) regional headquarters was built instead. Latin Church was built in 1845 at Kuruköprü area and converted into a museum in 1924.

Parks and gardens



Adana has plenty of parks and gardens, mostly well maintained. Owing to the warm climate, parks and gardens are open all year long without the need of winter maintenance.

Recreational pathways on both banks of Seyhan river cross the entire city from south end to Seyhan Reservoir. Pathway then connects to Adnan Menderes Boulevard which goes all the way along the southern shores of Seyhan Reservoir, and the wide sidewalks of the boulevard extend the pathway to the west end of the reservoir. Dilberler Sekisi is the most scenic part of the pathway which is along the west bank, in between the old and the new dam.Recreational pathway along the north side of the Grand Canal goes from east end to west end of the city, crossing Seyhan river from old dam's pathway. Some sections of this pathway has not completed yet. Once completed, within the city there will be almost 30 km of continuous recreational pathway connecting several parks along.
Merkez Park (Central Park) is a 33-hectare urban park
Urban park
An urban park, is also known as a municipal park or a public park, public open space or municipal gardens , is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, and visitors to, the municipality...

 that is located on both banks of Seyhan river, just north of Sabancı Mosque. It has an interesting landscaping, carrying wide variety of trees and plants in an open concept. With a 2,100-seater amphitheatre, a Chinese Garden, and two cafes, it is the main recreational area of the city. In the park, there is a Rowing Club which serves recreational rowers.
Atatürk Park is a 4.7-hectare city park built during the first years of Republic. It is centrally located at the commercial district. The park holds a statue of Atatürk and hosts Public Ceremonies.

Süleyman Demirel Arboretum is a large botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended partly for the scientific study of Çukurova University researchers. The arboretum is also used for educational and recreational purposes by city residents. 512 species of plants exists in the arboretum.

İnönü Botanical Garden exhibits the rich variety of Çukurova flowers, located next to Adana Court of Justice.

Çobandede Park is a 16.5-hectare park at the west shore of Seyhan Reservoir. It is situated on a hill and has a nice scenery of Reservoir and around. The park hosts the tomb of Çoban Dede, a wiseman from Karslı Village. Many people visit the tomb every year to pray and wish for him.

Yaşar Kemal Woods is a hiking area on the east bank of Seyhan river across Dilberler Sekisi. It is dedicated to Çukurova native writer Yaşar Kemal
Yasar Kemal
Yaşar Kemal, is a Turkish writer. He is one of Turkey's leading writers. He has long been a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Literature, on the strength of Memed, My Hawk....

.

Çatalan Woods is a large recreational area in between Çatalan and Seyhan Reservoirs, north of the city, in the Karaisalı district.

Performing arts



Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra
Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra
The Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra is a symphony orchestra located in Adana, Turkey.It was founded in 1988 after the Turkish Presidency Symphony Orchestra, Istanbul and Izmir State Symphony Orchestras. It performed its first concert on January 5, 1992. Its principal conductor is Emin Güven...

 performed its first concert in 1992 and since then, the orchestra is performing twice a week from October to May at the Metropolitan Theater Hall. The orchestra consists of 39 musicians and conduct regular tours in Turkey and abroad.

Adana State Theater
Turkish State Theatres
The Turkish State Theatres is the official directorate of the national theatre companies in Turkey. It is bound to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and financed by the state to promote performed arts and enhance the public interest they receive...

 opened its stage in 1981 at the Sabancı Cultural Center
Sabancı Cultural Center
Hacı Ömer Sabancı Cultural Center is a complex in Adana that is composed of a theatre hall, public library, fine arts gallery and an exhibition hall. It has been established on an area of 1.5 hectare, located at the west end of the Seyhan Bridge across the Sabancı Mosque.-History:The Center was...

. It performs regularly from October to May.

Adana Town Theater was founded in 1880 to be the first theater in Adana by governor Ziya Paşa. In 1926, the theater moved to the newly built Community Center. Town Theater currently performs weekly at the Metropolitan Theater Hall which also hosts Town Chorus and community theater, folklor and concert performances.

Seyhan Town Theater and Seyhan Folkloric Dances stage weekly at the Theater Hall of Seyhan Cultural Center.

Amphitheaters
Amphitheatre
An amphitheatre is an open-air venue used for entertainment and performances.There are two similar, but distinct, types of structure for which the word "amphitheatre" is used: Ancient Roman amphitheatres were large central performance spaces surrounded by ascending seating, and were commonly used...

 in Adana host performances from April to November. Mimar Sinan Amphitheater, the largest in Adana, can accommodate 8,000 guests and hosts concerts and movies. It is located at the west bank of the Seyhan River. 2,100-seater Merkez Park
Adana Merkez Park
Merkez Park is a urban park that is located on both banks of the Seyhan River in Adana. The larger portion of the park, , is on the west bank....

 Amphitheater, 3,000-seater Çukurova University Amphitheater and Doğal Park Amphitheater in Çukurova District also hosts theaters, concerts and cinemas.

Recently, historical buildings are restored and converted into cultural centers. 515 year old Ramazanoğlu Hall
Ramazanoğlu Hall
Ramazanoğlu Hall is the old government residence of the Ramadanids located in Adana. Currently used as a cultural center, it is one of the oldest samples of a mansion in Turkey...

 and 130 year old former high school for girls (now called the Adana Center for Arts and Culture
Adana Center for Arts and Culture
Adana Center for Arts and Culture is a public facility for cultural events operating at the historical state building of Adana that served as a school for most of its history...

) serve as cultural centers hosting art exhibitions and cultural events.

Museums & art galleries


Adana Archaeological Museum
Adana Archaeological Museum
Adana Archaeology Museum, located just west of the Sabancı mosque in Adana, houses the historical heritage of Çukurova region. It is one of the oldest ten museums of Turkey.-History:...

 was opened in 1924 as one of the oldest ten museums in Turkey. It moved to its current location at the west corner of Seyhan Bridge in 1972. The museum exhibits archeological works from all over Çukurova. Notable works are the two Augustus statues from Hittites, Achilles Sarcophagus depicting Trojan War
Trojan War
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, the king of Sparta. The war is among the most important events in Greek mythology and was narrated in many works of Greek literature, including the Iliad...

 and statues from Magarsus and Augusta ancient cities.

Adana Ethnography Museum
Adana Ethnography Museum
Adana Ethnography Museum exhibits the ethnographic works, the inscriptions of Adana's landmarks and epitaph and gravestones of Adana's leading figures. The museum was opened in 1983 at a former church after Archeological Museum moved to its new location....

 was opened in 1983 after Archeological Museum moved to its new location. At the front and back yard there are epitaph and gravestones of Adana's leading figures of 17th century. On the west yard, there are inscriptions of Taşköprü
Tasköprü
Taşköprü is a town and district of Kastamonu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 43,800 of which 16,181 live in the town of Taşköprü. The district covers an area of , and the town lies at an elevation of .The town takes its name...

, Misis Bridge, old City Hall and Bahripaşa Fountain. Inside, there are clothings, jewellery and weaponry of Yörük
Yörük
The Yorouks, also Yuruks or Yörüks are immigrants, ultimately of Thracian descent,some of whom are still nomadic, primarily inhabiting the mountains of Anatolia and partly Balkan peninsula...

 villagemen.

Atatürk Museum
Atatürk Museum (Adana)
Atatürk Museum exhibits War of Independence and the first years of Republic at the mansion, Atatürk stayed during his trips to Adana. Overlooking to the Seyhan River, the museum is located on Seyhan Street and it is open to public every day except Mondays...

 exhibits War of Independence and first years of Republic at the mansion, Atatürk stayed during his trips to Adana.

Misis Mosaic Museum
Misis Mosaic Museum
Misis Mosaic Museum exhibits the works that were excavated from Misis Tumulus, most notable are the mosaics that were on the floor of a 4th century temple in the ancient city of Misis...

, located on city's far east end at the west bank of Ceyhan river, exhibits mosaics that were on the floor of a 4th century temple in the ancient city of Misis. Mosaic depicts Noah and 23 birds and poultry that he took to his ship during the flood. The museum also exhibits the works that were excavated from Misis Tumulus.

State Fine Arts Gallery was opened in Sabancı Cultural Center
Sabancı Cultural Center
Hacı Ömer Sabancı Cultural Center is a complex in Adana that is composed of a theatre hall, public library, fine arts gallery and an exhibition hall. It has been established on an area of 1.5 hectare, located at the west end of the Seyhan Bridge across the Sabancı Mosque.-History:The Center was...

 in 1982. It carries 59 plastic pieces of art. 75.Yıl Art Gallery in Atatürk Park, Adana City Hall Art Gallery and Art Gallery in Seyhan Cultural Center are the other public art galleries.

Festivals


Altın Koza International Film Festival
Adana Golden Boll International Film Festival
Altın Koza International Film Festival is a film festival of Adana, that was held 17 times since 1969 and took place every year since 2005. The event is organized by the Greater Adana Municipality and takes place in June...

 is one of the top film festivals in Turkey, taking place since 1969. During the Altın Koza of 2009, 212 international films were shown in 11 movie theatres across the city. Long Film Contest, International Student Film Contest and Mediterrenean Cultures Film Contest are held during the festival.

International Sabancı Theater Festival
International Sabancı Theater Festival
State Theater-Sabancı International Adana Theater Festival is held every year in Adana since 1999. It is a joint organization of Turkish State Theatres, the Ministry of Tourism and Culture and the Sabancı Foundation...

 is held every year in April since 1999. At the festival in 2011, 461 artists from 17 ensembles (10 local and 7 international) performed plays that took stage at the Sabancı Cultural Center. The festival started with an astounding opening show staged on the Seyhan River and Taşköprü by Italian ensemble Studio Festi. "Water Symphony" show was greeted by thousands of people with great enthusiasm.
International Çukurova Instrumental Music Festival is a 2-week long festival held annually in Adana, Antakya
Antakya
Antakya is the seat of the Hatay Province in southern Turkey, near the border with Syria. The mayor is Lütfü Savaş.Known as Antioch in ancient times, the city has historical significance for Christianity, as it was the place where the followers of Jesus Christ were called Christians for the first...

 and Gaziantep
Gaziantep
Gaziantep , Ottoman Turkish: Ayintab) previously and still informally called Antep; ʻayn tāb is a city in southeast Turkey and amongst the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world. The city is located 185 kilometres northeast of Adana and 127 kilometres by road north of Aleppo, Syria...

. In 2009, the festival took place for the 5th time with an opening concert from Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra
Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra
The Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra is a symphony orchestra located in Adana, Turkey.It was founded in 1988 after the Turkish Presidency Symphony Orchestra, Istanbul and Izmir State Symphony Orchestras. It performed its first concert on January 5, 1992. Its principal conductor is Emin Güven...

. Bariton
Bariton
Bariton may refer to:* Baryton, a string instrument* Baritone is most commonly the type of male voice that lies between bass and tenor....

 Marcin Bronikowski, pianist
Pianist
A pianist is a musician who plays the piano. A professional pianist can perform solo pieces, play with an ensemble or orchestra, or accompany one or more singers, solo instrumentalists, or other performers.-Choice of genres:...

 Vania Batchvarova, guitarist Peter Finger, cello
Cello
The cello is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is a member of the violin family of musical instruments, which also includes the violin, viola, and double bass. Old forms of the instrument in the Baroque era are baryton and viol .A person who plays a cello is...

 Ozan Tunca and pianist Zöhrap Adıgüzelzade were some of the musicians performed at the festival.

Çukurova Art Days is a regional festival that takes place every April since 2007. 115 poets, painters, musicians and caricaturists from 10 different countries attended festival in 2009, which took place in Adana, Mersin
Mersin
-Mersin today:Today, Mersin is a large city spreading out along the coast, with Turkey's second tallest skyscraper , huge hotels, an opera house, expensive real estate near the sea or up in the hills, and many other modern urban...

, Gaziantep, Antakya
Antakya
Antakya is the seat of the Hatay Province in southern Turkey, near the border with Syria. The mayor is Lütfü Savaş.Known as Antioch in ancient times, the city has historical significance for Christianity, as it was the place where the followers of Jesus Christ were called Christians for the first...

, İskenderun
Iskenderun
İskenderun is a city and urban district in the province of Hatay on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The current mayor is Yusuf Hamit Civelek .-Names:...

, Tarsus and Aleppo
Aleppo
Aleppo is the largest city in Syria and the capital of Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 2,301,570 , expanding to over 2.5 million in the metropolitan area, it is also one of the largest cities in the Levant...

. 77 talks, 13 concerts, 13 exhibitions, 4 panels and 23 film showing were held during the 4 days of the festival.

13 Kare Arts Festival began in 1999 as a festival of photography dedicated to 13 photographers of Adana who died in an accident during an AFAD (Adana Photography Amateurs Association) trip. Festival then extended to other arts. During the festival, exhibitions of nature, under-sea and architecture photography, puppet shows, shadow theater and several concerts are held. Festival takes place every December.

Adana Literature Festival held every April at Adana Center for Arts & Culture. Around 100 writers, poets and critics attend the festival and performing several talks, panels and presentations.

Ramadan Fest is a month long festival that takes place during the month of Ramadan. During the festival, theater plays, sufi music concerts, folkloric dances and children shows held at the festival area next to the Galleria Mall.

Sports



Football (soccer) is the most popular sports in Adana. Adanaspor
Adanaspor
Adanaspor is a professional Turkish football club located in the city of Adana. Formed in 1954, Adanaspor are nicknamed Toros Kaplanları . The club colours are orange and white, and the club play their home matches at Adana 5 Ocak Stadı....

 and Adanademirspor
Adana Demirspor
Adana Demirspor is a professional Turkish football club located in the city of Adana. Formed in 1940, Adana Demirspor are nicknamed Mavi Şimşekler...

 are the two well-known clubs of Adana that appear in Turkish Professional Football League. Both clubs performed at the top division (now called Super Lig), from late 1960s to mid 1990s, but relegated to lower divisions since then. Adanaspor was the runner up at the top division in 1980-81 season and competed there for 21 years. Adanaspor also performed at the UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup
The UEFA Europa League is an annual association football cup competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs. It is the second most prestigious European club football contest after the UEFA Champions League...

 for three years. Adanademirspor was the runner up at the Turkish Cup in 1977-1978 season and performed at the top division for 17 years. Both teams have almost equal number of passionate fans in every district of the city, creating an archrival atmosphere second to İstanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

. Both teams share 5 Ocak Stadium
5 Ocak Stadium
Adana 5 Ocak Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Adana, Turkey. The stadium holds 14,085 and was built in 1973. It abides UEFA standards for hosting Europa League games and TFF standards for hosting Super Lig games....

 as their venue.

Basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

 is also popular in Adana as Botaş SK being one of the top clubs in Women's Pro-Basketball, currently performing at the top division. The team has won the Turkish Women's Basketball League(TBBL) top division title in 2000-01 and 2002–03 and the Turkish Cup title in 2001-02 and 2002-03. Botaşspor was the runner up at the Euro Cup Women in 2000-01 season and played the quarter final in 1999-00. The venue of Botaşspor is Adnan Menderes Sports Hall.

Rowing
Rowing (sport)
Rowing is a sport in which athletes race against each other on rivers, on lakes or on the ocean, depending upon the type of race and the discipline. The boats are propelled by the reaction forces on the oar blades as they are pushed against the water...

 became a popular sports in Adana in the last 20 years. Rowing competitions are held all year long on Seyhan River and Seyhan Reservoir. Adana Metropolitan Municipality Rowing Club and Çukurova University Rowing Club compete at the national and international level. Sailing
Sailing
Sailing is the propulsion of a vehicle and the control of its movement with large foils called sails. By changing the rigging, rudder, and sometimes the keel or centre board, a sailor manages the force of the wind on the sails in order to move the boat relative to its surrounding medium and...

 competitions are also held at Seyhan Reservoir all year long. Recreational sailors and sailing competitions can be watched all along the shores of the reservoir, from parks, cafes and buildings around. Adana Sailing & Watersports Club is the only sailing club of Adana.

Water polo
Water polo
Water polo is a team water sport. The playing team consists of six field players and one goalkeeper. The winner of the game is the team that scores more goals. Game play involves swimming, treading water , players passing the ball while being defended by opponents, and scoring by throwing into a...

 team of Adanademirspor
Adana Demirspor
Adana Demirspor is a professional Turkish football club located in the city of Adana. Formed in 1940, Adana Demirspor are nicknamed Mavi Şimşekler...

 is a legend in the watersports community of Turkey. The team has the record 22 years of straight championship title in Turkish Men's Waterpolo League, 17 years of it without losing a game and thus given the name "Unbeatables". Adanademirspor joined Waterpolo league in 1942 after the modernest watersports complex of Turkey opened in Adana in 1938. The team had total of 29 championship titles.

Swimming has been recreationally and competitively the traditional sports of Adana. Erdal Acet of Adanademirspor is one of the top figures in Adana's swimming history, who broke the record of swimming Canal La Manche (English Channel
English Channel
The English Channel , often referred to simply as the Channel, is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. It is about long and varies in width from at its widest to in the Strait of Dover...

) in 9 hours and 2 minutes in 1976. Recreationally, the lack of swimming pools made Seyhan River and the irrigation canals attractive for swimmers who want to chill out from the hot and humid summers. Due to almost 100 people suffocating every year, the Metropolitan Municipality built 35 public swimming pools, mostly at the low-income neighborhoods.

Adana is one of the cities of Turkey where Horse racing
Horse racing
Horse racing is an equestrian sport that has a long history. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in ancient Babylon, Syria, and Egypt. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC...

 is highly popular. Adana Hippodrome is traditionally one of the four hippodromes of Turkey, hosting Horse racing
Horse racing
Horse racing is an equestrian sport that has a long history. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in ancient Babylon, Syria, and Egypt. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC...

 competitions from October to May.

Cuisine



Cuisine of Adana influenced mainly from Yörük, Arabic and Armenian cuisine and the city kept to its traditions tightly. Spicy, sour and fatty dishes made of meat (usually lamb) and bulghur are common. Bulghur and flour are found at all the kitchens in Çukurova. In almost every home, red pepper, spices, tahini, chopping block and pastry board can be found. The bulghur used in cooking is specific to Adana, made from dark colored hard wheat species. Bulghur that is made of other species of wheat is not used in area, because of the missing flavor.
Adana Kebab
Adana Kebab
Adana kebabı is a long, hand-minced meat kebab mounted on a wide iron skewer and grilled on an open mangal over braizing charcoals. It is named for Adana, the fifth largest city of Turkey, in the Eastern part of the Mediterranean region...

, called "Kebap" locally, is a kebab made from minced meat. Since it can be found at all kebab restaurants in Turkey and at most Turkish restaurants around the world, Adana name still bears kebab to many people. Adana Kebab is the most popular dining choice in Adana, although foods from other cultures are getting increasingly popular. Besides many kebab restaurants, there are also many kebab serving vendors on the older streets of Adana.

Adana Kebab is usually served with onion salad, green salad or with well-chopped tomato salad. Rakı
Raki
-Alcoholic beverages:*Rakı, an anise-flavored spirit popular in Turkey*Any anise-flavored drink.-Fictional characters:*Raki, a character in the manga/anime series Claymore*Raki, a character in the game Ar tonelico II: Melody of Metafalica...

 and Şalgam are usually accompanied with it as drinks. There are many varieties of salads typical to the city. Radish salad with tahini is popular and it is found only in the Çukurova region. Şalgam and pickle juice are the drinks of the winter and aşlama (licorice juice) is the choice of drink in summer.

Vegetable dishes are also popular in the city. Besides the tomato paste, pepper paste is used in almost every dish. The city is also famous for its Şırdan a kind of home-made sausage stuffed with rice, and eaten with cumin
Cumin
Cumin is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to India. Its seeds are used in the cuisines of many different cultures, in both whole and ground form.-Etymology:...

; paça, boiled sheep's feet; bicibici made from diced semolina, rose water and sugar, and served with crushed ice, consumed especially in summer time. Furthermore, the city has a number of famous desserts, such as Halka Tatlı, a round-shaped dessert, and Taş Kadayıf, a bow-shaped dessert. Several types of fruit, including the apricot
Apricot
The apricot, Prunus armeniaca, is a species of Prunus, classified with the plum in the subgenus Prunus. The native range is somewhat uncertain due to its extensive prehistoric cultivation.- Description :...

, are native to this area.

Education


Public, private and not-for profit foundation institutions conduct education in Adana. There are 282 public and 12 private primary schools which pupils attend from grade 1 to 8. From grade 9 to 11, pupils go to one of the 85 public and 26 private high schools. Notable high schools of the city that require examination to enter are; Adana Fen Lisesi (Lycee for Science), Adana Anadolu Lisesi (Anatolian Lycee),Gündoğdu Lisesi(Private) and Bilfen Lisesi (Private). There are also 6 public and 6 private schools for pupils with special needs. 9 Community Training Centers serve adult residents to improve their skills. There are two state universities in the city and one university just outside.

Çukurova University
Çukurova University
Çukurova University has eleven faculties, three colleges, seven vocational colleges, three institutes and twenty six research and application centers...

 is a state university located at the east shores of Seyhan Reservoir. In 2008, with 3 faculties, it is placed among the top 500 universities of the world at a research conducted by Blackwell Publishing, Quacquarelli Symonds
Quacquarelli Symonds
Quacquarelli Symonds is a company specializing in education and study abroad. The company was founded in 1990 by Wharton School MBA graduate Nunzio Quacquarelli...

 and The Times
The Times
The Times is a British daily national newspaper, first published in London in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register . The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary since 1981 of News International...

. The university was founded in 1973 with the union of the colleges of Agriculture and Medicine. It has a beautiful campus overlooking to the reservoir with many cultural, social and athletic facilities, currently holding 40,000 students.

Çağ University is a not-for-profit tuition-based university founded in 1997. The university is located just outside of the city, midway to Tarsus. University holds around 2500 students, most of them commuting from Adana, Tarsus
Tarsus (city)
Tarsus is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea. It is part of the Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Turkey with a population of 2.75 million...

 and Mersin.

Adana University for Science and Technology is a recently founded state university that is planned to have ten faculties, two institutions and a college. It will accommodate 1,700 academic, 470 administrative staff, and it is expected to enroll students by 2012.

Healthcare


Adana is a major health center to a wide region from Mediterrenean to Southeastern Anatolia. There are 4 university hospitals, 8 state hospitals and 7 private hospitals in the city. Balcalı Hospital of the Çukurova University is one of the major hospitals of Turkey.

Transportation


As being on the major route that is connecting Europe to Middle East, Adana is well served by many forms of transportation. Until the 16th century, Adana was a port city where ships could navigate on Seyhan River
Seyhan River
The Seyhan River is the longest river in Turkey that is flowing into Mediterranean Sea. The river is 560 km and flows southwest from its headwaters in the Tahtalı-Mountains in Anti-Taurus Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea via a broad delta...

 to the port just south of Taşköprü
Stone Bridge (Adana)
- External links :**...

.

Direct flights to major cities in Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, to Jeddah
Jeddah
Jeddah, Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. The...

 and to Nicosia
Nicosia
Nicosia from , known locally as Lefkosia , is the capital and largest city in Cyprus, as well as its main business center. Nicosia is the only divided capital in the world, with the southern and the northern portions divided by a Green Line...

 (TRNC) run from Adana Şakirpaşa Airport
Adana Sakirpasa Airport
Adana Airport or Adana Şakirpaşa Airport is an airport located in the city of Adana in the Adana Province of Turkey. Adana Airport was opened to service as a civil-military airport in 1937. It started to be used as a civil airport in 1956...

 by SunExpress
SunExpress
SunExpress is an airline based in Antalya, Turkey. It operates scheduled and charter flights to destinations in Europe. Its main base is Antalya International Airport .-History:...

, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey, headquartered in the Turkish Airlines General Management Building on the grounds of Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy, Bakirköy district, Istanbul...

, Germania
Germania (airline)
Germania Fluggesellschaft mbH, operating as Germania, is an airline with its headquarters in Berlin, Germany. It operates scheduled and chartered flights and aircraft lease services...

 and Cyprus Turkish Airlines. Mersin-Aleppo Train connects Adana and the rest of Çukurova region to Aleppo
Aleppo
Aleppo is the largest city in Syria and the capital of Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 2,301,570 , expanding to over 2.5 million in the metropolitan area, it is also one of the largest cities in the Levant...

, the largest metropolitan area of Syria. This train service started in 2008, but did not get popular, as the ride from Adana to Aleppo takes 8 hours. Hatay-based buses take this distance in 3-3.5 hours.


Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey, headquartered in the Turkish Airlines General Management Building on the grounds of Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy, Bakirköy district, Istanbul...

, Pegasus Airlines
Pegasus Airlines
Pegasus Airlines is a low-cost airline headquartered in the Halkalı area of Küçükçekmece, Istanbul, Turkey. Formerly a charter airline in partnership with Aer Lingus, Pegasus is now completely controlled by Esas Holding.- History :...

, Atlas Jet Airways, Anadolu Jet Airlines, Onur Air
Onur Air
Onur Air is an airline based in Florya, Bakırköy district, Istanbul, Turkey. It operates scheduled domestic services and charter flights to a large number of destinations throughout Europe from its main base at Atatürk International Airport...

 and SunExpress
SunExpress
SunExpress is an airline based in Antalya, Turkey. It operates scheduled and charter flights to destinations in Europe. Its main base is Antalya International Airport .-History:...

 provide daily or weekly flights to Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

, Ankara
Ankara
Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of , and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province had a population of 4.4 million....

, Izmir
Izmir
Izmir is a large metropolis in the western extremity of Anatolia. The metropolitan area in the entire Izmir Province had a population of 3.35 million as of 2010, making the city third most populous in Turkey...

, Antalya
Antalya
Antalya is a city on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey. With a population 1,001,318 as of 2010. It is the eighth most populous city in Turkey and country's biggest international sea resort.- History :...

, Trabzon
Trabzon
Trabzon is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Iran in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast...

, Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey...

 and Van
Van, Turkey
Van is a city in southeastern Turkey and the seat of the Kurdish-majority Van Province, and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. The city's official population in 2010 was 367,419, but many estimates put this as much higher with a 1996 estimate stating 500,000 and former Mayor Burhan...

 from Adana Şakirpaşa Airport
Adana Sakirpasa Airport
Adana Airport or Adana Şakirpaşa Airport is an airport located in the city of Adana in the Adana Province of Turkey. Adana Airport was opened to service as a civil-military airport in 1937. It started to be used as a civil airport in 1956...

. Turkish State Railways
Turkish State Railways
The State Railways of the Turkish Republic or TCDD is the government owned, national railway carrier in the Republic of Turkey, headquartered in Ankara...

(TCDD) provides trips to most of the cities in Turkey from the Adana Railway Station
Adana Railway Station
Adana Central Station is a train station in Adana and one of the major railway hubs in Turkey. The station is located at the Uğur Mumcu Square, steps to the Vilayet station of the metro.- History :...

.
The railway line was built during 1910s by the Ottoman-German co-operation and the bridges, tunnels that were built along the Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, dividing the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau. The system extends along a curve from Lake Eğirdir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the east...

 were the engineering wonders of their time. Numerous bus companies provide service to almost all the cities in Turkey. Although lost its popularity as private airlines introduced inexpensive flights to major cities, bus is still the major form of transportation to and from Adana. Adana has two intercity bus terminals. Bus companies that serve transportation to cities west of Adana, departs from Central Bus Terminal, whereas the buses that serve to cities east of Adana depart from Yüreğir Bus Terminal. There is shuttle service between two terminals.

Adana-Mersin Railway Line runs like a commuter train serving every 20 minutes between Mersin, Tarsus and Adana. With the new railbuses, train trip between Adana and Mersin takes 45 minutes. Train service from Adana to Ceyhan
Ceyhan
Ceyhan is a city in southeast Turkey and with 105,000 inhabitants it is the second largest city of Adana Province after the capital Adana. Ceyhan is the transportation hub for Middle Eastern, Central Asian and Russian oil and natural gas. It is situated on the Ceyhan River, from which it takes...

, Osmaniye
Osmaniye
-External links:...

 and Islahiye
Islahiye
Islahiye is a town and district of Gaziantep Province in southeastern Turkey. It is a railway border crossing into Syria.The train station of Islahiye is the last stop on the railway to Damascus in Syria...

 run three times per day. Regional bus services from Adana to other places in Çukurova are plentiful and carried by bus and minibus co-operatives. Seasonal Bus Services to high plains of Tekir, Bürücek and Kızıldag run in summer, due to high demand of Adana residents escaping the heat.

There is an extensive motorway network (O50-O59) in the region, connecting Adana to as far as Erdemli
Erdemli
Erdemli is a town and district of Mersin Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, west of the city of Mersin.-Geography:The district extends from the Mediterranean coastal plain, the largest agricultural area in Mersin Province, to high in the Taurus Mountains where there is forest, and...

 at the west, Niğde
Nigde
Niğde is a small city and the capital of Niğde Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. The population is 109,724 per the 2010 statistics...

 at the north, Şanlıurfa
Sanliurfa
Şanlıurfa, , often simply known as Urfa in daily language , in ancient times Edessa, is a city with 482,323 inhabitants Şanlıurfa, , often simply known as Urfa in daily language (Syriac ܐܘܪܗܝ Urhoy,Armenian Ուռհա Owr'ha, Arabic الرها ar-Ruhā), in ancient times Edessa, is a city with 482,323...

 at the east and Iskenderun
Iskenderun
İskenderun is a city and urban district in the province of Hatay on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The current mayor is Yusuf Hamit Civelek .-Names:...

 at the south. Traffic runs smooth at anytime of the day, driving can take as short as 40 minutes to Mersin and 2 hours to Gaziantep
Gaziantep
Gaziantep , Ottoman Turkish: Ayintab) previously and still informally called Antep; ʻayn tāb is a city in southeast Turkey and amongst the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world. The city is located 185 kilometres northeast of Adana and 127 kilometres by road north of Aleppo, Syria...

.

Local transport


Local transport in Adana is provided by the Metropolitan Municipality (through buses and the metro) and by dolmuş
Dolmuş
In Turkey and Turkish controlled Northern Cyprus, dolmuş are share taxis that run set routes within and between cities.Departing from the terminal only when a sufficient amount of passengers have boarded, their name is derived from Turkish for "apparently stuffed" for this reason.In some cities...

 (minibus) and bus co-operatives.
Adana Metro
Adana Metro
Adana Metro is a rail rapid transit system extending 14 km on the north-south corridor of Adana. It has 13 stations and can transport 21,600 passengers per hour one-way...

 is a rail rapid transit
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 system which fully opened to service on May 14, 2010. It is 14 km long and has 13 stations. The system can transport 21,600 passengers per hour one-way, a complete journey taking 21 minutes. The second line of the metro will run from Akıncılar to Çukurova University in the Sarıçam District. It will be 9.5 km long and will have 7 stations. The project is contracted in January 2010 and the construction is expected to start after an agreement is made with the Çukurova University. Adana Metro will then extend to 23.5 km. serving at 20 stations.

Adana Metropolitan Municipality Bus Department (ABBO) serves the city with 229 buses, 8 of them designed specifically for disabled users. Payments are collected by Kentkart Smartcard system; one of the most advanced in Turkey. 6 Bus Co-operatives (known as Can buses) serve the city with 411 buses. Kentkart and cash are accepted at these buses. 18 Dolmuş
Dolmuş
In Turkey and Turkish controlled Northern Cyprus, dolmuş are share taxis that run set routes within and between cities.Departing from the terminal only when a sufficient amount of passengers have boarded, their name is derived from Turkish for "apparently stuffed" for this reason.In some cities...

 Co-operatives, with total of 1,086 minibuses, provide service even to secondary streets. The only form of payment is by cash.

Twin towns — sister cities


Adana is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Córdoba
Córdoba, Spain
-History:The first trace of human presence in the area are remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 32,000 BC. In the 8th century BC, during the ancient Tartessos period, a pre-urban settlement existed. The population gradually learned copper and silver metallurgy...

, Spain Beer Sheba, Israel Shymkent
Shymkent
Shymkent , formerly known as Chimkent , is the capital city of South Kazakhstan Province, the most populated region in Kazakhstan. It is the third most populous city in Kazakhstan behind Almaty and Astana with a population of 629,600 . A major railroad junction on the Turkestan-Siberia Railway, the...

, Kazakhstan
Famagusta
Famagusta
Famagusta is a city on the east coast of Cyprus and is capital of the Famagusta District. It is located east of Nicosia, and possesses the deepest harbour of the island.-Name:...

, Cyprus
Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

 Bremerhaven
Bremerhaven
Bremerhaven is a city at the seaport of the free city-state of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. It forms an enclave in the state of Lower Saxony and is located at the mouth of the River Weser on its eastern bank, opposite the town of Nordenham...

, Germany Skopje
Skopje
Skopje is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia with about a third of the total population. It is the country's political, cultural, economic, and academic centre...

, Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
Macedonia , officially the Republic of Macedonia , is a country located in the central Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991...

Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

, Russia Livorno
Livorno
Livorno , traditionally Leghorn , is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno, having a population of approximately 160,000 residents in 2009.- History :...

, Italy Ulan Bator, Mongolia

External links


Adana (aˈda.na) is a city in southern Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 and a major agricultural and commercial center. The city is situated on the Seyhan River
Seyhan River
The Seyhan River is the longest river in Turkey that is flowing into Mediterranean Sea. The river is 560 km and flows southwest from its headwaters in the Tahtalı-Mountains in Anti-Taurus Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea via a broad delta...

, 30 kilometres inland from the Mediterranean, in south-central Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

. It is the administrative seat of the Adana Province
Adana Province
Adana Province is a province of Turkey located in south-central Anatolia. With a population of 2,085,225, it is the fifth most populous province in Turkey. The administrative seat of the province is the city of Adana, home to 78% of the residents of the province...

 and has a population of 1.6 million, making it the fifth most populous city in Turkey.

Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area
Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area
Adana-Mersin metropolitan area lies in the core area of Çukurova and with a population of 3 million, it is one of Turkey's major business and cultural centres. The metropolitan area stretches over 100 km from east to west and 25 km from north to south and includes the cities of Mersin, Tarsus,...

, with a population of 3 million, stretches over 100 kilometres from east to west and 25 kilometres from north to south; encompassing the cities of Mersin
Mersin
-Mersin today:Today, Mersin is a large city spreading out along the coast, with Turkey's second tallest skyscraper , huge hotels, an opera house, expensive real estate near the sea or up in the hills, and many other modern urban...

, Tarsus
Tarsus (city)
Tarsus is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea. It is part of the Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Turkey with a population of 2.75 million...

, Adana and Ceyhan
Ceyhan
Ceyhan is a city in southeast Turkey and with 105,000 inhabitants it is the second largest city of Adana Province after the capital Adana. Ceyhan is the transportation hub for Middle Eastern, Central Asian and Russian oil and natural gas. It is situated on the Ceyhan River, from which it takes...

. It is the fourth largest metropolitan area in Turkey and one of the country's leading centres of commerce and culture.

Adana lies in the heart of Çukurova
Çukurova
Çukurova , historically known as Cilicia, is a geographic, economic and cultural region in south-central Turkey, covering the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay...

, a geographical, economical and cultural region that covers the provinces of Mersin
Mersin Province
The Mersin Province is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the other major town is Tarsus, birthplace of St Paul...

, Adana
Adana Province
Adana Province is a province of Turkey located in south-central Anatolia. With a population of 2,085,225, it is the fifth most populous province in Turkey. The administrative seat of the province is the city of Adana, home to 78% of the residents of the province...

, Osmaniye
Osmaniye Province
Osmaniye Province is a Turkish province located in southern Turkey. It became a province in 1996. The province was part of Adana Province. It covers an area of 3,767 km² and has a population of 479,221 . The province is situated in Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region.The...

 and Hatay
Hatay Province
Hatay Province is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast. It is bordered by Syria to the south and east and the Turkish provinces of Adana and Osmaniye to the north. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region that covers the provinces of...

. Home to approximately six million people, the region is mostly a large stretch of flat, fertile land regarded as one of the most agriculturally productive areas of the world.

Etymology


According to numerous sources, the name Adana is derived from the Hittite URUAdaniya of Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna , is the name of an ancient Anatolian kingdom in the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of southeastern Anatolia, near the Gulf of İskenderun in modern-day Turkey. It encircled the Taurus Mountains and the Ceyhan river. The center of the kingdom was the city of...

, while others assert that it is related to the legendary character Danaus
Danaus
In Greek mythology Danaus, or Danaos , was the twin brother of Aegyptus and son of Achiroe and Belus, a mythical king of Egypt. The myth of Danaus is a foundation legend of Argos, one of the foremost Mycenaean cities of the Peloponnesus...

, or to the Danaoi, a mythological
Greek mythology
Greek mythology is the body of myths and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. They were a part of religion in ancient Greece...

 Greek
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

 tribe who came from Egypt and established themselves in the Greek city Argos
Argos
Argos is a city and a former municipality in Argolis, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Argos-Mykines, of which it is a municipal unit. It is 11 kilometres from Nafplion, which was its historic harbour...

.The earlier Egyptian texts for a country Danaja are inscriptions from Thutmosis II (1437 BC) and Amenophis III (1390-1352 BC). After the collapse of the Mycenean civilization (1200 BC) some refugeees from the Aegean area went to the coast of Cilicia.The inhabitants Dananayim or Danuna are identified as one group of the sea-peoples who attacked Egypt on 1191 BC during the reign of Ramesses III. Denyen are identified as inhabitants of the city Adana. It is also possible that the name is connected with the PIE
Pie
A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients....

 da-nu (river) Da-na-vo (people living by the river), Skythian nomad people, water demons in Rigveda (Danavas).

In the Iliad
Iliad
The Iliad is an epic poem in dactylic hexameters, traditionally attributed to Homer. Set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles...

of Homer
Homer
In the Western classical tradition Homer , is the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, and is revered as the greatest ancient Greek epic poet. These epics lie at the beginning of the Western canon of literature, and have had an enormous influence on the history of literature.When he lived is...

, the city is called Adana. In Hellenistic
Hellenistic civilization
Hellenistic civilization represents the zenith of Greek influence in the ancient world from 323 BCE to about 146 BCE...

 times, it was known as Antiochia in Cilicia or Antiochia ad Sarum ' onMouseout='HidePop("24451")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Seyhan_River">Sarus
Seyhan River
The Seyhan River is the longest river in Turkey that is flowing into Mediterranean Sea. The river is 560 km and flows southwest from its headwaters in the Tahtalı-Mountains in Anti-Taurus Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea via a broad delta...

"). The editors of The Helsinki Atlas tentatively identify Adana as Quwê (as contained in cuneiform
Cuneiform script
Cuneiform script )) is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. Emerging in Sumer around the 30th century BC, with predecessors reaching into the late 4th millennium , cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs...

 tablets), the Neo-Assyrian capital of Quwê
Quwê
Quwê – also spelled Que, Kue, Qeve, Coa, Kuê and Keveh – was a "Neo-Hittite" Assyrian vassal state or province at various times from the 9th century BCE to shortly after the death of Ashurbanipal around 627 BCE in the lowlands of eastern Cilicia, and the name of its capital city,...

 province. The name also appears as Coa, and may be the place referred to in the Bible
Bible
The Bible refers to any one of the collections of the primary religious texts of Judaism and Christianity. There is no common version of the Bible, as the individual books , their contents and their order vary among denominations...

, where King Solomon obtained horses. (I Kings 10:28; II Chron. 1:16). The Armenian
Armenian language
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia as well as in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. The language is also widely spoken by Armenian communities in the Armenian diaspora...

 name of the city is Atana or Adana.

According to an ancient Greco-Roman legend
Roman mythology
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans...

, the name has its origins in Adanus and Sarus, the two sons of Uranus
Uranus (mythology)
Uranus , was the primal Greek god personifying the sky. His equivalent in Roman mythology was Caelus. In Ancient Greek literature, according to Hesiod in his Theogony, Uranus or Father Sky was the son and husband of Gaia, Mother Earth...

, who came to a place near the Seyhan (Sarus) River, where they built Adana. An older legend relates the city's name to Adad
Adad
Adad in Akkadian and Ishkur in Sumerian and Hadad in Aramaic are the names of the storm-god in the Babylonian-Assyrian pantheon. All three are usually written by the logogram dIM...

 (also known as Tesup or Ishkur), the Thunder God in the Akkadian, Sumerian
Sumerian religion
Sumerian religion refers to the mythology, pantheon, rites and cosmology of the Sumerian civilization. The Sumerian religion influenced Mesopotamian mythology as a whole, surviving in the mythologies and religions of the Hurrians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and other culture...

, Babylonian, Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

n and Hittite
Hittite mythology
Most of the narratives embodying Hittite mythology are lost, and the elements that would give a balanced view of Hittite religion are lacking among the tablets recovered at the Hittite capital Hattusa and other Hittite sites: "there are no canonical scriptures, no theological disquisitions or...

 mythologies
Mythology
The term mythology can refer either to the study of myths, or to a body or collection of myths. As examples, comparative mythology is the study of connections between myths from different cultures, whereas Greek mythology is the body of myths from ancient Greece...

, who was believed to live in the nearby forest, and whose name was given to the region. The Hittites' names and writings have been found in the area, evidencing this possibility. The theory goes that since the Thunder God brought so much rain and this rain in turn brought such great abundance in this particular region, this god was loved and respected by its inhabitants and, in his honor, the region was called the "Uru Adaniyya"; in other words "the Region of Ada".

Adana's name has had many different versions over the centuries: Adanos, Ta Adana, Uru Adaniya, Erdene, Edene, Ezene, Batana, Atana, Azana, Addane.

Geography


Adana is located at the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, where it serves as the gateway to the Çukurova plain, which has historically been known in the West as the Cilicia
Cilicia
In antiquity, Cilicia was the south coastal region of Asia Minor, south of the central Anatolian plateau. It existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Byzantine empire...

 plain. This large stretch of flat, fertile land lies southeast of the Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, dividing the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau. The system extends along a curve from Lake Eğirdir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the east...

.

From Adana, crossing the Çukurova westwards, the road from Tarsus enters the foothills of the Taurus Mountains. The temperature decreases with every foot of ascent, as the road reaches an altitude of nearly 4000 feet (1,219.2 m). It goes through the famous Cilician Gates
Cilician Gates
The Cilician Gates or Gülek Pass is a pass through the Taurus Mountains connecting the low plains of Cilicia to the Anatolian Plateau, by way of the narrow gorge of the Gökoluk River. Its highest elevation is about 1000m....

, the rocky pass through which armies have coursed since the dawn of history, and continues to the Anatolian plain.

The north of the city is surrounded by the Seyhan reservoir and HEP, which was completed in 1956. The dam was constructed for hydroelectric power (HEP) and to irrigate the lower Çukurova plain. Two irrigation channels in the city flow to the plain, passing through the city center from east to west. There is another canal for irrigating the Yüreğir plain to the southeast of the city.

Climate


Adana has a typical Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

. Winters are mild and wet and summers are hot and dry. The highest recorded temperature was on 8 July 1978 with 44 °C (111.2 °F). The lowest recorded temperature was -6.4 °C.

History


The history of the Tepebağ tumulus in the middle of Adana dates to the Neolithic Period, 6000 B.C., and the time of the first human settlements. It is considered to be the oldest city of the Çukurova region. A place called Adana is mentioned by name in a Sumer
Sumer
Sumer was a civilization and historical region in southern Mesopotamia, modern Iraq during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age....

ian epic, the Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literature. Scholars believe that it originated as a series of Sumerian legends and poems about the protagonist of the story, Gilgamesh king of Uruk, which were fashioned into a longer Akkadian epic much...

, but the geography of this work is too imprecise to identify its location.

According to the Hittite
Hittite language
Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centred on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia...

 inscription of Kava
Kava
Kava or kava-kava is a crop of the western Pacific....

, found in Hattusa
Hattusa
Hattusa was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. It was located near modern Boğazkale, Turkey, within the great loop of the Kızıl River ....

 (Boğazkale
Bogazkale
Boğazkale is a district of Çorum Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It is located at 87 km from the city of Çorum. Population of the town is about 1,500. The mayor is Ali Rıza Soysat ....

), Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna , is the name of an ancient Anatolian kingdom in the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of southeastern Anatolia, near the Gulf of İskenderun in modern-day Turkey. It encircled the Taurus Mountains and the Ceyhan river. The center of the kingdom was the city of...

 was the first kingdom that ruled Adana, under the protection of the Hittites by 1335 BC. At that time, the name of the city was Uru Adaniyya, and the inhabitants were called Danuna
Denyen
The Denyen are one of the groups constituting the Sea Peoples, who were of Indo-European origin.-Origin:Archeologists have described them as being of Indo-European origin....

. Beginning with the collapse of the Hittite Empire, c. 1191-1189 BC, invasions from the west caused a number of small kingdoms to take control of the plain, as follows: Kue Assyrians, 9th century BC; Persians
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

, 6th century BC; Alexander the Great in 333 BC; Seleucids; the pirates of Cilicia; Roman
Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

 statesman Pompey the Great
Pompey
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey or Pompey the Great , was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic...

; and the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia , also known as the Cilician Armenia, Kingdom of Cilician Armenia or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia...

 (Cilician Kingdom).

The history of Adana is intrinsically linked to the history of Tarsus; they often seem to be the same city, moving as the neighbouring Seyhan River changed its position. Their respective names also changed over the course of the centuries. Adana was of relatively minor importance during the Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

's influential period, while nearby Tarsus was the metropolis
Metropolis
A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications...

 of the area. During the era of Pompey
Pompey
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey or Pompey the Great , was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic...

, the city was used as a prison for the pirates of Cilicia. For several centuries thereafter, it was a waystation on a Roman military road leading to the East. After the permanent split of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 in 395 AD, the area became a part of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

, and was probably developed during the time of Julian the Apostate
Julian the Apostate
Julian "the Apostate" , commonly known as Julian, or also Julian the Philosopher, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363 and a noted philosopher and Greek writer....

. With the construction of large bridges, roads, government buildings, irrigation and plantation, Adana and Cilicia became the most developed and important trade centers of the region. Ayas
Ayas (city)
Ayas is a small town in Yumurtalık district, Adana Province, Turkey, located east of the mouth of the Ceyhan River. It was the ancient Aegea and medieval Ajazzo or Lajazzo. It passed between the Mamluks and the Armenians several times in the 13th and 14th centuries, and was definitively taken by...

 (today Yumurtalık
Yumurtalik
Yumurtalık is a small city and a district in Adana Province of Turkey. It is a Mediterranean port at a distance of about from Adana center. Yumurtalık's population does not exceed 5,000 in winter, but in summer, it rises to 30 to 40,000 people since many inhabitants of Adana have holiday homes here...

), and Kozan
Kozan, Adana
Kozan is a city in Adana Province, Turkey, 68 km north of the city of Adana, in the northern section of the Çukurova plain. The city is the capital of Kozan district. The Kilgen Stream, a tributary of the Ceyhan River , flows through Kozan crossing the plain south into the Mediterranean Sea....

 (formerly Sis) were the other major urban and administrative centers in the area, especially during the period of the Cilicians.

Middle Ages


In the mid 7th century, the city was captured by the Arabs. According to an Arab historian of that era, the name of the city was derived from Ezene, the prophet Yazene's grandson.

The Byzantines
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

 recaptured Adana in 964. After the victory of Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan was the third sultan of the Seljuq dynasty and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty...

 at the Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
The Battle of Manzikert , was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq Turks led by Alp Arslan on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert...

 in 1071, the Seljuq Turks overran much of the Byzantine Empire. They had reached and captured Adana sometime before 1071 and continued to hold the place until Tancred
Tancred, Prince of Galilee
Tancred was a Norman leader of the First Crusade who later became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch...

, a leader of the First Crusade
First Crusade
The First Crusade was a military expedition by Western Christianity to regain the Holy Lands taken in the Muslim conquest of the Levant, ultimately resulting in the recapture of Jerusalem...

, captured the city in 1097.
In 1132, it was captured by the forces of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, under its king, Leo I
Leo I of Armenia
Leo I, also Levon I or Leon I, was the fifth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” ....

. It was taken by Byzantine forces in 1137, but the Armenians regained it around 1170. In 1268, there was a terrible earthquake
1268 Cilicia earthquake
The Cilicia earthquake in 1268 was a tremendous earthquake in which over 60,000 people perished . The earthquake occurred in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, in southern Asia Minor. The epicenter was northeast of the city of Adana....

 which destroyed much of the city. Adana was rebuilt and remained a part of the Kingdom of Cilician Armenia until 1359, when the city was ceded by Constantine III to the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 in return for obtaining a peace treaty. The Mamluks' capture of the city allowed many Turkish families to settle in it. The Ramadanids family, one of the Oghuz families brought by the Mamluks, ruled Adana until the Ottomans
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 captured the city.

Modern era


From the end of the Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 to the modern era (1517–1918), the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 ruled the area.
In the 1830s, in order to secure Egypt's independence from the Ottoman Empire, the army of Muhammad Ali Pasha, the vali
Wali
Walī , is an Arabic word meaning "custodian", "protector", "sponsor", or authority as denoted by its definition "crown". "Wali" is someone who has "Walayah" over somebody else. For example, in Fiqh the father is wali of his children. In Islam, the phrase ولي الله walīyu 'llāh...

 of Ottoman Egypt and Sudan
Khedive
The term Khedive is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy. It was first used, without official recognition, by Muhammad Ali Pasha , the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan, and vassal of the Ottoman Empire...

, invaded Syria on two occasions, and reached the Adana plain. The soldiers of Muhammad Ali Pasha destroyed Adana Castle and the Walls, a major hit to city's history. The subsequent peace treaty secured Egypt's independence, but (at the insistence of Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) required the evacuation of all Egyptian forces from Syria, and its return to Ottoman sovereignty. In the aftermath, Adana was established as a province in its own right.

The Adana massacre
Adana massacre
The Adana massacre occurred in Adana Province, in the Ottoman Empire, in April 1909. An massacre of Armenian Christians in the city of Adana amidst governmental upheaval resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district...

 occurred in the Ottoman Vilayet of Adana in April 1909. A religious-ethnic clash in the province amid governmental upheaval resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district. Reports estimated that the massacres in the entire Vilayet of Adana resulted in about 25,000 deaths. In 1915, Ottoman troops rounded up all Armenians (approx. 20,000) living in the city of Adana and marched them out into the Syrian desert in the course of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian Massacres and, by Armenians, as the Great Crime—refers to the deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I...

, resulting in the complete eradication of the Armenian communities in and around the city.
After World War I, the Ottoman government surrendered control of the city to French troops, and the four battalions of the French Armenian Legion
French Armenian Legion
The Armenian Legion, established with the French-Armenian Agreement , was a foreign legion unit within French Army. The Armenian legion was established under the goals of the Armenian national liberation movement and was an armed unit besides the Armenian volunteer units and Armenian militia during...

 were sent to occupy Adana and oversee the repatriation of Armenian refugees. The French forces were, however, spread too thinly in the region and, as they came under withering attacks by Muslim elements both opposed and loyal
Turkish National Movement
The Turkish National Movement encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries which resulted in the creation and shaping of the Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I....

 to Mustafa Kemal Pasha, eventually reversed their policies in the region. The Armenian Legion was gradually disbanded, the repatriation was halted, and the French ultimately abandoned all pretensions to Cilicia, which they had originally hoped to attach to their mandate over Syria
French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon
Officially the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire...

. On October 20, 1921, the Treaty of Ankara
Treaty of Ankara (1921)
The Ankara Agreement was signed on October 20, 1921 between France and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey...

 was signed between France and the Turkish Grand National Assembly
Grand National Assembly of Turkey
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey , usually referred to simply as the Meclis , is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution. It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 in the midst of the Turkish War of Independence...

. Based on the terms of the agreement, France recognized the end of the Cilicia War, and French troops together with the remaining Armenian volunteers withdrew from the city on January 5, 1922.

On 30 January 1943, British prime minister Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

 secretly met with Turkish president İsmet İnönü
Ismet Inönü
Mustafa İsmet İnönü was a Turkish Army General, Prime Minister and the second President of Turkey. In 1938, the Republican People's Party gave him the title of "Milli Şef" .-Family and early life:...

 inside a train wagon at the Yenice Station, 23 kilometres outside of Adana (the so-called Adana Meeting or Adana Conference). Churchill wanted Turkey to join the Second World War on the side of the Allies
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

; the details of which were later discussed at the Second Cairo Conference
Second Cairo Conference
The Second Cairo Conference of December 4–6, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed Turkey's possible contribution to the Allies in World War II...

 in December 1943, which was attended by İnönü, Churchill and Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt , also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war...

.

The city was hit by a 6.2 magnitude earthquake (1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake
1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake
The 1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake, aka 1998 Adana earthquake, was an approximately 6.2 magnitude. earthquake that struck southern Turkey, historically known as Cilicia, on June 27, 1998, at about 16:55 local time....

) on June 27, 1998. The disaster killed 145 and left 1,500 people wounded and many thousand homeless in the city. The total economic loss was estimated about US$ 1 billion.

Chronology


Luvi Kingdom (1900 BC), Hittite
Hittites
The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia.They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia c. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height c...

 Empire (1900-1200 BC), Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

n Empire (713-663 BC), Persian Empire (550-333 BC), Hellenistic
Hellenistic civilization
Hellenistic civilization represents the zenith of Greek influence in the ancient world from 323 BCE to about 146 BCE...

  (333-323 BC), Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
The Seleucid Empire was a Greek-Macedonian state that was created out of the eastern conquests of Alexander the Great. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia, today's Turkmenistan, Pamir and parts of Pakistan.The Seleucid Empire was a major centre...

 (312-133 BC), Pirates of Cilicia (178-112 BC), Romans
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 (112-95 and 55 BC - 395 AD), Armenian Kingdom under the reign of Tigranes the Great
Tigranes the Great
Tigranes the Great was emperor of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state east of the Roman Republic. He was a member of the Artaxiad Royal House...

 (95-55 BC) Byzantines(395-638; 964-1071), Abbasid
Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

s, Great Seljuq Sultanate, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia , also known as the Cilician Armenia, Kingdom of Cilician Armenia or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia...

 (1078–1359), Mamluk
Mamluk
A Mamluk was a soldier of slave origin, who were predominantly Cumans/Kipchaks The "mamluk phenomenon", as David Ayalon dubbed the creation of the specific warrior...

s, Ramadanid Principality, Ottoman Emire, Republic of Turkey.

Governance



The city of Adana is referred as the area that is within the borders of Adana Metropolitan Municipality. This area covers 30 km (18.64 mi) around the City Hall excluding the areas out of the Province. Four levels of government are involved in the administration of the city; central government, provincial administration, metropolitan municipality and the district municipalities. The central government in Ankara
Politics of Turkey
Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a strictly secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and of a multi-party system...

 holds most of the power; health, education, police and many other city related services are administered by Ankara through an appointed Governor. Central government is also the law-maker, adjudicator and auditor of all the other levels of government and the neighborhood administration. Semi-democratic provincial governing body, Adana Province Special Administration has minor powers, dealing mainly with construction and maintenance of primary schools, daycares and other state buildings and some level of social services. The city is represented with 33 members, elected from its 5 metropolitan districts, at the 61-member Adana Provincial Parliament. Municipal governance has two-tier structure where the Metropolitan Municipality is the upper and the district municipalities are the lower tier. Metropolitan municipality takes care of construction and maintenance of major roads and parks, operating local transit and fire services. District municipalities are responsible from neighborhood streets, parks, operating garbage collection and cemetery services. The district municipalities are further divided into neighborhoods(mahalle
Mahalle
Mahalle is an Arabic word, adopted into Turkish which is variously translated as district, quarter, ward, or "neighborhood." It is an official administrative unit in many Middle Eastern countries. In the Ottoman Empire the mahalle was the smallest administrative entity...

), the smallest administrative units of the city.

Metropolitan Municipality



Adana Municipality was incorporated in 1871 though the city was continued to be governed with the muhtesip
Muhtesip
Muhtesip is an inspection and auditing system used before the municipal governance came in effect in the Islamic world. The muhtesip was authorized to audit the businesses if they were selling their products at the price limits set by the government. Muhtesip also inspected if the food sold were...

 system until 1877 by the first mayor Gözlüklü Süleyman Efendi. First modern municipal governance had begun with the second mayor Kirkor Bezdikyan and the successor Sinyor Artin. The roads were widened and paved with cobblestone, drainage canals and trenches were opened, more importantly first municipal regulations were put in effect. After the foundation of the republic, major infrastructure projects were completed and first planned neighborhoods were built north of the city. Turhan Cemal Beriker served as the mayor and the governor for 12 years at this period. With the completion of Seyhan Dam
Seyhan Dam
The Seyhan Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Seyhan River north of Adana, TurkeyThe dam was built in the 1950s as the first in a series of hydroelectric projects funded by the World Bank. The construction project was authorized by Prime Minister Adnan Menderes. The project manager was Süleyman...

 in 1956, the city had seen explosive growth and seeing special interest from then prime minister Adnan Menderes
Adnan Menderes
Adnan Menderes was the first democratically elected Turkish Prime Minister between 1950–1960. He was one of the founders of the Democratic Party in 1946, the fourth legal opposition party of Turkey. He was hanged by the military junta after the 1960 coup d'état, along with two other cabinet...

 who initiated large-scale infrastructure projects like citywide underground sewer systems and rezoning of residential areas into roads and public spaces. From 1984 to present, cityscape has seen revolutionary changes with the revitalization of Seyhan river and the construction of large parks and boulevards.

Metropolitan Municipality Law was introduced in 1989 and the municipal governance was split between metropolitan municipality and district municipalities. Adana Municipality then became the Metropolitan Municipality and two new district municipalities were founded; Seyhan and Yüreğir. Karaisalı was annexed to the city in 2006, Çukurova and Sarıçam districts were founded in 2008 by the partitioning of Seyhan and Yüreğir districts respectively.

Metropolitan municipality consists of three organs; Metropolitan Council, Mayor and the Encümen. Each district municipal council elects one-fifth of their members to represent the district at the metropolitan council. Thus, metropolitan council consists of 35 councillors, 10 from Seyhan district, 8 from Yüreğir, 8 from Çukurova, 6 from Sarıçam, 2 from Karaisalı and the metropolitan mayor who is elected directly by the voters. Encümen, the executive committee, consists of 10 members, 5 being metropolitan councillors and the other 5 are the directors at the metropolitan hall who are appointed to the Encümen by the metropolitan mayor.

Aytaç Durak
Aytaç Durak
Aytaç Durak is a Turkish politician, and has been the mayor of Adana since 1984, excluding one term . He is the longest serving locally elected city mayor in Turkey, currently at his 5th term. Adding his 17 years as a municipal councillor, he will have served the municipality of Adana for 42 years...

 is the mayor of Adana and the longest serving city mayor in Turkey currently at his fifth term. Following an allegation made by a metropolitan councillor against him, Durak was suspended from mayoral duties on March 28, 2010 by the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Ankara. Councillor Zihni Aldırmaz is elected by the council to serve as the Acting Mayor until the investigations are completed.

Districts


The City of Adana consists of the municipal sections of the 5 metropolitan districts; Seyhan, Yüreğir, Çukurova, Sarıçam and Karaisalı. Seyhan district is fully within the city limits whereas Yüreğir, Çukurova, Sarıçam and Karaisalı districts have rural areas outside the city.


Seyhan district
Seyhan
Seyhan is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. It is completely within the city of Adana and the municipality of Seyhan is a lower-tier municipality which serves to the entire district....

, located west of Seyhan River, is the cultural and business center of the city. D-400 state road (also called Turhan Cemal Beriker Boulevard within the city limits) is like an economical border dividing the district into north and south. Seyhan's north of D-400, is economically the most developed part of the city. Along D-400, hotels, cultural centers, commercial and public buildings line up. Old town, located south of D-400, is the market place where traditional and modern shops serve the residents. South of the old town is a low-income residential area.


Çukurova district
Çukurova, Adana
Çukurova is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. A large portion of the district is within the city of Adana, incorporated under the same name as a lower-tier municipality. It is a modern residential district which came into being in the last 30 years as the city expanded north...

, not to be confused with the Çukurova region, is a modern residential district that lies north of the Seyhan district and south of the Seyhan Reservoir. The district was planned in mid 1980s to direct the urban sprawl to low-fertile 3,000 hectare land north of the city. Named as New Adana, the project consisted of 200,000 homes including villa
Villa
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house. Since its origins in the Roman villa, the idea and function of a villa have evolved considerably. After the fall of the Roman Republic, villas became small farming compounds, which were increasingly fortified in Late Antiquity,...

s along the lake shore and high-rise apartment buildings along the newly opened wide boulevards of Turgut Özal, Süleyman Demirel and Kenan Evren.

Yüreğir district
Yüregir
Yüreğir is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. It lies east of the Seyhan River, south and west of Sarıçam and north of Yumurtalık. Large portion of the district is within the city of Adana, incorporated as a lower-tier municipality....

, located east of the river, consists mainly of low-income residential areas and large scale industries. With the construction of new bridges on the river and the extension of metro line to the district, Yüreğir became increasingly important, Adana Court of Justice re-locating to the district and 47.5 hectare health campus planned to be built at the Kazım Karabekir neighborhood. An extensive urban redevelopment plan is under effect in the district which will convert the neighborhoods of Sinanpaşa, Yavuzlar, Köprülü and Kışla into modern residential areas.

District of Sarıçam
Sarıçam
Sarıçam is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. Southern section of the district is part of the city of Adana, incorporated as a lower-tier municipality. It is located north of the Yüreğir district, east of the Seyhan River and the Seyhan Reservoir...

 lies north and east of Yüreğir, consisting of former municipalities that are amalgamated to the City of Adana in 2008. Some of the large institutions of the city are in Sarıçam: Çukurova University, İncirlik Air Base and the Organized Industrial Region.

Karaisalı
Karaisali
Karaisalı is a small city and a district in Adana Province of Turkey, administratively a part of the Metropolitan Municipality of Adana.The area contains the reservoirs of Çatalan and Nergizlik...

 is a small district outside the urban area, lying north of the Seyhan Reservoir. The district is largely rural, includes large recreational areas along the Seyhan river and cottage country at the high lands to the north.

Neighborhoods


Neighborhoods (Mahalle
Mahalle
Mahalle is an Arabic word, adopted into Turkish which is variously translated as district, quarter, ward, or "neighborhood." It is an official administrative unit in many Middle Eastern countries. In the Ottoman Empire the mahalle was the smallest administrative entity...

) are administrative units within the district municipalities and are administered by the muhtar and the Neighborhood Seniors Council. Although elected by the neighborhood residents, muhtar is not granted any powers, thus function as an administrator of the central government. Muhtar can voice neighborhood issues to the district municipality and do have a seat at the Adana City Assembly, an umbrella organization for the coordination of public institutions in the city. Despite the fact that neighborhood administration can not provide social services nor have funding to increase the involvement of the residents in the neighborhood issues, many residents still like to identify themselves strongly with their neighborhoods especially at the low-income areas.

There are a total of 254 neighborhoods in the city. Seyhan has 99 neighborhoods, 69 of them in the urban area and 30 are the neighborhoods of the former municipalities and the former villages that are converted into neighborhoods. Yüreğir has 99 neighborhoods, 38 in the urban area and 61 rural. There are 29 neighborhoods in Sarıçam, 16 neighborhoods in Çukurova in and 11 in Karaisalı district. Population of a neighborhood can range from 150 to 63,000 depending on if the neighborhood is in the core urban area or in the rural areas. Some neighborhoods, especially in the Çukurova district, are very large, almost at the size of a town, making residents access to muhtars difficult.

Tepebağ
Tepebağ
Tepebağ is a historical neighborhood in the old town of Adana. It is situated on a hill overlooking to the Seyhan River steps away from the Taşköprü, and reflects the traditional housing architecture of the city. Tumulus at Tepebağ is the area of the first settlements in Adana.-History:Throughout...

, Kayalıbağ, Kuruköprü, Ulucami, Sarıyakup and Alidede are the historical neighborhoods of Adana. The planned neighborhoods of the republican era, Reşatbey, Cemalpaşa, Kurtuluş and Çınarlı are the core of cultural life in the city. Güzelyalı, Karslılar and Kurttepe are the scenic neighborhoods overlooking to the Seyhan reservoir.

Economy


Adana is one of the first industrialized cities, as well as one of the most economically developed cities of Turkey. With the construction of Seyhan Dam
Seyhan Dam
The Seyhan Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Seyhan River north of Adana, TurkeyThe dam was built in the 1950s as the first in a series of hydroelectric projects funded by the World Bank. The construction project was authorized by Prime Minister Adnan Menderes. The project manager was Süleyman...

 and improvements in agricultural techniques, there was an explosive growth in agricultural production during 1950s. Large-scale industries were built along D-400 state road and Karataş
Karatas
Karataş is a small city and a district in Adana Province, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, 47 km from the city of Adana, between the rivers of Seyhan and Ceyhan, the Pyramos of Antiquity...

 road. Service industry, especially banking, also developed during this period.

Adana is the marketing and distribution center for Çukurova agricultural region, where cotton, wheat, corn, soy bean, barley, grapes and citrus fruits are produced in great quantities. Farmers of Adana produce half of the corn and soy bean in Turkey. 34% of Turkey's peanut and 29% of Turkey's orange is harvested in Adana. Most of the farming and agricultural-based companies of the region have their offices in Adana.

Adana is an industrialized city where large-scale industry is based mostly on agriculture. Textile and leather are the major industry constituting 29% of Adana's manufacturing, plant oil and processed food manufacturing plants are also numerous. As of 2008, Adana has 11 companies in Turkey's top 500 industrial firms. The largest company of Adana, Temsa
TEMSA
Temsa Global is a coach, bus and light truck manufacturer located in Adana, Turkey. The company is part of the Sabanci Group, a large Turkish industrial and commercial conglomerate...

 Global, in automotive manufacturing, has more than 2,500 employees and manufactures 4,000 buses annually. Marsan-Adana is the largest margarine and plant oil factory in Turkey. Advansa Sasa is Europe's largest polyester manufacturer employing 2,650. Organized Industrial Region of Adana has an area of 1,225 hectar and hosts almost 300 plants, mostly medium-scale.

A leading commercial center in southern Turkey, city hosts regional headquarters of many corporates and public institutions. TÜYAP Exhibition and Congress Center hosts fairs, business conferences and currently it is the main meeting point for businesses in Çukurova. Academic oriented 2000-seater Congress Center is expected to open in 2010 at Çukurova University campus. Tourism industry is developing as luxury hotels are built on the banks of Seyhan River and along D-400 state road. Hilton International, Seyhan and Sürmeli hotels are the 5-star hotels of the city. Sheraton and Türkmen hotels on the east bank of the river are currently under construction.

Media in Adana runs by national and local agencies. Yeni Adana is the oldest living newspaper in Adana dating back to 1918. Ekspres, Toros and Bölge are other local newspapers who serve not only Adana, but Cukurova in general. Çukurova TV is the largest broadcasting company.Kanal A, Akdeniz TV and Kent TV are the other major broadcasters. Many national newspapers have their regional publishing centers in Adana. Hürriyet
Hürriyet
-External links:* * ** * *...

publishes a supplement paper, Hürriyet Çukurova, the most popular regional newspaper that has circulation of 48,000.

Traditional shops, modern shops and malls create a mixture of shopping opportunities in Adana. Çakmak Street is the traditional shopping street that is located in the old town. There are also several historical bazaars around Büyük Saat and Yağ Camii. Ziyapaşa Boulevard is the street of elegance where pricey brands are located. The streets around Ziyapaşa and the streets of northern Adana, Özal, Demirel and Evren boulevards also host high-end shops. There are four American-style shopping malls in the city; M1 and Carrefour at the west end, Galleria and Optimum Outlet on the banks of Seyhan River.

Adana was named among the 25 European Regions of the Future for 2006/2007 by Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign direct investment
Foreign direct investment or foreign investment refers to the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor.. It is the sum of equity capital,other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in...

magazine. Chosen alongside Kocaeli
Izmit
İzmit is a city in Turkey, administrative center of Kocaeli Province as well as the Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality. It is located at the Gulf of İzmit in the Sea of Marmara, about east of Istanbul, on the northwestern part of Anatolia. The city center has a population of 294.875...

 for Turkey, Adana scored the highest points for cost effectiveness against Kocaeli's points for infrastructure development, while Adana and Kocaeli tied on points for the categories of human resources and quality of life.

Demographics


In 2008, the borders were expanded by addition of rural Karaisalı district and the rural areas of Çukurova (district), Yüreğir and Sarıçam. Thus, the population of the metropolitan Adana as of December, 2010 is 1,591,518. Adana is made up of the municipal populations of the five metropolitan districts; Seyhan, Çukurova, Yüreğir, Sarıçam and Karaisalı. Municipal populations of the metropolitan districts of Adana since 2008 are:
District Metropolitan Population
2008 2009 2010
Seyhan
Seyhan
Seyhan is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. It is completely within the city of Adana and the municipality of Seyhan is a lower-tier municipality which serves to the entire district....

752,308 722,852 723,277
Yüreğir
Yüregir
Yüreğir is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. It lies east of the Seyhan River, south and west of Sarıçam and north of Yumurtalık. Large portion of the district is within the city of Adana, incorporated as a lower-tier municipality....

411,299 415,047 417,693
Çukurova
Çukurova, Adana
Çukurova is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. A large portion of the district is within the city of Adana, incorporated under the same name as a lower-tier municipality. It is a modern residential district which came into being in the last 30 years as the city expanded north...

267,453 327,460 343,770
Sarıçam
Sarıçam
Sarıçam is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. Southern section of the district is part of the city of Adana, incorporated as a lower-tier municipality. It is located north of the Yüreğir district, east of the Seyhan River and the Seyhan Reservoir...

86,727 90,879 99,313
Karaisalı
Karaisali
Karaisalı is a small city and a district in Adana Province of Turkey, administratively a part of the Metropolitan Municipality of Adana.The area contains the reservoirs of Çatalan and Nergizlik...

7,328 7,307 7,465
Total 1,525,115 1,563,545 1,591,518


Two-thirds of the residents of Adana live on the west bank of Seyhan River on where the city was first founded. In 2009, 3 neighborhoods of Seyhan district were ceded to Çukurova district, causing Seyhan population to decrease. Seyhan is the most diverse district. Çukurova district has a good community of seniors from all over Turkey who prefer to enjoy their retirement in the warm climate of Çukurova region.

The major ethnic groups in Adana are the Turks
Turkish people
Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" , are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania...

, Arabs and Kurds. New generations of Arabs do not speak Arabic as they are mostly assimilated into Turkish culture. Arab community is concentrated in Yüreğir on the east bank of Seyhan River. Kurds, once a small community in Adana, with the massive migration during 1990s, now form almost a third of Adana. Kurds mostly live in southern neighborhoods of the city. Conos, a tribe of Roma people of Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

, settled in Adana during Balkan Wars. Conos mainly live around Sinanpaşa neighborhood. Around eight-thousand Romani people live in Adana Province including Conos. There's also a sizeable community of migrants from Balkans
Balkans
The Balkans is a geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe...

 and Caucasia
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

 who also settled in Adana during Balkan Wars and before.

Adana is home to a community of around two-thousand British and Americans serving to the Incirlik NATO Air Base
Incirlik Air Base
The Incirlik Air Base is located in İncirlik, five miles east of Adana, Turkey's fifth largest city, and from the Mediterranean Sea.The U.S...

; some of them residing at the base, many of them residing in the city. Before 2003, the community numbered up to 22,000, but declined after, when many troops stationed to Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

.

The majority of Adana residents adhere to Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam. Sunni Muslims are referred to in Arabic as ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah wa āl-Ǧamāʿah or ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah for short; in English, they are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis or Sunnites....

. The majority of Turks, most of the Kurds and some of the Arabs are Sunni Muslim. Adana is also a stronghold of Alevi
Alevi
The Alevi are a religious and cultural community, primarily in Turkey, constituting probably more than 15 million people....

 community, many Alevis moving to the city from Kahramanmaraş
Kahramanmaras
-Industry:Kahramanmaraş's industry is mainly based on textile and ice cream. Kahramanmaraş is one of the biggest textile industry cities of Turkey. Companies like Kipaş, İskur, Arsan and Bozkurt are one of the richest companies in the city...

 after the incidents in 1978
Maraş Massacre
The Maraş Massacre or Kahramanmaraş Massacre of December 1978 was the massacre of more than hundred civilians, mostly Alevis, a minority Muslim group in Turkey. The prime perpetrators were Greywolves...

. Arabs of Adana are mostly Alawi which is often confused with Alevis. Nusayri and Fellah terms are also used for Alawi Arabs who are currently the oldest community of Adana. Arabs that migrate to Adana from Şanlıurfa Province
Sanliurfa Province
Şanlıurfa Province or simply Urfa Province is a province in Southeast Anatolia, Turkey. The city of Şanlıurfa is the capital of the province which bears its name. The population is 1,663,371 ....

 are Sunni Muslims. There is a tiny community of Roman Catholics and few Jewish families.

Architecture


The golden age for the architecture of Adana was the late 15th and the 16th century when Ramadanid principality chose Adana as their capital. City grow rapidly during that period with many new neighborhoods had been built. Most of the historical landmarks of Adana are built during this period, thus Mamluk
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt was the final independent Egyptian state prior to the establishment of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1805. It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid Dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. The sultanate's ruling caste was composed of Mamluks, Arabised...

 and Seljuqid architecture are dominant in Adana's architectural history. Taşköprü
Stone Bridge (Adana)
- External links :**...

 is the only remaining landmark from Roman-Byzantine era, and few public buildings were built during the Ottoman rule.
The first traces of settlement in the quarter of Tepebağ
Tepebağ
Tepebağ is a historical neighborhood in the old town of Adana. It is situated on a hill overlooking to the Seyhan River steps away from the Taşköprü, and reflects the traditional housing architecture of the city. Tumulus at Tepebağ is the area of the first settlements in Adana.-History:Throughout...

, can be traced to be the neolithic age. The quarter is next to the Taşköprü stone bridge, situated on a hill which gives its name Tepebağ (Garden on the hill). The city administration has launched campaign to preserve the heritage of this area, particularly the Ottoman houses. Ataturk stayed in one of these houses on Seyhan Caddesi which now houses the Atatürk Museum
Atatürk Museum
Atatürk Museum ) is a national museum dedicated to the life of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the Republic of Turkey. It is located in the district of Şişli, on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey....

.
Several bridges cross the Seyhan river within the city, the most notable being the Taşköprü, a 4th century Roman bridge
Roman bridge
Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built. Roman bridges were built with stone and had the arch as its basic structure....

. Currently used by pedestrians and cyclists, it was the oldest bridge in the world to be open to motorized vehicles until 2007. Demirköprü
Demirköprü
Demirköprü is a railway bridge spanning the Seyhan River in Adana. Opened in 1912, it extends 530 meters between Reşatbey and Sinanpaşa neighborhoods. Demirköprü is a steel bridge constructed by German Engineers in part of the Berlin-Baghdad Railway project. It was last renovated in 2006. -...

 is a railway bridge that was built in 1912 in part of the Berlin-Baghdad Railway project. Regülatör bridge, at the southern section of the city, is a road bridge as well as a regulator for the river water. There are also three footbridges, Seyhan and Mustafakemalpaşa road bridges, the bridge of the metro
Adana Metro
Adana Metro is a rail rapid transit system extending 14 km on the north-south corridor of Adana. It has 13 stations and can transport 21,600 passengers per hour one-way...

 and the bridge of the motorway spanning the river.
Büyük Saat (The Great Clock Tower), built by the local governor of Adana in 1882, is the tallest clock tower in Turkey rising 32 m (104.99 ft) high. It was damaged during French occupation, but was rebuilt in 1935, and its image can be found in the city's coat of arms. Kazancılar Çarşısı (Bazaar of Kazancilar), founded around the Büyük Saat.

Ramazanoğlu Hall
Ramazanoğlu Hall
Ramazanoğlu Hall is the old government residence of the Ramadanids located in Adana. Currently used as a cultural center, it is one of the oldest samples of a mansion in Turkey...

 was built in 1495 during the reign of Halil Bey. A three-storey building, made of stone and brick, it is one of the oldest sample of a house in Turkey. This hall is the Harem section, where the Ramadanid family lived. Selamlık section, where the government offices were, do not exist today.

Çarşı Hamam (Turkish bath of the Bazaar) was built in 1529 by Ramazanoğlu Piri Pasha and it is the largest hamam in Adana. It is built with five domes and inside is covered with marbles. During the time it was built, water was brought from Seyhan River by water wheels and canals.

Irmak Hamam (Turkish bath of the River), located next to Seyhan District Hall, was built in 1494 by Ramazanoğlu Halil Bey on the ruins of an ancient Roman bath. Its water comes from the river. Other historical hamams in the city are Mestenzade Bath and Yeni Bath.

Mosques
Sabancı Merkez Camii, though not being historical, is the most visited mosque in Adana, as it is one of the largest mosques in the Middle East. Built in loyalty to Ottoman Architecture, the mosque was opened to service in 1998 to a capacity of 28,500 prayers. The mosque possesses six minarets, four of them having height of 99 meters. Dome has a diameter of 32 meters and it is 54 meters high from praying area. It is located on the west bank of Seyhan River at the corner of Seyhan Bridge and can be seen from a wide area.

Ulu Cami, a külliye
Külliye
Külliye, deriving from the Arabic word "kull" is a term which designates a complex of buildings, centered around a mosque and managed within a single institution, often based on a vakıf , and composed of a medrese, a darüşşifa, kitchens, bakery, hammam, other buildings for various benevolent...

 built in 1541 during Ramadanid era, is the most interesting medieval structure of Adana with its mosque, madrasah
Madrasah
Madrasah is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious...

 and türbe
Turbe
Türbe is the Turkish word for "tomb", and for the characteristic mausoleums, often relatively small, of Ottoman royalty and notables. It is related to the Arabic turba, which can also mean a mausoleum, but more often a funerary complex, or a plot in a cemetery.-Characteristics:A typical türbe...

. The mosque has black and white marble with decorative window surrounds and it is famous for the 16th century Iznik
Iznik
İznik is a city in Turkey which is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Church, the Nicene Creed, and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea...

 tiling used in its inner space. The minaret is a unique sample with the Mamluk effects it bears and with its orthogonal plan scheme.

Yağ Camii was originally built as Church of St. James, then converted into a mosque by Ramazanoğlu Halil Bey in 1501. Later, his successor Piri Mehmet Paşa added its minaret
Minaret
A minaret مناره , sometimes مئذنه) is a distinctive architectural feature of Islamic mosques, generally a tall spire with an onion-shaped or conical crown, usually either free standing or taller than any associated support structure. The basic form of a minaret includes a base, shaft, and gallery....

 in 1525 and its madrasah
Madrasah
Madrasah is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious...

 in 1558. It is in the Seljuqid Grand Mosque style and has an attractive gate made of yellow stone.

Yeni Camii (New Mosque) was built in 1724 by Abdülrezzak Antaki, and still known as Antaki Mosque by some. The influence of Mamluk
Mamluk
A Mamluk was a soldier of slave origin, who were predominantly Cumans/Kipchaks The "mamluk phenomenon", as David Ayalon dubbed the creation of the specific warrior...

 architecture is visible. It is built in rectangular order and has an interesting stonework on south walls.

Alemdar Mescidi, Şeyh Zülfi Mescidi, Kızıldağ Ramazanoğlu Mosque, Hasan Aga Camii (16th Century wooden architecture constructed without nails) are some other mosques with historical value.

Churches

In the 19th century, the city had four churches; 2 Armenian, 1 Greek and 1 Latin. Saint Paul Catholic Church (Bebekli Kilise) was built in 1870 and used as an Armenian Church until 1915. It is currently serving to the Roman Catholic community of the city. It is located in the old town, close to 5 Ocak Square. On Abidinpaşa Street, there used to stand a larger Armenian Church. During the republic period, the church was demolished and Central Bank (Merkez Bankası) regional headquarters was built instead. Latin Church was built in 1845 at Kuruköprü area and converted into a museum in 1924.

Parks and gardens



Adana has plenty of parks and gardens, mostly well maintained. Owing to the warm climate, parks and gardens are open all year long without the need of winter maintenance.

Recreational pathways on both banks of Seyhan river cross the entire city from south end to Seyhan Reservoir. Pathway then connects to Adnan Menderes Boulevard which goes all the way along the southern shores of Seyhan Reservoir, and the wide sidewalks of the boulevard extend the pathway to the west end of the reservoir. Dilberler Sekisi is the most scenic part of the pathway which is along the west bank, in between the old and the new dam.Recreational pathway along the north side of the Grand Canal goes from east end to west end of the city, crossing Seyhan river from old dam's pathway. Some sections of this pathway has not completed yet. Once completed, within the city there will be almost 30 km of continuous recreational pathway connecting several parks along.
Merkez Park (Central Park) is a 33-hectare urban park
Urban park
An urban park, is also known as a municipal park or a public park, public open space or municipal gardens , is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, and visitors to, the municipality...

 that is located on both banks of Seyhan river, just north of Sabancı Mosque. It has an interesting landscaping, carrying wide variety of trees and plants in an open concept. With a 2,100-seater amphitheatre, a Chinese Garden, and two cafes, it is the main recreational area of the city. In the park, there is a Rowing Club which serves recreational rowers.
Atatürk Park is a 4.7-hectare city park built during the first years of Republic. It is centrally located at the commercial district. The park holds a statue of Atatürk and hosts Public Ceremonies.

Süleyman Demirel Arboretum is a large botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended partly for the scientific study of Çukurova University researchers. The arboretum is also used for educational and recreational purposes by city residents. 512 species of plants exists in the arboretum.

İnönü Botanical Garden exhibits the rich variety of Çukurova flowers, located next to Adana Court of Justice.

Çobandede Park is a 16.5-hectare park at the west shore of Seyhan Reservoir. It is situated on a hill and has a nice scenery of Reservoir and around. The park hosts the tomb of Çoban Dede, a wiseman from Karslı Village. Many people visit the tomb every year to pray and wish for him.

Yaşar Kemal Woods is a hiking area on the east bank of Seyhan river across Dilberler Sekisi. It is dedicated to Çukurova native writer Yaşar Kemal
Yasar Kemal
Yaşar Kemal, is a Turkish writer. He is one of Turkey's leading writers. He has long been a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Literature, on the strength of Memed, My Hawk....

.

Çatalan Woods is a large recreational area in between Çatalan and Seyhan Reservoirs, north of the city, in the Karaisalı district.

Performing arts



Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra
Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra
The Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra is a symphony orchestra located in Adana, Turkey.It was founded in 1988 after the Turkish Presidency Symphony Orchestra, Istanbul and Izmir State Symphony Orchestras. It performed its first concert on January 5, 1992. Its principal conductor is Emin Güven...

 performed its first concert in 1992 and since then, the orchestra is performing twice a week from October to May at the Metropolitan Theater Hall. The orchestra consists of 39 musicians and conduct regular tours in Turkey and abroad.

Adana State Theater
Turkish State Theatres
The Turkish State Theatres is the official directorate of the national theatre companies in Turkey. It is bound to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and financed by the state to promote performed arts and enhance the public interest they receive...

 opened its stage in 1981 at the Sabancı Cultural Center
Sabancı Cultural Center
Hacı Ömer Sabancı Cultural Center is a complex in Adana that is composed of a theatre hall, public library, fine arts gallery and an exhibition hall. It has been established on an area of 1.5 hectare, located at the west end of the Seyhan Bridge across the Sabancı Mosque.-History:The Center was...

. It performs regularly from October to May.

Adana Town Theater was founded in 1880 to be the first theater in Adana by governor Ziya Paşa. In 1926, the theater moved to the newly built Community Center. Town Theater currently performs weekly at the Metropolitan Theater Hall which also hosts Town Chorus and community theater, folklor and concert performances.

Seyhan Town Theater and Seyhan Folkloric Dances stage weekly at the Theater Hall of Seyhan Cultural Center.

Amphitheaters
Amphitheatre
An amphitheatre is an open-air venue used for entertainment and performances.There are two similar, but distinct, types of structure for which the word "amphitheatre" is used: Ancient Roman amphitheatres were large central performance spaces surrounded by ascending seating, and were commonly used...

 in Adana host performances from April to November. Mimar Sinan Amphitheater, the largest in Adana, can accommodate 8,000 guests and hosts concerts and movies. It is located at the west bank of the Seyhan River. 2,100-seater Merkez Park
Adana Merkez Park
Merkez Park is a urban park that is located on both banks of the Seyhan River in Adana. The larger portion of the park, , is on the west bank....

 Amphitheater, 3,000-seater Çukurova University Amphitheater and Doğal Park Amphitheater in Çukurova District also hosts theaters, concerts and cinemas.

Recently, historical buildings are restored and converted into cultural centers. 515 year old Ramazanoğlu Hall
Ramazanoğlu Hall
Ramazanoğlu Hall is the old government residence of the Ramadanids located in Adana. Currently used as a cultural center, it is one of the oldest samples of a mansion in Turkey...

 and 130 year old former high school for girls (now called the Adana Center for Arts and Culture
Adana Center for Arts and Culture
Adana Center for Arts and Culture is a public facility for cultural events operating at the historical state building of Adana that served as a school for most of its history...

) serve as cultural centers hosting art exhibitions and cultural events.

Museums & art galleries


Adana Archaeological Museum
Adana Archaeological Museum
Adana Archaeology Museum, located just west of the Sabancı mosque in Adana, houses the historical heritage of Çukurova region. It is one of the oldest ten museums of Turkey.-History:...

 was opened in 1924 as one of the oldest ten museums in Turkey. It moved to its current location at the west corner of Seyhan Bridge in 1972. The museum exhibits archeological works from all over Çukurova. Notable works are the two Augustus statues from Hittites, Achilles Sarcophagus depicting Trojan War
Trojan War
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, the king of Sparta. The war is among the most important events in Greek mythology and was narrated in many works of Greek literature, including the Iliad...

 and statues from Magarsus and Augusta ancient cities.

Adana Ethnography Museum
Adana Ethnography Museum
Adana Ethnography Museum exhibits the ethnographic works, the inscriptions of Adana's landmarks and epitaph and gravestones of Adana's leading figures. The museum was opened in 1983 at a former church after Archeological Museum moved to its new location....

 was opened in 1983 after Archeological Museum moved to its new location. At the front and back yard there are epitaph and gravestones of Adana's leading figures of 17th century. On the west yard, there are inscriptions of Taşköprü
Tasköprü
Taşköprü is a town and district of Kastamonu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 43,800 of which 16,181 live in the town of Taşköprü. The district covers an area of , and the town lies at an elevation of .The town takes its name...

, Misis Bridge, old City Hall and Bahripaşa Fountain. Inside, there are clothings, jewellery and weaponry of Yörük
Yörük
The Yorouks, also Yuruks or Yörüks are immigrants, ultimately of Thracian descent,some of whom are still nomadic, primarily inhabiting the mountains of Anatolia and partly Balkan peninsula...

 villagemen.

Atatürk Museum
Atatürk Museum (Adana)
Atatürk Museum exhibits War of Independence and the first years of Republic at the mansion, Atatürk stayed during his trips to Adana. Overlooking to the Seyhan River, the museum is located on Seyhan Street and it is open to public every day except Mondays...

 exhibits War of Independence and first years of Republic at the mansion, Atatürk stayed during his trips to Adana.

Misis Mosaic Museum
Misis Mosaic Museum
Misis Mosaic Museum exhibits the works that were excavated from Misis Tumulus, most notable are the mosaics that were on the floor of a 4th century temple in the ancient city of Misis...

, located on city's far east end at the west bank of Ceyhan river, exhibits mosaics that were on the floor of a 4th century temple in the ancient city of Misis. Mosaic depicts Noah and 23 birds and poultry that he took to his ship during the flood. The museum also exhibits the works that were excavated from Misis Tumulus.

State Fine Arts Gallery was opened in Sabancı Cultural Center
Sabancı Cultural Center
Hacı Ömer Sabancı Cultural Center is a complex in Adana that is composed of a theatre hall, public library, fine arts gallery and an exhibition hall. It has been established on an area of 1.5 hectare, located at the west end of the Seyhan Bridge across the Sabancı Mosque.-History:The Center was...

 in 1982. It carries 59 plastic pieces of art. 75.Yıl Art Gallery in Atatürk Park, Adana City Hall Art Gallery and Art Gallery in Seyhan Cultural Center are the other public art galleries.

Festivals


Altın Koza International Film Festival
Adana Golden Boll International Film Festival
Altın Koza International Film Festival is a film festival of Adana, that was held 17 times since 1969 and took place every year since 2005. The event is organized by the Greater Adana Municipality and takes place in June...

 is one of the top film festivals in Turkey, taking place since 1969. During the Altın Koza of 2009, 212 international films were shown in 11 movie theatres across the city. Long Film Contest, International Student Film Contest and Mediterrenean Cultures Film Contest are held during the festival.

International Sabancı Theater Festival
International Sabancı Theater Festival
State Theater-Sabancı International Adana Theater Festival is held every year in Adana since 1999. It is a joint organization of Turkish State Theatres, the Ministry of Tourism and Culture and the Sabancı Foundation...

 is held every year in April since 1999. At the festival in 2011, 461 artists from 17 ensembles (10 local and 7 international) performed plays that took stage at the Sabancı Cultural Center. The festival started with an astounding opening show staged on the Seyhan River and Taşköprü by Italian ensemble Studio Festi. "Water Symphony" show was greeted by thousands of people with great enthusiasm.
International Çukurova Instrumental Music Festival is a 2-week long festival held annually in Adana, Antakya
Antakya
Antakya is the seat of the Hatay Province in southern Turkey, near the border with Syria. The mayor is Lütfü Savaş.Known as Antioch in ancient times, the city has historical significance for Christianity, as it was the place where the followers of Jesus Christ were called Christians for the first...

 and Gaziantep
Gaziantep
Gaziantep , Ottoman Turkish: Ayintab) previously and still informally called Antep; ʻayn tāb is a city in southeast Turkey and amongst the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world. The city is located 185 kilometres northeast of Adana and 127 kilometres by road north of Aleppo, Syria...

. In 2009, the festival took place for the 5th time with an opening concert from Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra
Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra
The Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra is a symphony orchestra located in Adana, Turkey.It was founded in 1988 after the Turkish Presidency Symphony Orchestra, Istanbul and Izmir State Symphony Orchestras. It performed its first concert on January 5, 1992. Its principal conductor is Emin Güven...

. Bariton
Bariton
Bariton may refer to:* Baryton, a string instrument* Baritone is most commonly the type of male voice that lies between bass and tenor....

 Marcin Bronikowski, pianist
Pianist
A pianist is a musician who plays the piano. A professional pianist can perform solo pieces, play with an ensemble or orchestra, or accompany one or more singers, solo instrumentalists, or other performers.-Choice of genres:...

 Vania Batchvarova, guitarist Peter Finger, cello
Cello
The cello is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is a member of the violin family of musical instruments, which also includes the violin, viola, and double bass. Old forms of the instrument in the Baroque era are baryton and viol .A person who plays a cello is...

 Ozan Tunca and pianist Zöhrap Adıgüzelzade were some of the musicians performed at the festival.

Çukurova Art Days is a regional festival that takes place every April since 2007. 115 poets, painters, musicians and caricaturists from 10 different countries attended festival in 2009, which took place in Adana, Mersin
Mersin
-Mersin today:Today, Mersin is a large city spreading out along the coast, with Turkey's second tallest skyscraper , huge hotels, an opera house, expensive real estate near the sea or up in the hills, and many other modern urban...

, Gaziantep, Antakya
Antakya
Antakya is the seat of the Hatay Province in southern Turkey, near the border with Syria. The mayor is Lütfü Savaş.Known as Antioch in ancient times, the city has historical significance for Christianity, as it was the place where the followers of Jesus Christ were called Christians for the first...

, İskenderun
Iskenderun
İskenderun is a city and urban district in the province of Hatay on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The current mayor is Yusuf Hamit Civelek .-Names:...

, Tarsus and Aleppo
Aleppo
Aleppo is the largest city in Syria and the capital of Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 2,301,570 , expanding to over 2.5 million in the metropolitan area, it is also one of the largest cities in the Levant...

. 77 talks, 13 concerts, 13 exhibitions, 4 panels and 23 film showing were held during the 4 days of the festival.

13 Kare Arts Festival began in 1999 as a festival of photography dedicated to 13 photographers of Adana who died in an accident during an AFAD (Adana Photography Amateurs Association) trip. Festival then extended to other arts. During the festival, exhibitions of nature, under-sea and architecture photography, puppet shows, shadow theater and several concerts are held. Festival takes place every December.

Adana Literature Festival held every April at Adana Center for Arts & Culture. Around 100 writers, poets and critics attend the festival and performing several talks, panels and presentations.

Ramadan Fest is a month long festival that takes place during the month of Ramadan. During the festival, theater plays, sufi music concerts, folkloric dances and children shows held at the festival area next to the Galleria Mall.

Sports



Football (soccer) is the most popular sports in Adana. Adanaspor
Adanaspor
Adanaspor is a professional Turkish football club located in the city of Adana. Formed in 1954, Adanaspor are nicknamed Toros Kaplanları . The club colours are orange and white, and the club play their home matches at Adana 5 Ocak Stadı....

 and Adanademirspor
Adana Demirspor
Adana Demirspor is a professional Turkish football club located in the city of Adana. Formed in 1940, Adana Demirspor are nicknamed Mavi Şimşekler...

 are the two well-known clubs of Adana that appear in Turkish Professional Football League. Both clubs performed at the top division (now called Super Lig), from late 1960s to mid 1990s, but relegated to lower divisions since then. Adanaspor was the runner up at the top division in 1980-81 season and competed there for 21 years. Adanaspor also performed at the UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup
The UEFA Europa League is an annual association football cup competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs. It is the second most prestigious European club football contest after the UEFA Champions League...

 for three years. Adanademirspor was the runner up at the Turkish Cup in 1977-1978 season and performed at the top division for 17 years. Both teams have almost equal number of passionate fans in every district of the city, creating an archrival atmosphere second to İstanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

. Both teams share 5 Ocak Stadium
5 Ocak Stadium
Adana 5 Ocak Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Adana, Turkey. The stadium holds 14,085 and was built in 1973. It abides UEFA standards for hosting Europa League games and TFF standards for hosting Super Lig games....

 as their venue.

Basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

 is also popular in Adana as Botaş SK being one of the top clubs in Women's Pro-Basketball, currently performing at the top division. The team has won the Turkish Women's Basketball League(TBBL) top division title in 2000-01 and 2002–03 and the Turkish Cup title in 2001-02 and 2002-03. Botaşspor was the runner up at the Euro Cup Women in 2000-01 season and played the quarter final in 1999-00. The venue of Botaşspor is Adnan Menderes Sports Hall.

Rowing
Rowing (sport)
Rowing is a sport in which athletes race against each other on rivers, on lakes or on the ocean, depending upon the type of race and the discipline. The boats are propelled by the reaction forces on the oar blades as they are pushed against the water...

 became a popular sports in Adana in the last 20 years. Rowing competitions are held all year long on Seyhan River and Seyhan Reservoir. Adana Metropolitan Municipality Rowing Club and Çukurova University Rowing Club compete at the national and international level. Sailing
Sailing
Sailing is the propulsion of a vehicle and the control of its movement with large foils called sails. By changing the rigging, rudder, and sometimes the keel or centre board, a sailor manages the force of the wind on the sails in order to move the boat relative to its surrounding medium and...

 competitions are also held at Seyhan Reservoir all year long. Recreational sailors and sailing competitions can be watched all along the shores of the reservoir, from parks, cafes and buildings around. Adana Sailing & Watersports Club is the only sailing club of Adana.

Water polo
Water polo
Water polo is a team water sport. The playing team consists of six field players and one goalkeeper. The winner of the game is the team that scores more goals. Game play involves swimming, treading water , players passing the ball while being defended by opponents, and scoring by throwing into a...

 team of Adanademirspor
Adana Demirspor
Adana Demirspor is a professional Turkish football club located in the city of Adana. Formed in 1940, Adana Demirspor are nicknamed Mavi Şimşekler...

 is a legend in the watersports community of Turkey. The team has the record 22 years of straight championship title in Turkish Men's Waterpolo League, 17 years of it without losing a game and thus given the name "Unbeatables". Adanademirspor joined Waterpolo league in 1942 after the modernest watersports complex of Turkey opened in Adana in 1938. The team had total of 29 championship titles.

Swimming has been recreationally and competitively the traditional sports of Adana. Erdal Acet of Adanademirspor is one of the top figures in Adana's swimming history, who broke the record of swimming Canal La Manche (English Channel
English Channel
The English Channel , often referred to simply as the Channel, is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. It is about long and varies in width from at its widest to in the Strait of Dover...

) in 9 hours and 2 minutes in 1976. Recreationally, the lack of swimming pools made Seyhan River and the irrigation canals attractive for swimmers who want to chill out from the hot and humid summers. Due to almost 100 people suffocating every year, the Metropolitan Municipality built 35 public swimming pools, mostly at the low-income neighborhoods.

Adana is one of the cities of Turkey where Horse racing
Horse racing
Horse racing is an equestrian sport that has a long history. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in ancient Babylon, Syria, and Egypt. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC...

 is highly popular. Adana Hippodrome is traditionally one of the four hippodromes of Turkey, hosting Horse racing
Horse racing
Horse racing is an equestrian sport that has a long history. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in ancient Babylon, Syria, and Egypt. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC...

 competitions from October to May.

Cuisine



Cuisine of Adana influenced mainly from Yörük, Arabic and Armenian cuisine and the city kept to its traditions tightly. Spicy, sour and fatty dishes made of meat (usually lamb) and bulghur are common. Bulghur and flour are found at all the kitchens in Çukurova. In almost every home, red pepper, spices, tahini, chopping block and pastry board can be found. The bulghur used in cooking is specific to Adana, made from dark colored hard wheat species. Bulghur that is made of other species of wheat is not used in area, because of the missing flavor.
Adana Kebab
Adana Kebab
Adana kebabı is a long, hand-minced meat kebab mounted on a wide iron skewer and grilled on an open mangal over braizing charcoals. It is named for Adana, the fifth largest city of Turkey, in the Eastern part of the Mediterranean region...

, called "Kebap" locally, is a kebab made from minced meat. Since it can be found at all kebab restaurants in Turkey and at most Turkish restaurants around the world, Adana name still bears kebab to many people. Adana Kebab is the most popular dining choice in Adana, although foods from other cultures are getting increasingly popular. Besides many kebab restaurants, there are also many kebab serving vendors on the older streets of Adana.

Adana Kebab is usually served with onion salad, green salad or with well-chopped tomato salad. Rakı
Raki
-Alcoholic beverages:*Rakı, an anise-flavored spirit popular in Turkey*Any anise-flavored drink.-Fictional characters:*Raki, a character in the manga/anime series Claymore*Raki, a character in the game Ar tonelico II: Melody of Metafalica...

 and Şalgam are usually accompanied with it as drinks. There are many varieties of salads typical to the city. Radish salad with tahini is popular and it is found only in the Çukurova region. Şalgam and pickle juice are the drinks of the winter and aşlama (licorice juice) is the choice of drink in summer.

Vegetable dishes are also popular in the city. Besides the tomato paste, pepper paste is used in almost every dish. The city is also famous for its Şırdan a kind of home-made sausage stuffed with rice, and eaten with cumin
Cumin
Cumin is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to India. Its seeds are used in the cuisines of many different cultures, in both whole and ground form.-Etymology:...

; paça, boiled sheep's feet; bicibici made from diced semolina, rose water and sugar, and served with crushed ice, consumed especially in summer time. Furthermore, the city has a number of famous desserts, such as Halka Tatlı, a round-shaped dessert, and Taş Kadayıf, a bow-shaped dessert. Several types of fruit, including the apricot
Apricot
The apricot, Prunus armeniaca, is a species of Prunus, classified with the plum in the subgenus Prunus. The native range is somewhat uncertain due to its extensive prehistoric cultivation.- Description :...

, are native to this area.

Education


Public, private and not-for profit foundation institutions conduct education in Adana. There are 282 public and 12 private primary schools which pupils attend from grade 1 to 8. From grade 9 to 11, pupils go to one of the 85 public and 26 private high schools. Notable high schools of the city that require examination to enter are; Adana Fen Lisesi (Lycee for Science), Adana Anadolu Lisesi (Anatolian Lycee),Gündoğdu Lisesi(Private) and Bilfen Lisesi (Private). There are also 6 public and 6 private schools for pupils with special needs. 9 Community Training Centers serve adult residents to improve their skills. There are two state universities in the city and one university just outside.

Çukurova University
Çukurova University
Çukurova University has eleven faculties, three colleges, seven vocational colleges, three institutes and twenty six research and application centers...

 is a state university located at the east shores of Seyhan Reservoir. In 2008, with 3 faculties, it is placed among the top 500 universities of the world at a research conducted by Blackwell Publishing, Quacquarelli Symonds
Quacquarelli Symonds
Quacquarelli Symonds is a company specializing in education and study abroad. The company was founded in 1990 by Wharton School MBA graduate Nunzio Quacquarelli...

 and The Times
The Times
The Times is a British daily national newspaper, first published in London in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register . The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary since 1981 of News International...

. The university was founded in 1973 with the union of the colleges of Agriculture and Medicine. It has a beautiful campus overlooking to the reservoir with many cultural, social and athletic facilities, currently holding 40,000 students.

Çağ University is a not-for-profit tuition-based university founded in 1997. The university is located just outside of the city, midway to Tarsus. University holds around 2500 students, most of them commuting from Adana, Tarsus
Tarsus (city)
Tarsus is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea. It is part of the Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Turkey with a population of 2.75 million...

 and Mersin.

Adana University for Science and Technology is a recently founded state university that is planned to have ten faculties, two institutions and a college. It will accommodate 1,700 academic, 470 administrative staff, and it is expected to enroll students by 2012.

Healthcare


Adana is a major health center to a wide region from Mediterrenean to Southeastern Anatolia. There are 4 university hospitals, 8 state hospitals and 7 private hospitals in the city. Balcalı Hospital of the Çukurova University is one of the major hospitals of Turkey.

Transportation


As being on the major route that is connecting Europe to Middle East, Adana is well served by many forms of transportation. Until the 16th century, Adana was a port city where ships could navigate on Seyhan River
Seyhan River
The Seyhan River is the longest river in Turkey that is flowing into Mediterranean Sea. The river is 560 km and flows southwest from its headwaters in the Tahtalı-Mountains in Anti-Taurus Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea via a broad delta...

 to the port just south of Taşköprü
Stone Bridge (Adana)
- External links :**...

.

Direct flights to major cities in Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, to Jeddah
Jeddah
Jeddah, Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. The...

 and to Nicosia
Nicosia
Nicosia from , known locally as Lefkosia , is the capital and largest city in Cyprus, as well as its main business center. Nicosia is the only divided capital in the world, with the southern and the northern portions divided by a Green Line...

 (TRNC) run from Adana Şakirpaşa Airport
Adana Sakirpasa Airport
Adana Airport or Adana Şakirpaşa Airport is an airport located in the city of Adana in the Adana Province of Turkey. Adana Airport was opened to service as a civil-military airport in 1937. It started to be used as a civil airport in 1956...

 by SunExpress
SunExpress
SunExpress is an airline based in Antalya, Turkey. It operates scheduled and charter flights to destinations in Europe. Its main base is Antalya International Airport .-History:...

, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey, headquartered in the Turkish Airlines General Management Building on the grounds of Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy, Bakirköy district, Istanbul...

, Germania
Germania (airline)
Germania Fluggesellschaft mbH, operating as Germania, is an airline with its headquarters in Berlin, Germany. It operates scheduled and chartered flights and aircraft lease services...

 and Cyprus Turkish Airlines. Mersin-Aleppo Train connects Adana and the rest of Çukurova region to Aleppo
Aleppo
Aleppo is the largest city in Syria and the capital of Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 2,301,570 , expanding to over 2.5 million in the metropolitan area, it is also one of the largest cities in the Levant...

, the largest metropolitan area of Syria. This train service started in 2008, but did not get popular, as the ride from Adana to Aleppo takes 8 hours. Hatay-based buses take this distance in 3-3.5 hours.


Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey, headquartered in the Turkish Airlines General Management Building on the grounds of Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy, Bakirköy district, Istanbul...

, Pegasus Airlines
Pegasus Airlines
Pegasus Airlines is a low-cost airline headquartered in the Halkalı area of Küçükçekmece, Istanbul, Turkey. Formerly a charter airline in partnership with Aer Lingus, Pegasus is now completely controlled by Esas Holding.- History :...

, Atlas Jet Airways, Anadolu Jet Airlines, Onur Air
Onur Air
Onur Air is an airline based in Florya, Bakırköy district, Istanbul, Turkey. It operates scheduled domestic services and charter flights to a large number of destinations throughout Europe from its main base at Atatürk International Airport...

 and SunExpress
SunExpress
SunExpress is an airline based in Antalya, Turkey. It operates scheduled and charter flights to destinations in Europe. Its main base is Antalya International Airport .-History:...

 provide daily or weekly flights to Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

, Ankara
Ankara
Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of , and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province had a population of 4.4 million....

, Izmir
Izmir
Izmir is a large metropolis in the western extremity of Anatolia. The metropolitan area in the entire Izmir Province had a population of 3.35 million as of 2010, making the city third most populous in Turkey...

, Antalya
Antalya
Antalya is a city on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey. With a population 1,001,318 as of 2010. It is the eighth most populous city in Turkey and country's biggest international sea resort.- History :...

, Trabzon
Trabzon
Trabzon is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Iran in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast...

, Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey...

 and Van
Van, Turkey
Van is a city in southeastern Turkey and the seat of the Kurdish-majority Van Province, and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. The city's official population in 2010 was 367,419, but many estimates put this as much higher with a 1996 estimate stating 500,000 and former Mayor Burhan...

 from Adana Şakirpaşa Airport
Adana Sakirpasa Airport
Adana Airport or Adana Şakirpaşa Airport is an airport located in the city of Adana in the Adana Province of Turkey. Adana Airport was opened to service as a civil-military airport in 1937. It started to be used as a civil airport in 1956...

. Turkish State Railways
Turkish State Railways
The State Railways of the Turkish Republic or TCDD is the government owned, national railway carrier in the Republic of Turkey, headquartered in Ankara...

(TCDD) provides trips to most of the cities in Turkey from the Adana Railway Station
Adana Railway Station
Adana Central Station is a train station in Adana and one of the major railway hubs in Turkey. The station is located at the Uğur Mumcu Square, steps to the Vilayet station of the metro.- History :...

.
The railway line was built during 1910s by the Ottoman-German co-operation and the bridges, tunnels that were built along the Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, dividing the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau. The system extends along a curve from Lake Eğirdir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the east...

 were the engineering wonders of their time. Numerous bus companies provide service to almost all the cities in Turkey. Although lost its popularity as private airlines introduced inexpensive flights to major cities, bus is still the major form of transportation to and from Adana. Adana has two intercity bus terminals. Bus companies that serve transportation to cities west of Adana, departs from Central Bus Terminal, whereas the buses that serve to cities east of Adana depart from Yüreğir Bus Terminal. There is shuttle service between two terminals.

Adana-Mersin Railway Line runs like a commuter train serving every 20 minutes between Mersin, Tarsus and Adana. With the new railbuses, train trip between Adana and Mersin takes 45 minutes. Train service from Adana to Ceyhan
Ceyhan
Ceyhan is a city in southeast Turkey and with 105,000 inhabitants it is the second largest city of Adana Province after the capital Adana. Ceyhan is the transportation hub for Middle Eastern, Central Asian and Russian oil and natural gas. It is situated on the Ceyhan River, from which it takes...

, Osmaniye
Osmaniye
-External links:...

 and Islahiye
Islahiye
Islahiye is a town and district of Gaziantep Province in southeastern Turkey. It is a railway border crossing into Syria.The train station of Islahiye is the last stop on the railway to Damascus in Syria...

 run three times per day. Regional bus services from Adana to other places in Çukurova are plentiful and carried by bus and minibus co-operatives. Seasonal Bus Services to high plains of Tekir, Bürücek and Kızıldag run in summer, due to high demand of Adana residents escaping the heat.

There is an extensive motorway network (O50-O59) in the region, connecting Adana to as far as Erdemli
Erdemli
Erdemli is a town and district of Mersin Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, west of the city of Mersin.-Geography:The district extends from the Mediterranean coastal plain, the largest agricultural area in Mersin Province, to high in the Taurus Mountains where there is forest, and...

 at the west, Niğde
Nigde
Niğde is a small city and the capital of Niğde Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. The population is 109,724 per the 2010 statistics...

 at the north, Şanlıurfa
Sanliurfa
Şanlıurfa, , often simply known as Urfa in daily language , in ancient times Edessa, is a city with 482,323 inhabitants Şanlıurfa, , often simply known as Urfa in daily language (Syriac ܐܘܪܗܝ Urhoy,Armenian Ուռհա Owr'ha, Arabic الرها ar-Ruhā), in ancient times Edessa, is a city with 482,323...

 at the east and Iskenderun
Iskenderun
İskenderun is a city and urban district in the province of Hatay on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The current mayor is Yusuf Hamit Civelek .-Names:...

 at the south. Traffic runs smooth at anytime of the day, driving can take as short as 40 minutes to Mersin and 2 hours to Gaziantep
Gaziantep
Gaziantep , Ottoman Turkish: Ayintab) previously and still informally called Antep; ʻayn tāb is a city in southeast Turkey and amongst the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world. The city is located 185 kilometres northeast of Adana and 127 kilometres by road north of Aleppo, Syria...

.

Local transport


Local transport in Adana is provided by the Metropolitan Municipality (through buses and the metro) and by dolmuş
Dolmuş
In Turkey and Turkish controlled Northern Cyprus, dolmuş are share taxis that run set routes within and between cities.Departing from the terminal only when a sufficient amount of passengers have boarded, their name is derived from Turkish for "apparently stuffed" for this reason.In some cities...

 (minibus) and bus co-operatives.
Adana Metro
Adana Metro
Adana Metro is a rail rapid transit system extending 14 km on the north-south corridor of Adana. It has 13 stations and can transport 21,600 passengers per hour one-way...

 is a rail rapid transit
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 system which fully opened to service on May 14, 2010. It is 14 km long and has 13 stations. The system can transport 21,600 passengers per hour one-way, a complete journey taking 21 minutes. The second line of the metro will run from Akıncılar to Çukurova University in the Sarıçam District. It will be 9.5 km long and will have 7 stations. The project is contracted in January 2010 and the construction is expected to start after an agreement is made with the Çukurova University. Adana Metro will then extend to 23.5 km. serving at 20 stations.

Adana Metropolitan Municipality Bus Department (ABBO) serves the city with 229 buses, 8 of them designed specifically for disabled users. Payments are collected by Kentkart Smartcard system; one of the most advanced in Turkey. 6 Bus Co-operatives (known as Can buses) serve the city with 411 buses. Kentkart and cash are accepted at these buses. 18 Dolmuş
Dolmuş
In Turkey and Turkish controlled Northern Cyprus, dolmuş are share taxis that run set routes within and between cities.Departing from the terminal only when a sufficient amount of passengers have boarded, their name is derived from Turkish for "apparently stuffed" for this reason.In some cities...

 Co-operatives, with total of 1,086 minibuses, provide service even to secondary streets. The only form of payment is by cash.

Twin towns — sister cities


Adana is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Córdoba
Córdoba, Spain
-History:The first trace of human presence in the area are remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 32,000 BC. In the 8th century BC, during the ancient Tartessos period, a pre-urban settlement existed. The population gradually learned copper and silver metallurgy...

, Spain Beer Sheba, Israel Shymkent
Shymkent
Shymkent , formerly known as Chimkent , is the capital city of South Kazakhstan Province, the most populated region in Kazakhstan. It is the third most populous city in Kazakhstan behind Almaty and Astana with a population of 629,600 . A major railroad junction on the Turkestan-Siberia Railway, the...

, Kazakhstan
Famagusta
Famagusta
Famagusta is a city on the east coast of Cyprus and is capital of the Famagusta District. It is located east of Nicosia, and possesses the deepest harbour of the island.-Name:...

, Cyprus
Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

 Bremerhaven
Bremerhaven
Bremerhaven is a city at the seaport of the free city-state of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. It forms an enclave in the state of Lower Saxony and is located at the mouth of the River Weser on its eastern bank, opposite the town of Nordenham...

, Germany Skopje
Skopje
Skopje is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia with about a third of the total population. It is the country's political, cultural, economic, and academic centre...

, Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
Macedonia , officially the Republic of Macedonia , is a country located in the central Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991...

Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

, Russia Livorno
Livorno
Livorno , traditionally Leghorn , is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno, having a population of approximately 160,000 residents in 2009.- History :...

, Italy Ulan Bator, Mongolia

Further reading




External links


Adana (aˈda.na) is a city in southern Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 and a major agricultural and commercial center. The city is situated on the Seyhan River
Seyhan River
The Seyhan River is the longest river in Turkey that is flowing into Mediterranean Sea. The river is 560 km and flows southwest from its headwaters in the Tahtalı-Mountains in Anti-Taurus Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea via a broad delta...

, 30 kilometres inland from the Mediterranean, in south-central Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

. It is the administrative seat of the Adana Province
Adana Province
Adana Province is a province of Turkey located in south-central Anatolia. With a population of 2,085,225, it is the fifth most populous province in Turkey. The administrative seat of the province is the city of Adana, home to 78% of the residents of the province...

 and has a population of 1.6 million, making it the fifth most populous city in Turkey.

Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area
Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area
Adana-Mersin metropolitan area lies in the core area of Çukurova and with a population of 3 million, it is one of Turkey's major business and cultural centres. The metropolitan area stretches over 100 km from east to west and 25 km from north to south and includes the cities of Mersin, Tarsus,...

, with a population of 3 million, stretches over 100 kilometres from east to west and 25 kilometres from north to south; encompassing the cities of Mersin
Mersin
-Mersin today:Today, Mersin is a large city spreading out along the coast, with Turkey's second tallest skyscraper , huge hotels, an opera house, expensive real estate near the sea or up in the hills, and many other modern urban...

, Tarsus
Tarsus (city)
Tarsus is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea. It is part of the Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Turkey with a population of 2.75 million...

, Adana and Ceyhan
Ceyhan
Ceyhan is a city in southeast Turkey and with 105,000 inhabitants it is the second largest city of Adana Province after the capital Adana. Ceyhan is the transportation hub for Middle Eastern, Central Asian and Russian oil and natural gas. It is situated on the Ceyhan River, from which it takes...

. It is the fourth largest metropolitan area in Turkey and one of the country's leading centres of commerce and culture.

Adana lies in the heart of Çukurova
Çukurova
Çukurova , historically known as Cilicia, is a geographic, economic and cultural region in south-central Turkey, covering the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay...

, a geographical, economical and cultural region that covers the provinces of Mersin
Mersin Province
The Mersin Province is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the other major town is Tarsus, birthplace of St Paul...

, Adana
Adana Province
Adana Province is a province of Turkey located in south-central Anatolia. With a population of 2,085,225, it is the fifth most populous province in Turkey. The administrative seat of the province is the city of Adana, home to 78% of the residents of the province...

, Osmaniye
Osmaniye Province
Osmaniye Province is a Turkish province located in southern Turkey. It became a province in 1996. The province was part of Adana Province. It covers an area of 3,767 km² and has a population of 479,221 . The province is situated in Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region.The...

 and Hatay
Hatay Province
Hatay Province is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast. It is bordered by Syria to the south and east and the Turkish provinces of Adana and Osmaniye to the north. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region that covers the provinces of...

. Home to approximately six million people, the region is mostly a large stretch of flat, fertile land regarded as one of the most agriculturally productive areas of the world.

Etymology


According to numerous sources, the name Adana is derived from the Hittite URUAdaniya of Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna , is the name of an ancient Anatolian kingdom in the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of southeastern Anatolia, near the Gulf of İskenderun in modern-day Turkey. It encircled the Taurus Mountains and the Ceyhan river. The center of the kingdom was the city of...

, while others assert that it is related to the legendary character Danaus
Danaus
In Greek mythology Danaus, or Danaos , was the twin brother of Aegyptus and son of Achiroe and Belus, a mythical king of Egypt. The myth of Danaus is a foundation legend of Argos, one of the foremost Mycenaean cities of the Peloponnesus...

, or to the Danaoi, a mythological
Greek mythology
Greek mythology is the body of myths and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. They were a part of religion in ancient Greece...

 Greek
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

 tribe who came from Egypt and established themselves in the Greek city Argos
Argos
Argos is a city and a former municipality in Argolis, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Argos-Mykines, of which it is a municipal unit. It is 11 kilometres from Nafplion, which was its historic harbour...

.The earlier Egyptian texts for a country Danaja are inscriptions from Thutmosis II (1437 BC) and Amenophis III (1390-1352 BC). After the collapse of the Mycenean civilization (1200 BC) some refugeees from the Aegean area went to the coast of Cilicia.The inhabitants Dananayim or Danuna are identified as one group of the sea-peoples who attacked Egypt on 1191 BC during the reign of Ramesses III. Denyen are identified as inhabitants of the city Adana. It is also possible that the name is connected with the PIE
Pie
A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients....

 da-nu (river) Da-na-vo (people living by the river), Skythian nomad people, water demons in Rigveda (Danavas).

In the Iliad
Iliad
The Iliad is an epic poem in dactylic hexameters, traditionally attributed to Homer. Set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles...

of Homer
Homer
In the Western classical tradition Homer , is the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, and is revered as the greatest ancient Greek epic poet. These epics lie at the beginning of the Western canon of literature, and have had an enormous influence on the history of literature.When he lived is...

, the city is called Adana. In Hellenistic
Hellenistic civilization
Hellenistic civilization represents the zenith of Greek influence in the ancient world from 323 BCE to about 146 BCE...

 times, it was known as Antiochia in Cilicia or Antiochia ad Sarum ' onMouseout='HidePop("68609")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Seyhan_River">Sarus
Seyhan River
The Seyhan River is the longest river in Turkey that is flowing into Mediterranean Sea. The river is 560 km and flows southwest from its headwaters in the Tahtalı-Mountains in Anti-Taurus Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea via a broad delta...

"). The editors of The Helsinki Atlas tentatively identify Adana as Quwê (as contained in cuneiform
Cuneiform script
Cuneiform script )) is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. Emerging in Sumer around the 30th century BC, with predecessors reaching into the late 4th millennium , cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs...

 tablets), the Neo-Assyrian capital of Quwê
Quwê
Quwê – also spelled Que, Kue, Qeve, Coa, Kuê and Keveh – was a "Neo-Hittite" Assyrian vassal state or province at various times from the 9th century BCE to shortly after the death of Ashurbanipal around 627 BCE in the lowlands of eastern Cilicia, and the name of its capital city,...

 province. The name also appears as Coa, and may be the place referred to in the Bible
Bible
The Bible refers to any one of the collections of the primary religious texts of Judaism and Christianity. There is no common version of the Bible, as the individual books , their contents and their order vary among denominations...

, where King Solomon obtained horses. (I Kings 10:28; II Chron. 1:16). The Armenian
Armenian language
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia as well as in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. The language is also widely spoken by Armenian communities in the Armenian diaspora...

 name of the city is Atana or Adana.

According to an ancient Greco-Roman legend
Roman mythology
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans...

, the name has its origins in Adanus and Sarus, the two sons of Uranus
Uranus (mythology)
Uranus , was the primal Greek god personifying the sky. His equivalent in Roman mythology was Caelus. In Ancient Greek literature, according to Hesiod in his Theogony, Uranus or Father Sky was the son and husband of Gaia, Mother Earth...

, who came to a place near the Seyhan (Sarus) River, where they built Adana. An older legend relates the city's name to Adad
Adad
Adad in Akkadian and Ishkur in Sumerian and Hadad in Aramaic are the names of the storm-god in the Babylonian-Assyrian pantheon. All three are usually written by the logogram dIM...

 (also known as Tesup or Ishkur), the Thunder God in the Akkadian, Sumerian
Sumerian religion
Sumerian religion refers to the mythology, pantheon, rites and cosmology of the Sumerian civilization. The Sumerian religion influenced Mesopotamian mythology as a whole, surviving in the mythologies and religions of the Hurrians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and other culture...

, Babylonian, Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

n and Hittite
Hittite mythology
Most of the narratives embodying Hittite mythology are lost, and the elements that would give a balanced view of Hittite religion are lacking among the tablets recovered at the Hittite capital Hattusa and other Hittite sites: "there are no canonical scriptures, no theological disquisitions or...

 mythologies
Mythology
The term mythology can refer either to the study of myths, or to a body or collection of myths. As examples, comparative mythology is the study of connections between myths from different cultures, whereas Greek mythology is the body of myths from ancient Greece...

, who was believed to live in the nearby forest, and whose name was given to the region. The Hittites' names and writings have been found in the area, evidencing this possibility. The theory goes that since the Thunder God brought so much rain and this rain in turn brought such great abundance in this particular region, this god was loved and respected by its inhabitants and, in his honor, the region was called the "Uru Adaniyya"; in other words "the Region of Ada".

Adana's name has had many different versions over the centuries: Adanos, Ta Adana, Uru Adaniya, Erdene, Edene, Ezene, Batana, Atana, Azana, Addane.

Geography


Adana is located at the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, where it serves as the gateway to the Çukurova plain, which has historically been known in the West as the Cilicia
Cilicia
In antiquity, Cilicia was the south coastal region of Asia Minor, south of the central Anatolian plateau. It existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Byzantine empire...

 plain. This large stretch of flat, fertile land lies southeast of the Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, dividing the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau. The system extends along a curve from Lake Eğirdir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the east...

.

From Adana, crossing the Çukurova westwards, the road from Tarsus enters the foothills of the Taurus Mountains. The temperature decreases with every foot of ascent, as the road reaches an altitude of nearly 4000 feet (1,219.2 m). It goes through the famous Cilician Gates
Cilician Gates
The Cilician Gates or Gülek Pass is a pass through the Taurus Mountains connecting the low plains of Cilicia to the Anatolian Plateau, by way of the narrow gorge of the Gökoluk River. Its highest elevation is about 1000m....

, the rocky pass through which armies have coursed since the dawn of history, and continues to the Anatolian plain.

The north of the city is surrounded by the Seyhan reservoir and HEP, which was completed in 1956. The dam was constructed for hydroelectric power (HEP) and to irrigate the lower Çukurova plain. Two irrigation channels in the city flow to the plain, passing through the city center from east to west. There is another canal for irrigating the Yüreğir plain to the southeast of the city.

Climate


Adana has a typical Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

. Winters are mild and wet and summers are hot and dry. The highest recorded temperature was on 8 July 1978 with 44 °C (111.2 °F). The lowest recorded temperature was -6.4 °C.

History


The history of the Tepebağ tumulus in the middle of Adana dates to the Neolithic Period, 6000 B.C., and the time of the first human settlements. It is considered to be the oldest city of the Çukurova region. A place called Adana is mentioned by name in a Sumer
Sumer
Sumer was a civilization and historical region in southern Mesopotamia, modern Iraq during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age....

ian epic, the Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literature. Scholars believe that it originated as a series of Sumerian legends and poems about the protagonist of the story, Gilgamesh king of Uruk, which were fashioned into a longer Akkadian epic much...

, but the geography of this work is too imprecise to identify its location.

According to the Hittite
Hittite language
Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centred on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia...

 inscription of Kava
Kava
Kava or kava-kava is a crop of the western Pacific....

, found in Hattusa
Hattusa
Hattusa was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. It was located near modern Boğazkale, Turkey, within the great loop of the Kızıl River ....

 (Boğazkale
Bogazkale
Boğazkale is a district of Çorum Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It is located at 87 km from the city of Çorum. Population of the town is about 1,500. The mayor is Ali Rıza Soysat ....

), Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna , is the name of an ancient Anatolian kingdom in the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of southeastern Anatolia, near the Gulf of İskenderun in modern-day Turkey. It encircled the Taurus Mountains and the Ceyhan river. The center of the kingdom was the city of...

 was the first kingdom that ruled Adana, under the protection of the Hittites by 1335 BC. At that time, the name of the city was Uru Adaniyya, and the inhabitants were called Danuna
Denyen
The Denyen are one of the groups constituting the Sea Peoples, who were of Indo-European origin.-Origin:Archeologists have described them as being of Indo-European origin....

. Beginning with the collapse of the Hittite Empire, c. 1191-1189 BC, invasions from the west caused a number of small kingdoms to take control of the plain, as follows: Kue Assyrians, 9th century BC; Persians
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

, 6th century BC; Alexander the Great in 333 BC; Seleucids; the pirates of Cilicia; Roman
Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

 statesman Pompey the Great
Pompey
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey or Pompey the Great , was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic...

; and the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia , also known as the Cilician Armenia, Kingdom of Cilician Armenia or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia...

 (Cilician Kingdom).

The history of Adana is intrinsically linked to the history of Tarsus; they often seem to be the same city, moving as the neighbouring Seyhan River changed its position. Their respective names also changed over the course of the centuries. Adana was of relatively minor importance during the Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

's influential period, while nearby Tarsus was the metropolis
Metropolis
A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications...

 of the area. During the era of Pompey
Pompey
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey or Pompey the Great , was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic...

, the city was used as a prison for the pirates of Cilicia. For several centuries thereafter, it was a waystation on a Roman military road leading to the East. After the permanent split of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 in 395 AD, the area became a part of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

, and was probably developed during the time of Julian the Apostate
Julian the Apostate
Julian "the Apostate" , commonly known as Julian, or also Julian the Philosopher, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363 and a noted philosopher and Greek writer....

. With the construction of large bridges, roads, government buildings, irrigation and plantation, Adana and Cilicia became the most developed and important trade centers of the region. Ayas
Ayas (city)
Ayas is a small town in Yumurtalık district, Adana Province, Turkey, located east of the mouth of the Ceyhan River. It was the ancient Aegea and medieval Ajazzo or Lajazzo. It passed between the Mamluks and the Armenians several times in the 13th and 14th centuries, and was definitively taken by...

 (today Yumurtalık
Yumurtalik
Yumurtalık is a small city and a district in Adana Province of Turkey. It is a Mediterranean port at a distance of about from Adana center. Yumurtalık's population does not exceed 5,000 in winter, but in summer, it rises to 30 to 40,000 people since many inhabitants of Adana have holiday homes here...

), and Kozan
Kozan, Adana
Kozan is a city in Adana Province, Turkey, 68 km north of the city of Adana, in the northern section of the Çukurova plain. The city is the capital of Kozan district. The Kilgen Stream, a tributary of the Ceyhan River , flows through Kozan crossing the plain south into the Mediterranean Sea....

 (formerly Sis) were the other major urban and administrative centers in the area, especially during the period of the Cilicians.

Middle Ages


In the mid 7th century, the city was captured by the Arabs. According to an Arab historian of that era, the name of the city was derived from Ezene, the prophet Yazene's grandson.

The Byzantines
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

 recaptured Adana in 964. After the victory of Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan was the third sultan of the Seljuq dynasty and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty...

 at the Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
The Battle of Manzikert , was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq Turks led by Alp Arslan on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert...

 in 1071, the Seljuq Turks overran much of the Byzantine Empire. They had reached and captured Adana sometime before 1071 and continued to hold the place until Tancred
Tancred, Prince of Galilee
Tancred was a Norman leader of the First Crusade who later became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch...

, a leader of the First Crusade
First Crusade
The First Crusade was a military expedition by Western Christianity to regain the Holy Lands taken in the Muslim conquest of the Levant, ultimately resulting in the recapture of Jerusalem...

, captured the city in 1097.
In 1132, it was captured by the forces of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, under its king, Leo I
Leo I of Armenia
Leo I, also Levon I or Leon I, was the fifth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” ....

. It was taken by Byzantine forces in 1137, but the Armenians regained it around 1170. In 1268, there was a terrible earthquake
1268 Cilicia earthquake
The Cilicia earthquake in 1268 was a tremendous earthquake in which over 60,000 people perished . The earthquake occurred in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, in southern Asia Minor. The epicenter was northeast of the city of Adana....

 which destroyed much of the city. Adana was rebuilt and remained a part of the Kingdom of Cilician Armenia until 1359, when the city was ceded by Constantine III to the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 in return for obtaining a peace treaty. The Mamluks' capture of the city allowed many Turkish families to settle in it. The Ramadanids family, one of the Oghuz families brought by the Mamluks, ruled Adana until the Ottomans
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 captured the city.

Modern era


From the end of the Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 to the modern era (1517–1918), the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 ruled the area.
In the 1830s, in order to secure Egypt's independence from the Ottoman Empire, the army of Muhammad Ali Pasha, the vali
Wali
Walī , is an Arabic word meaning "custodian", "protector", "sponsor", or authority as denoted by its definition "crown". "Wali" is someone who has "Walayah" over somebody else. For example, in Fiqh the father is wali of his children. In Islam, the phrase ولي الله walīyu 'llāh...

 of Ottoman Egypt and Sudan
Khedive
The term Khedive is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy. It was first used, without official recognition, by Muhammad Ali Pasha , the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan, and vassal of the Ottoman Empire...

, invaded Syria on two occasions, and reached the Adana plain. The soldiers of Muhammad Ali Pasha destroyed Adana Castle and the Walls, a major hit to city's history. The subsequent peace treaty secured Egypt's independence, but (at the insistence of Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) required the evacuation of all Egyptian forces from Syria, and its return to Ottoman sovereignty. In the aftermath, Adana was established as a province in its own right.

The Adana massacre
Adana massacre
The Adana massacre occurred in Adana Province, in the Ottoman Empire, in April 1909. An massacre of Armenian Christians in the city of Adana amidst governmental upheaval resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district...

 occurred in the Ottoman Vilayet of Adana in April 1909. A religious-ethnic clash in the province amid governmental upheaval resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district. Reports estimated that the massacres in the entire Vilayet of Adana resulted in about 25,000 deaths. In 1915, Ottoman troops rounded up all Armenians (approx. 20,000) living in the city of Adana and marched them out into the Syrian desert in the course of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian Massacres and, by Armenians, as the Great Crime—refers to the deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I...

, resulting in the complete eradication of the Armenian communities in and around the city.
After World War I, the Ottoman government surrendered control of the city to French troops, and the four battalions of the French Armenian Legion
French Armenian Legion
The Armenian Legion, established with the French-Armenian Agreement , was a foreign legion unit within French Army. The Armenian legion was established under the goals of the Armenian national liberation movement and was an armed unit besides the Armenian volunteer units and Armenian militia during...

 were sent to occupy Adana and oversee the repatriation of Armenian refugees. The French forces were, however, spread too thinly in the region and, as they came under withering attacks by Muslim elements both opposed and loyal
Turkish National Movement
The Turkish National Movement encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries which resulted in the creation and shaping of the Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I....

 to Mustafa Kemal Pasha, eventually reversed their policies in the region. The Armenian Legion was gradually disbanded, the repatriation was halted, and the French ultimately abandoned all pretensions to Cilicia, which they had originally hoped to attach to their mandate over Syria
French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon
Officially the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire...

. On October 20, 1921, the Treaty of Ankara
Treaty of Ankara (1921)
The Ankara Agreement was signed on October 20, 1921 between France and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey...

 was signed between France and the Turkish Grand National Assembly
Grand National Assembly of Turkey
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey , usually referred to simply as the Meclis , is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution. It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 in the midst of the Turkish War of Independence...

. Based on the terms of the agreement, France recognized the end of the Cilicia War, and French troops together with the remaining Armenian volunteers withdrew from the city on January 5, 1922.

On 30 January 1943, British prime minister Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

 secretly met with Turkish president İsmet İnönü
Ismet Inönü
Mustafa İsmet İnönü was a Turkish Army General, Prime Minister and the second President of Turkey. In 1938, the Republican People's Party gave him the title of "Milli Şef" .-Family and early life:...

 inside a train wagon at the Yenice Station, 23 kilometres outside of Adana (the so-called Adana Meeting or Adana Conference). Churchill wanted Turkey to join the Second World War on the side of the Allies
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

; the details of which were later discussed at the Second Cairo Conference
Second Cairo Conference
The Second Cairo Conference of December 4–6, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed Turkey's possible contribution to the Allies in World War II...

 in December 1943, which was attended by İnönü, Churchill and Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt , also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war...

.

The city was hit by a 6.2 magnitude earthquake (1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake
1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake
The 1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake, aka 1998 Adana earthquake, was an approximately 6.2 magnitude. earthquake that struck southern Turkey, historically known as Cilicia, on June 27, 1998, at about 16:55 local time....

) on June 27, 1998. The disaster killed 145 and left 1,500 people wounded and many thousand homeless in the city. The total economic loss was estimated about US$ 1 billion.

Chronology


Luvi Kingdom (1900 BC), Hittite
Hittites
The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia.They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia c. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height c...

 Empire (1900-1200 BC), Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

n Empire (713-663 BC), Persian Empire (550-333 BC), Hellenistic
Hellenistic civilization
Hellenistic civilization represents the zenith of Greek influence in the ancient world from 323 BCE to about 146 BCE...

  (333-323 BC), Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
The Seleucid Empire was a Greek-Macedonian state that was created out of the eastern conquests of Alexander the Great. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia, today's Turkmenistan, Pamir and parts of Pakistan.The Seleucid Empire was a major centre...

 (312-133 BC), Pirates of Cilicia (178-112 BC), Romans
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 (112-95 and 55 BC - 395 AD), Armenian Kingdom under the reign of Tigranes the Great
Tigranes the Great
Tigranes the Great was emperor of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state east of the Roman Republic. He was a member of the Artaxiad Royal House...

 (95-55 BC) Byzantines(395-638; 964-1071), Abbasid
Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

s, Great Seljuq Sultanate, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia , also known as the Cilician Armenia, Kingdom of Cilician Armenia or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia...

 (1078–1359), Mamluk
Mamluk
A Mamluk was a soldier of slave origin, who were predominantly Cumans/Kipchaks The "mamluk phenomenon", as David Ayalon dubbed the creation of the specific warrior...

s, Ramadanid Principality, Ottoman Emire, Republic of Turkey.

Governance



The city of Adana is referred as the area that is within the borders of Adana Metropolitan Municipality. This area covers 30 km (18.64 mi) around the City Hall excluding the areas out of the Province. Four levels of government are involved in the administration of the city; central government, provincial administration, metropolitan municipality and the district municipalities. The central government in Ankara
Politics of Turkey
Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a strictly secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and of a multi-party system...

 holds most of the power; health, education, police and many other city related services are administered by Ankara through an appointed Governor. Central government is also the law-maker, adjudicator and auditor of all the other levels of government and the neighborhood administration. Semi-democratic provincial governing body, Adana Province Special Administration has minor powers, dealing mainly with construction and maintenance of primary schools, daycares and other state buildings and some level of social services. The city is represented with 33 members, elected from its 5 metropolitan districts, at the 61-member Adana Provincial Parliament. Municipal governance has two-tier structure where the Metropolitan Municipality is the upper and the district municipalities are the lower tier. Metropolitan municipality takes care of construction and maintenance of major roads and parks, operating local transit and fire services. District municipalities are responsible from neighborhood streets, parks, operating garbage collection and cemetery services. The district municipalities are further divided into neighborhoods(mahalle
Mahalle
Mahalle is an Arabic word, adopted into Turkish which is variously translated as district, quarter, ward, or "neighborhood." It is an official administrative unit in many Middle Eastern countries. In the Ottoman Empire the mahalle was the smallest administrative entity...

), the smallest administrative units of the city.

Metropolitan Municipality



Adana Municipality was incorporated in 1871 though the city was continued to be governed with the muhtesip
Muhtesip
Muhtesip is an inspection and auditing system used before the municipal governance came in effect in the Islamic world. The muhtesip was authorized to audit the businesses if they were selling their products at the price limits set by the government. Muhtesip also inspected if the food sold were...

 system until 1877 by the first mayor Gözlüklü Süleyman Efendi. First modern municipal governance had begun with the second mayor Kirkor Bezdikyan and the successor Sinyor Artin. The roads were widened and paved with cobblestone, drainage canals and trenches were opened, more importantly first municipal regulations were put in effect. After the foundation of the republic, major infrastructure projects were completed and first planned neighborhoods were built north of the city. Turhan Cemal Beriker served as the mayor and the governor for 12 years at this period. With the completion of Seyhan Dam
Seyhan Dam
The Seyhan Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Seyhan River north of Adana, TurkeyThe dam was built in the 1950s as the first in a series of hydroelectric projects funded by the World Bank. The construction project was authorized by Prime Minister Adnan Menderes. The project manager was Süleyman...

 in 1956, the city had seen explosive growth and seeing special interest from then prime minister Adnan Menderes
Adnan Menderes
Adnan Menderes was the first democratically elected Turkish Prime Minister between 1950–1960. He was one of the founders of the Democratic Party in 1946, the fourth legal opposition party of Turkey. He was hanged by the military junta after the 1960 coup d'état, along with two other cabinet...

 who initiated large-scale infrastructure projects like citywide underground sewer systems and rezoning of residential areas into roads and public spaces. From 1984 to present, cityscape has seen revolutionary changes with the revitalization of Seyhan river and the construction of large parks and boulevards.

Metropolitan Municipality Law was introduced in 1989 and the municipal governance was split between metropolitan municipality and district municipalities. Adana Municipality then became the Metropolitan Municipality and two new district municipalities were founded; Seyhan and Yüreğir. Karaisalı was annexed to the city in 2006, Çukurova and Sarıçam districts were founded in 2008 by the partitioning of Seyhan and Yüreğir districts respectively.

Metropolitan municipality consists of three organs; Metropolitan Council, Mayor and the Encümen. Each district municipal council elects one-fifth of their members to represent the district at the metropolitan council. Thus, metropolitan council consists of 35 councillors, 10 from Seyhan district, 8 from Yüreğir, 8 from Çukurova, 6 from Sarıçam, 2 from Karaisalı and the metropolitan mayor who is elected directly by the voters. Encümen, the executive committee, consists of 10 members, 5 being metropolitan councillors and the other 5 are the directors at the metropolitan hall who are appointed to the Encümen by the metropolitan mayor.

Aytaç Durak
Aytaç Durak
Aytaç Durak is a Turkish politician, and has been the mayor of Adana since 1984, excluding one term . He is the longest serving locally elected city mayor in Turkey, currently at his 5th term. Adding his 17 years as a municipal councillor, he will have served the municipality of Adana for 42 years...

 is the mayor of Adana and the longest serving city mayor in Turkey currently at his fifth term. Following an allegation made by a metropolitan councillor against him, Durak was suspended from mayoral duties on March 28, 2010 by the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Ankara. Councillor Zihni Aldırmaz is elected by the council to serve as the Acting Mayor until the investigations are completed.

Districts


The City of Adana consists of the municipal sections of the 5 metropolitan districts; Seyhan, Yüreğir, Çukurova, Sarıçam and Karaisalı. Seyhan district is fully within the city limits whereas Yüreğir, Çukurova, Sarıçam and Karaisalı districts have rural areas outside the city.


Seyhan district
Seyhan
Seyhan is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. It is completely within the city of Adana and the municipality of Seyhan is a lower-tier municipality which serves to the entire district....

, located west of Seyhan River, is the cultural and business center of the city. D-400 state road (also called Turhan Cemal Beriker Boulevard within the city limits) is like an economical border dividing the district into north and south. Seyhan's north of D-400, is economically the most developed part of the city. Along D-400, hotels, cultural centers, commercial and public buildings line up. Old town, located south of D-400, is the market place where traditional and modern shops serve the residents. South of the old town is a low-income residential area.


Çukurova district
Çukurova, Adana
Çukurova is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. A large portion of the district is within the city of Adana, incorporated under the same name as a lower-tier municipality. It is a modern residential district which came into being in the last 30 years as the city expanded north...

, not to be confused with the Çukurova region, is a modern residential district that lies north of the Seyhan district and south of the Seyhan Reservoir. The district was planned in mid 1980s to direct the urban sprawl to low-fertile 3,000 hectare land north of the city. Named as New Adana, the project consisted of 200,000 homes including villa
Villa
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house. Since its origins in the Roman villa, the idea and function of a villa have evolved considerably. After the fall of the Roman Republic, villas became small farming compounds, which were increasingly fortified in Late Antiquity,...

s along the lake shore and high-rise apartment buildings along the newly opened wide boulevards of Turgut Özal, Süleyman Demirel and Kenan Evren.

Yüreğir district
Yüregir
Yüreğir is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. It lies east of the Seyhan River, south and west of Sarıçam and north of Yumurtalık. Large portion of the district is within the city of Adana, incorporated as a lower-tier municipality....

, located east of the river, consists mainly of low-income residential areas and large scale industries. With the construction of new bridges on the river and the extension of metro line to the district, Yüreğir became increasingly important, Adana Court of Justice re-locating to the district and 47.5 hectare health campus planned to be built at the Kazım Karabekir neighborhood. An extensive urban redevelopment plan is under effect in the district which will convert the neighborhoods of Sinanpaşa, Yavuzlar, Köprülü and Kışla into modern residential areas.

District of Sarıçam
Sarıçam
Sarıçam is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. Southern section of the district is part of the city of Adana, incorporated as a lower-tier municipality. It is located north of the Yüreğir district, east of the Seyhan River and the Seyhan Reservoir...

 lies north and east of Yüreğir, consisting of former municipalities that are amalgamated to the City of Adana in 2008. Some of the large institutions of the city are in Sarıçam: Çukurova University, İncirlik Air Base and the Organized Industrial Region.

Karaisalı
Karaisali
Karaisalı is a small city and a district in Adana Province of Turkey, administratively a part of the Metropolitan Municipality of Adana.The area contains the reservoirs of Çatalan and Nergizlik...

 is a small district outside the urban area, lying north of the Seyhan Reservoir. The district is largely rural, includes large recreational areas along the Seyhan river and cottage country at the high lands to the north.

Neighborhoods


Neighborhoods (Mahalle
Mahalle
Mahalle is an Arabic word, adopted into Turkish which is variously translated as district, quarter, ward, or "neighborhood." It is an official administrative unit in many Middle Eastern countries. In the Ottoman Empire the mahalle was the smallest administrative entity...

) are administrative units within the district municipalities and are administered by the muhtar and the Neighborhood Seniors Council. Although elected by the neighborhood residents, muhtar is not granted any powers, thus function as an administrator of the central government. Muhtar can voice neighborhood issues to the district municipality and do have a seat at the Adana City Assembly, an umbrella organization for the coordination of public institutions in the city. Despite the fact that neighborhood administration can not provide social services nor have funding to increase the involvement of the residents in the neighborhood issues, many residents still like to identify themselves strongly with their neighborhoods especially at the low-income areas.

There are a total of 254 neighborhoods in the city. Seyhan has 99 neighborhoods, 69 of them in the urban area and 30 are the neighborhoods of the former municipalities and the former villages that are converted into neighborhoods. Yüreğir has 99 neighborhoods, 38 in the urban area and 61 rural. There are 29 neighborhoods in Sarıçam, 16 neighborhoods in Çukurova in and 11 in Karaisalı district. Population of a neighborhood can range from 150 to 63,000 depending on if the neighborhood is in the core urban area or in the rural areas. Some neighborhoods, especially in the Çukurova district, are very large, almost at the size of a town, making residents access to muhtars difficult.

Tepebağ
Tepebağ
Tepebağ is a historical neighborhood in the old town of Adana. It is situated on a hill overlooking to the Seyhan River steps away from the Taşköprü, and reflects the traditional housing architecture of the city. Tumulus at Tepebağ is the area of the first settlements in Adana.-History:Throughout...

, Kayalıbağ, Kuruköprü, Ulucami, Sarıyakup and Alidede are the historical neighborhoods of Adana. The planned neighborhoods of the republican era, Reşatbey, Cemalpaşa, Kurtuluş and Çınarlı are the core of cultural life in the city. Güzelyalı, Karslılar and Kurttepe are the scenic neighborhoods overlooking to the Seyhan reservoir.

Economy


Adana is one of the first industrialized cities, as well as one of the most economically developed cities of Turkey. With the construction of Seyhan Dam
Seyhan Dam
The Seyhan Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Seyhan River north of Adana, TurkeyThe dam was built in the 1950s as the first in a series of hydroelectric projects funded by the World Bank. The construction project was authorized by Prime Minister Adnan Menderes. The project manager was Süleyman...

 and improvements in agricultural techniques, there was an explosive growth in agricultural production during 1950s. Large-scale industries were built along D-400 state road and Karataş
Karatas
Karataş is a small city and a district in Adana Province, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, 47 km from the city of Adana, between the rivers of Seyhan and Ceyhan, the Pyramos of Antiquity...

 road. Service industry, especially banking, also developed during this period.

Adana is the marketing and distribution center for Çukurova agricultural region, where cotton, wheat, corn, soy bean, barley, grapes and citrus fruits are produced in great quantities. Farmers of Adana produce half of the corn and soy bean in Turkey. 34% of Turkey's peanut and 29% of Turkey's orange is harvested in Adana. Most of the farming and agricultural-based companies of the region have their offices in Adana.

Adana is an industrialized city where large-scale industry is based mostly on agriculture. Textile and leather are the major industry constituting 29% of Adana's manufacturing, plant oil and processed food manufacturing plants are also numerous. As of 2008, Adana has 11 companies in Turkey's top 500 industrial firms. The largest company of Adana, Temsa
TEMSA
Temsa Global is a coach, bus and light truck manufacturer located in Adana, Turkey. The company is part of the Sabanci Group, a large Turkish industrial and commercial conglomerate...

 Global, in automotive manufacturing, has more than 2,500 employees and manufactures 4,000 buses annually. Marsan-Adana is the largest margarine and plant oil factory in Turkey. Advansa Sasa is Europe's largest polyester manufacturer employing 2,650. Organized Industrial Region of Adana has an area of 1,225 hectar and hosts almost 300 plants, mostly medium-scale.

A leading commercial center in southern Turkey, city hosts regional headquarters of many corporates and public institutions. TÜYAP Exhibition and Congress Center hosts fairs, business conferences and currently it is the main meeting point for businesses in Çukurova. Academic oriented 2000-seater Congress Center is expected to open in 2010 at Çukurova University campus. Tourism industry is developing as luxury hotels are built on the banks of Seyhan River and along D-400 state road. Hilton International, Seyhan and Sürmeli hotels are the 5-star hotels of the city. Sheraton and Türkmen hotels on the east bank of the river are currently under construction.

Media in Adana runs by national and local agencies. Yeni Adana is the oldest living newspaper in Adana dating back to 1918. Ekspres, Toros and Bölge are other local newspapers who serve not only Adana, but Cukurova in general. Çukurova TV is the largest broadcasting company.Kanal A, Akdeniz TV and Kent TV are the other major broadcasters. Many national newspapers have their regional publishing centers in Adana. Hürriyet
Hürriyet
-External links:* * ** * *...

publishes a supplement paper, Hürriyet Çukurova, the most popular regional newspaper that has circulation of 48,000.

Traditional shops, modern shops and malls create a mixture of shopping opportunities in Adana. Çakmak Street is the traditional shopping street that is located in the old town. There are also several historical bazaars around Büyük Saat and Yağ Camii. Ziyapaşa Boulevard is the street of elegance where pricey brands are located. The streets around Ziyapaşa and the streets of northern Adana, Özal, Demirel and Evren boulevards also host high-end shops. There are four American-style shopping malls in the city; M1 and Carrefour at the west end, Galleria and Optimum Outlet on the banks of Seyhan River.

Adana was named among the 25 European Regions of the Future for 2006/2007 by Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign direct investment
Foreign direct investment or foreign investment refers to the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor.. It is the sum of equity capital,other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in...

magazine. Chosen alongside Kocaeli
Izmit
İzmit is a city in Turkey, administrative center of Kocaeli Province as well as the Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality. It is located at the Gulf of İzmit in the Sea of Marmara, about east of Istanbul, on the northwestern part of Anatolia. The city center has a population of 294.875...

 for Turkey, Adana scored the highest points for cost effectiveness against Kocaeli's points for infrastructure development, while Adana and Kocaeli tied on points for the categories of human resources and quality of life.

Demographics


In 2008, the borders were expanded by addition of rural Karaisalı district and the rural areas of Çukurova (district), Yüreğir and Sarıçam. Thus, the population of the metropolitan Adana as of December, 2010 is 1,591,518. Adana is made up of the municipal populations of the five metropolitan districts; Seyhan, Çukurova, Yüreğir, Sarıçam and Karaisalı. Municipal populations of the metropolitan districts of Adana since 2008 are:
District Metropolitan Population
2008 2009 2010
Seyhan
Seyhan
Seyhan is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. It is completely within the city of Adana and the municipality of Seyhan is a lower-tier municipality which serves to the entire district....

752,308 722,852 723,277
Yüreğir
Yüregir
Yüreğir is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. It lies east of the Seyhan River, south and west of Sarıçam and north of Yumurtalık. Large portion of the district is within the city of Adana, incorporated as a lower-tier municipality....

411,299 415,047 417,693
Çukurova
Çukurova, Adana
Çukurova is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. A large portion of the district is within the city of Adana, incorporated under the same name as a lower-tier municipality. It is a modern residential district which came into being in the last 30 years as the city expanded north...

267,453 327,460 343,770
Sarıçam
Sarıçam
Sarıçam is a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. Southern section of the district is part of the city of Adana, incorporated as a lower-tier municipality. It is located north of the Yüreğir district, east of the Seyhan River and the Seyhan Reservoir...

86,727 90,879 99,313
Karaisalı
Karaisali
Karaisalı is a small city and a district in Adana Province of Turkey, administratively a part of the Metropolitan Municipality of Adana.The area contains the reservoirs of Çatalan and Nergizlik...

7,328 7,307 7,465
Total 1,525,115 1,563,545 1,591,518


Two-thirds of the residents of Adana live on the west bank of Seyhan River on where the city was first founded. In 2009, 3 neighborhoods of Seyhan district were ceded to Çukurova district, causing Seyhan population to decrease. Seyhan is the most diverse district. Çukurova district has a good community of seniors from all over Turkey who prefer to enjoy their retirement in the warm climate of Çukurova region.

The major ethnic groups in Adana are the Turks
Turkish people
Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" , are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania...

, Arabs and Kurds. New generations of Arabs do not speak Arabic as they are mostly assimilated into Turkish culture. Arab community is concentrated in Yüreğir on the east bank of Seyhan River. Kurds, once a small community in Adana, with the massive migration during 1990s, now form almost a third of Adana. Kurds mostly live in southern neighborhoods of the city. Conos, a tribe of Roma people of Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

, settled in Adana during Balkan Wars. Conos mainly live around Sinanpaşa neighborhood. Around eight-thousand Romani people live in Adana Province including Conos. There's also a sizeable community of migrants from Balkans
Balkans
The Balkans is a geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe...

 and Caucasia
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

 who also settled in Adana during Balkan Wars and before.

Adana is home to a community of around two-thousand British and Americans serving to the Incirlik NATO Air Base
Incirlik Air Base
The Incirlik Air Base is located in İncirlik, five miles east of Adana, Turkey's fifth largest city, and from the Mediterranean Sea.The U.S...

; some of them residing at the base, many of them residing in the city. Before 2003, the community numbered up to 22,000, but declined after, when many troops stationed to Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

.

The majority of Adana residents adhere to Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam. Sunni Muslims are referred to in Arabic as ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah wa āl-Ǧamāʿah or ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah for short; in English, they are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis or Sunnites....

. The majority of Turks, most of the Kurds and some of the Arabs are Sunni Muslim. Adana is also a stronghold of Alevi
Alevi
The Alevi are a religious and cultural community, primarily in Turkey, constituting probably more than 15 million people....

 community, many Alevis moving to the city from Kahramanmaraş
Kahramanmaras
-Industry:Kahramanmaraş's industry is mainly based on textile and ice cream. Kahramanmaraş is one of the biggest textile industry cities of Turkey. Companies like Kipaş, İskur, Arsan and Bozkurt are one of the richest companies in the city...

 after the incidents in 1978
Maraş Massacre
The Maraş Massacre or Kahramanmaraş Massacre of December 1978 was the massacre of more than hundred civilians, mostly Alevis, a minority Muslim group in Turkey. The prime perpetrators were Greywolves...

. Arabs of Adana are mostly Alawi which is often confused with Alevis. Nusayri and Fellah terms are also used for Alawi Arabs who are currently the oldest community of Adana. Arabs that migrate to Adana from Şanlıurfa Province
Sanliurfa Province
Şanlıurfa Province or simply Urfa Province is a province in Southeast Anatolia, Turkey. The city of Şanlıurfa is the capital of the province which bears its name. The population is 1,663,371 ....

 are Sunni Muslims. There is a tiny community of Roman Catholics and few Jewish families.

Architecture


The golden age for the architecture of Adana was the late 15th and the 16th century when Ramadanid principality chose Adana as their capital. City grow rapidly during that period with many new neighborhoods had been built. Most of the historical landmarks of Adana are built during this period, thus Mamluk
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt was the final independent Egyptian state prior to the establishment of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1805. It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid Dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. The sultanate's ruling caste was composed of Mamluks, Arabised...

 and Seljuqid architecture are dominant in Adana's architectural history. Taşköprü
Stone Bridge (Adana)
- External links :**...

 is the only remaining landmark from Roman-Byzantine era, and few public buildings were built during the Ottoman rule.
The first traces of settlement in the quarter of Tepebağ
Tepebağ
Tepebağ is a historical neighborhood in the old town of Adana. It is situated on a hill overlooking to the Seyhan River steps away from the Taşköprü, and reflects the traditional housing architecture of the city. Tumulus at Tepebağ is the area of the first settlements in Adana.-History:Throughout...

, can be traced to be the neolithic age. The quarter is next to the Taşköprü stone bridge, situated on a hill which gives its name Tepebağ (Garden on the hill). The city administration has launched campaign to preserve the heritage of this area, particularly the Ottoman houses. Ataturk stayed in one of these houses on Seyhan Caddesi which now houses the Atatürk Museum
Atatürk Museum
Atatürk Museum ) is a national museum dedicated to the life of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the Republic of Turkey. It is located in the district of Şişli, on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey....

.
Several bridges cross the Seyhan river within the city, the most notable being the Taşköprü, a 4th century Roman bridge
Roman bridge
Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built. Roman bridges were built with stone and had the arch as its basic structure....

. Currently used by pedestrians and cyclists, it was the oldest bridge in the world to be open to motorized vehicles until 2007. Demirköprü
Demirköprü
Demirköprü is a railway bridge spanning the Seyhan River in Adana. Opened in 1912, it extends 530 meters between Reşatbey and Sinanpaşa neighborhoods. Demirköprü is a steel bridge constructed by German Engineers in part of the Berlin-Baghdad Railway project. It was last renovated in 2006. -...

 is a railway bridge that was built in 1912 in part of the Berlin-Baghdad Railway project. Regülatör bridge, at the southern section of the city, is a road bridge as well as a regulator for the river water. There are also three footbridges, Seyhan and Mustafakemalpaşa road bridges, the bridge of the metro
Adana Metro
Adana Metro is a rail rapid transit system extending 14 km on the north-south corridor of Adana. It has 13 stations and can transport 21,600 passengers per hour one-way...

 and the bridge of the motorway spanning the river.
Büyük Saat (The Great Clock Tower), built by the local governor of Adana in 1882, is the tallest clock tower in Turkey rising 32 m (104.99 ft) high. It was damaged during French occupation, but was rebuilt in 1935, and its image can be found in the city's coat of arms. Kazancılar Çarşısı (Bazaar of Kazancilar), founded around the Büyük Saat.

Ramazanoğlu Hall
Ramazanoğlu Hall
Ramazanoğlu Hall is the old government residence of the Ramadanids located in Adana. Currently used as a cultural center, it is one of the oldest samples of a mansion in Turkey...

 was built in 1495 during the reign of Halil Bey. A three-storey building, made of stone and brick, it is one of the oldest sample of a house in Turkey. This hall is the Harem section, where the Ramadanid family lived. Selamlık section, where the government offices were, do not exist today.

Çarşı Hamam (Turkish bath of the Bazaar) was built in 1529 by Ramazanoğlu Piri Pasha and it is the largest hamam in Adana. It is built with five domes and inside is covered with marbles. During the time it was built, water was brought from Seyhan River by water wheels and canals.

Irmak Hamam (Turkish bath of the River), located next to Seyhan District Hall, was built in 1494 by Ramazanoğlu Halil Bey on the ruins of an ancient Roman bath. Its water comes from the river. Other historical hamams in the city are Mestenzade Bath and Yeni Bath.

Mosques
Sabancı Merkez Camii, though not being historical, is the most visited mosque in Adana, as it is one of the largest mosques in the Middle East. Built in loyalty to Ottoman Architecture, the mosque was opened to service in 1998 to a capacity of 28,500 prayers. The mosque possesses six minarets, four of them having height of 99 meters. Dome has a diameter of 32 meters and it is 54 meters high from praying area. It is located on the west bank of Seyhan River at the corner of Seyhan Bridge and can be seen from a wide area.

Ulu Cami, a külliye
Külliye
Külliye, deriving from the Arabic word "kull" is a term which designates a complex of buildings, centered around a mosque and managed within a single institution, often based on a vakıf , and composed of a medrese, a darüşşifa, kitchens, bakery, hammam, other buildings for various benevolent...

 built in 1541 during Ramadanid era, is the most interesting medieval structure of Adana with its mosque, madrasah
Madrasah
Madrasah is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious...

 and türbe
Turbe
Türbe is the Turkish word for "tomb", and for the characteristic mausoleums, often relatively small, of Ottoman royalty and notables. It is related to the Arabic turba, which can also mean a mausoleum, but more often a funerary complex, or a plot in a cemetery.-Characteristics:A typical türbe...

. The mosque has black and white marble with decorative window surrounds and it is famous for the 16th century Iznik
Iznik
İznik is a city in Turkey which is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Church, the Nicene Creed, and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea...

 tiling used in its inner space. The minaret is a unique sample with the Mamluk effects it bears and with its orthogonal plan scheme.

Yağ Camii was originally built as Church of St. James, then converted into a mosque by Ramazanoğlu Halil Bey in 1501. Later, his successor Piri Mehmet Paşa added its minaret
Minaret
A minaret مناره , sometimes مئذنه) is a distinctive architectural feature of Islamic mosques, generally a tall spire with an onion-shaped or conical crown, usually either free standing or taller than any associated support structure. The basic form of a minaret includes a base, shaft, and gallery....

 in 1525 and its madrasah
Madrasah
Madrasah is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious...

 in 1558. It is in the Seljuqid Grand Mosque style and has an attractive gate made of yellow stone.

Yeni Camii (New Mosque) was built in 1724 by Abdülrezzak Antaki, and still known as Antaki Mosque by some. The influence of Mamluk
Mamluk
A Mamluk was a soldier of slave origin, who were predominantly Cumans/Kipchaks The "mamluk phenomenon", as David Ayalon dubbed the creation of the specific warrior...

 architecture is visible. It is built in rectangular order and has an interesting stonework on south walls.

Alemdar Mescidi, Şeyh Zülfi Mescidi, Kızıldağ Ramazanoğlu Mosque, Hasan Aga Camii (16th Century wooden architecture constructed without nails) are some other mosques with historical value.

Churches

In the 19th century, the city had four churches; 2 Armenian, 1 Greek and 1 Latin. Saint Paul Catholic Church (Bebekli Kilise) was built in 1870 and used as an Armenian Church until 1915. It is currently serving to the Roman Catholic community of the city. It is located in the old town, close to 5 Ocak Square. On Abidinpaşa Street, there used to stand a larger Armenian Church. During the republic period, the church was demolished and Central Bank (Merkez Bankası) regional headquarters was built instead. Latin Church was built in 1845 at Kuruköprü area and converted into a museum in 1924.

Parks and gardens



Adana has plenty of parks and gardens, mostly well maintained. Owing to the warm climate, parks and gardens are open all year long without the need of winter maintenance.

Recreational pathways on both banks of Seyhan river cross the entire city from south end to Seyhan Reservoir. Pathway then connects to Adnan Menderes Boulevard which goes all the way along the southern shores of Seyhan Reservoir, and the wide sidewalks of the boulevard extend the pathway to the west end of the reservoir. Dilberler Sekisi is the most scenic part of the pathway which is along the west bank, in between the old and the new dam.Recreational pathway along the north side of the Grand Canal goes from east end to west end of the city, crossing Seyhan river from old dam's pathway. Some sections of this pathway has not completed yet. Once completed, within the city there will be almost 30 km of continuous recreational pathway connecting several parks along.
Merkez Park (Central Park) is a 33-hectare urban park
Urban park
An urban park, is also known as a municipal park or a public park, public open space or municipal gardens , is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, and visitors to, the municipality...

 that is located on both banks of Seyhan river, just north of Sabancı Mosque. It has an interesting landscaping, carrying wide variety of trees and plants in an open concept. With a 2,100-seater amphitheatre, a Chinese Garden, and two cafes, it is the main recreational area of the city. In the park, there is a Rowing Club which serves recreational rowers.
Atatürk Park is a 4.7-hectare city park built during the first years of Republic. It is centrally located at the commercial district. The park holds a statue of Atatürk and hosts Public Ceremonies.

Süleyman Demirel Arboretum is a large botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended partly for the scientific study of Çukurova University researchers. The arboretum is also used for educational and recreational purposes by city residents. 512 species of plants exists in the arboretum.

İnönü Botanical Garden exhibits the rich variety of Çukurova flowers, located next to Adana Court of Justice.

Çobandede Park is a 16.5-hectare park at the west shore of Seyhan Reservoir. It is situated on a hill and has a nice scenery of Reservoir and around. The park hosts the tomb of Çoban Dede, a wiseman from Karslı Village. Many people visit the tomb every year to pray and wish for him.

Yaşar Kemal Woods is a hiking area on the east bank of Seyhan river across Dilberler Sekisi. It is dedicated to Çukurova native writer Yaşar Kemal
Yasar Kemal
Yaşar Kemal, is a Turkish writer. He is one of Turkey's leading writers. He has long been a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Literature, on the strength of Memed, My Hawk....

.

Çatalan Woods is a large recreational area in between Çatalan and Seyhan Reservoirs, north of the city, in the Karaisalı district.

Performing arts



Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra
Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra
The Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra is a symphony orchestra located in Adana, Turkey.It was founded in 1988 after the Turkish Presidency Symphony Orchestra, Istanbul and Izmir State Symphony Orchestras. It performed its first concert on January 5, 1992. Its principal conductor is Emin Güven...

 performed its first concert in 1992 and since then, the orchestra is performing twice a week from October to May at the Metropolitan Theater Hall. The orchestra consists of 39 musicians and conduct regular tours in Turkey and abroad.

Adana State Theater
Turkish State Theatres
The Turkish State Theatres is the official directorate of the national theatre companies in Turkey. It is bound to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and financed by the state to promote performed arts and enhance the public interest they receive...

 opened its stage in 1981 at the Sabancı Cultural Center
Sabancı Cultural Center
Hacı Ömer Sabancı Cultural Center is a complex in Adana that is composed of a theatre hall, public library, fine arts gallery and an exhibition hall. It has been established on an area of 1.5 hectare, located at the west end of the Seyhan Bridge across the Sabancı Mosque.-History:The Center was...

. It performs regularly from October to May.

Adana Town Theater was founded in 1880 to be the first theater in Adana by governor Ziya Paşa. In 1926, the theater moved to the newly built Community Center. Town Theater currently performs weekly at the Metropolitan Theater Hall which also hosts Town Chorus and community theater, folklor and concert performances.

Seyhan Town Theater and Seyhan Folkloric Dances stage weekly at the Theater Hall of Seyhan Cultural Center.

Amphitheaters
Amphitheatre
An amphitheatre is an open-air venue used for entertainment and performances.There are two similar, but distinct, types of structure for which the word "amphitheatre" is used: Ancient Roman amphitheatres were large central performance spaces surrounded by ascending seating, and were commonly used...

 in Adana host performances from April to November. Mimar Sinan Amphitheater, the largest in Adana, can accommodate 8,000 guests and hosts concerts and movies. It is located at the west bank of the Seyhan River. 2,100-seater Merkez Park
Adana Merkez Park
Merkez Park is a urban park that is located on both banks of the Seyhan River in Adana. The larger portion of the park, , is on the west bank....

 Amphitheater, 3,000-seater Çukurova University Amphitheater and Doğal Park Amphitheater in Çukurova District also hosts theaters, concerts and cinemas.

Recently, historical buildings are restored and converted into cultural centers. 515 year old Ramazanoğlu Hall
Ramazanoğlu Hall
Ramazanoğlu Hall is the old government residence of the Ramadanids located in Adana. Currently used as a cultural center, it is one of the oldest samples of a mansion in Turkey...

 and 130 year old former high school for girls (now called the Adana Center for Arts and Culture
Adana Center for Arts and Culture
Adana Center for Arts and Culture is a public facility for cultural events operating at the historical state building of Adana that served as a school for most of its history...

) serve as cultural centers hosting art exhibitions and cultural events.

Museums & art galleries


Adana Archaeological Museum
Adana Archaeological Museum
Adana Archaeology Museum, located just west of the Sabancı mosque in Adana, houses the historical heritage of Çukurova region. It is one of the oldest ten museums of Turkey.-History:...

 was opened in 1924 as one of the oldest ten museums in Turkey. It moved to its current location at the west corner of Seyhan Bridge in 1972. The museum exhibits archeological works from all over Çukurova. Notable works are the two Augustus statues from Hittites, Achilles Sarcophagus depicting Trojan War
Trojan War
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, the king of Sparta. The war is among the most important events in Greek mythology and was narrated in many works of Greek literature, including the Iliad...

 and statues from Magarsus and Augusta ancient cities.

Adana Ethnography Museum
Adana Ethnography Museum
Adana Ethnography Museum exhibits the ethnographic works, the inscriptions of Adana's landmarks and epitaph and gravestones of Adana's leading figures. The museum was opened in 1983 at a former church after Archeological Museum moved to its new location....

 was opened in 1983 after Archeological Museum moved to its new location. At the front and back yard there are epitaph and gravestones of Adana's leading figures of 17th century. On the west yard, there are inscriptions of Taşköprü
Tasköprü
Taşköprü is a town and district of Kastamonu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 43,800 of which 16,181 live in the town of Taşköprü. The district covers an area of , and the town lies at an elevation of .The town takes its name...

, Misis Bridge, old City Hall and Bahripaşa Fountain. Inside, there are clothings, jewellery and weaponry of Yörük
Yörük
The Yorouks, also Yuruks or Yörüks are immigrants, ultimately of Thracian descent,some of whom are still nomadic, primarily inhabiting the mountains of Anatolia and partly Balkan peninsula...

 villagemen.

Atatürk Museum
Atatürk Museum (Adana)
Atatürk Museum exhibits War of Independence and the first years of Republic at the mansion, Atatürk stayed during his trips to Adana. Overlooking to the Seyhan River, the museum is located on Seyhan Street and it is open to public every day except Mondays...

 exhibits War of Independence and first years of Republic at the mansion, Atatürk stayed during his trips to Adana.

Misis Mosaic Museum
Misis Mosaic Museum
Misis Mosaic Museum exhibits the works that were excavated from Misis Tumulus, most notable are the mosaics that were on the floor of a 4th century temple in the ancient city of Misis...

, located on city's far east end at the west bank of Ceyhan river, exhibits mosaics that were on the floor of a 4th century temple in the ancient city of Misis. Mosaic depicts Noah and 23 birds and poultry that he took to his ship during the flood. The museum also exhibits the works that were excavated from Misis Tumulus.

State Fine Arts Gallery was opened in Sabancı Cultural Center
Sabancı Cultural Center
Hacı Ömer Sabancı Cultural Center is a complex in Adana that is composed of a theatre hall, public library, fine arts gallery and an exhibition hall. It has been established on an area of 1.5 hectare, located at the west end of the Seyhan Bridge across the Sabancı Mosque.-History:The Center was...

 in 1982. It carries 59 plastic pieces of art. 75.Yıl Art Gallery in Atatürk Park, Adana City Hall Art Gallery and Art Gallery in Seyhan Cultural Center are the other public art galleries.

Festivals


Altın Koza International Film Festival
Adana Golden Boll International Film Festival
Altın Koza International Film Festival is a film festival of Adana, that was held 17 times since 1969 and took place every year since 2005. The event is organized by the Greater Adana Municipality and takes place in June...

 is one of the top film festivals in Turkey, taking place since 1969. During the Altın Koza of 2009, 212 international films were shown in 11 movie theatres across the city. Long Film Contest, International Student Film Contest and Mediterrenean Cultures Film Contest are held during the festival.

International Sabancı Theater Festival
International Sabancı Theater Festival
State Theater-Sabancı International Adana Theater Festival is held every year in Adana since 1999. It is a joint organization of Turkish State Theatres, the Ministry of Tourism and Culture and the Sabancı Foundation...

 is held every year in April since 1999. At the festival in 2011, 461 artists from 17 ensembles (10 local and 7 international) performed plays that took stage at the Sabancı Cultural Center. The festival started with an astounding opening show staged on the Seyhan River and Taşköprü by Italian ensemble Studio Festi. "Water Symphony" show was greeted by thousands of people with great enthusiasm.
International Çukurova Instrumental Music Festival is a 2-week long festival held annually in Adana, Antakya
Antakya
Antakya is the seat of the Hatay Province in southern Turkey, near the border with Syria. The mayor is Lütfü Savaş.Known as Antioch in ancient times, the city has historical significance for Christianity, as it was the place where the followers of Jesus Christ were called Christians for the first...

 and Gaziantep
Gaziantep
Gaziantep , Ottoman Turkish: Ayintab) previously and still informally called Antep; ʻayn tāb is a city in southeast Turkey and amongst the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world. The city is located 185 kilometres northeast of Adana and 127 kilometres by road north of Aleppo, Syria...

. In 2009, the festival took place for the 5th time with an opening concert from Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra
Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra
The Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra is a symphony orchestra located in Adana, Turkey.It was founded in 1988 after the Turkish Presidency Symphony Orchestra, Istanbul and Izmir State Symphony Orchestras. It performed its first concert on January 5, 1992. Its principal conductor is Emin Güven...

. Bariton
Bariton
Bariton may refer to:* Baryton, a string instrument* Baritone is most commonly the type of male voice that lies between bass and tenor....

 Marcin Bronikowski, pianist
Pianist
A pianist is a musician who plays the piano. A professional pianist can perform solo pieces, play with an ensemble or orchestra, or accompany one or more singers, solo instrumentalists, or other performers.-Choice of genres:...

 Vania Batchvarova, guitarist Peter Finger, cello
Cello
The cello is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is a member of the violin family of musical instruments, which also includes the violin, viola, and double bass. Old forms of the instrument in the Baroque era are baryton and viol .A person who plays a cello is...

 Ozan Tunca and pianist Zöhrap Adıgüzelzade were some of the musicians performed at the festival.

Çukurova Art Days is a regional festival that takes place every April since 2007. 115 poets, painters, musicians and caricaturists from 10 different countries attended festival in 2009, which took place in Adana, Mersin
Mersin
-Mersin today:Today, Mersin is a large city spreading out along the coast, with Turkey's second tallest skyscraper , huge hotels, an opera house, expensive real estate near the sea or up in the hills, and many other modern urban...

, Gaziantep, Antakya
Antakya
Antakya is the seat of the Hatay Province in southern Turkey, near the border with Syria. The mayor is Lütfü Savaş.Known as Antioch in ancient times, the city has historical significance for Christianity, as it was the place where the followers of Jesus Christ were called Christians for the first...

, İskenderun
Iskenderun
İskenderun is a city and urban district in the province of Hatay on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The current mayor is Yusuf Hamit Civelek .-Names:...

, Tarsus and Aleppo
Aleppo
Aleppo is the largest city in Syria and the capital of Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 2,301,570 , expanding to over 2.5 million in the metropolitan area, it is also one of the largest cities in the Levant...

. 77 talks, 13 concerts, 13 exhibitions, 4 panels and 23 film showing were held during the 4 days of the festival.

13 Kare Arts Festival began in 1999 as a festival of photography dedicated to 13 photographers of Adana who died in an accident during an AFAD (Adana Photography Amateurs Association) trip. Festival then extended to other arts. During the festival, exhibitions of nature, under-sea and architecture photography, puppet shows, shadow theater and several concerts are held. Festival takes place every December.

Adana Literature Festival held every April at Adana Center for Arts & Culture. Around 100 writers, poets and critics attend the festival and performing several talks, panels and presentations.

Ramadan Fest is a month long festival that takes place during the month of Ramadan. During the festival, theater plays, sufi music concerts, folkloric dances and children shows held at the festival area next to the Galleria Mall.

Sports



Football (soccer) is the most popular sports in Adana. Adanaspor
Adanaspor
Adanaspor is a professional Turkish football club located in the city of Adana. Formed in 1954, Adanaspor are nicknamed Toros Kaplanları . The club colours are orange and white, and the club play their home matches at Adana 5 Ocak Stadı....

 and Adanademirspor
Adana Demirspor
Adana Demirspor is a professional Turkish football club located in the city of Adana. Formed in 1940, Adana Demirspor are nicknamed Mavi Şimşekler...

 are the two well-known clubs of Adana that appear in Turkish Professional Football League. Both clubs performed at the top division (now called Super Lig), from late 1960s to mid 1990s, but relegated to lower divisions since then. Adanaspor was the runner up at the top division in 1980-81 season and competed there for 21 years. Adanaspor also performed at the UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup
The UEFA Europa League is an annual association football cup competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs. It is the second most prestigious European club football contest after the UEFA Champions League...

 for three years. Adanademirspor was the runner up at the Turkish Cup in 1977-1978 season and performed at the top division for 17 years. Both teams have almost equal number of passionate fans in every district of the city, creating an archrival atmosphere second to İstanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

. Both teams share 5 Ocak Stadium
5 Ocak Stadium
Adana 5 Ocak Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Adana, Turkey. The stadium holds 14,085 and was built in 1973. It abides UEFA standards for hosting Europa League games and TFF standards for hosting Super Lig games....

 as their venue.

Basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

 is also popular in Adana as Botaş SK being one of the top clubs in Women's Pro-Basketball, currently performing at the top division. The team has won the Turkish Women's Basketball League(TBBL) top division title in 2000-01 and 2002–03 and the Turkish Cup title in 2001-02 and 2002-03. Botaşspor was the runner up at the Euro Cup Women in 2000-01 season and played the quarter final in 1999-00. The venue of Botaşspor is Adnan Menderes Sports Hall.

Rowing
Rowing (sport)
Rowing is a sport in which athletes race against each other on rivers, on lakes or on the ocean, depending upon the type of race and the discipline. The boats are propelled by the reaction forces on the oar blades as they are pushed against the water...

 became a popular sports in Adana in the last 20 years. Rowing competitions are held all year long on Seyhan River and Seyhan Reservoir. Adana Metropolitan Municipality Rowing Club and Çukurova University Rowing Club compete at the national and international level. Sailing
Sailing
Sailing is the propulsion of a vehicle and the control of its movement with large foils called sails. By changing the rigging, rudder, and sometimes the keel or centre board, a sailor manages the force of the wind on the sails in order to move the boat relative to its surrounding medium and...

 competitions are also held at Seyhan Reservoir all year long. Recreational sailors and sailing competitions can be watched all along the shores of the reservoir, from parks, cafes and buildings around. Adana Sailing & Watersports Club is the only sailing club of Adana.

Water polo
Water polo
Water polo is a team water sport. The playing team consists of six field players and one goalkeeper. The winner of the game is the team that scores more goals. Game play involves swimming, treading water , players passing the ball while being defended by opponents, and scoring by throwing into a...

 team of Adanademirspor
Adana Demirspor
Adana Demirspor is a professional Turkish football club located in the city of Adana. Formed in 1940, Adana Demirspor are nicknamed Mavi Şimşekler...

 is a legend in the watersports community of Turkey. The team has the record 22 years of straight championship title in Turkish Men's Waterpolo League, 17 years of it without losing a game and thus given the name "Unbeatables". Adanademirspor joined Waterpolo league in 1942 after the modernest watersports complex of Turkey opened in Adana in 1938. The team had total of 29 championship titles.

Swimming has been recreationally and competitively the traditional sports of Adana. Erdal Acet of Adanademirspor is one of the top figures in Adana's swimming history, who broke the record of swimming Canal La Manche (English Channel
English Channel
The English Channel , often referred to simply as the Channel, is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. It is about long and varies in width from at its widest to in the Strait of Dover...

) in 9 hours and 2 minutes in 1976. Recreationally, the lack of swimming pools made Seyhan River and the irrigation canals attractive for swimmers who want to chill out from the hot and humid summers. Due to almost 100 people suffocating every year, the Metropolitan Municipality built 35 public swimming pools, mostly at the low-income neighborhoods.

Adana is one of the cities of Turkey where Horse racing
Horse racing
Horse racing is an equestrian sport that has a long history. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in ancient Babylon, Syria, and Egypt. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC...

 is highly popular. Adana Hippodrome is traditionally one of the four hippodromes of Turkey, hosting Horse racing
Horse racing
Horse racing is an equestrian sport that has a long history. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in ancient Babylon, Syria, and Egypt. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC...

 competitions from October to May.

Cuisine



Cuisine of Adana influenced mainly from Yörük, Arabic and Armenian cuisine and the city kept to its traditions tightly. Spicy, sour and fatty dishes made of meat (usually lamb) and bulghur are common. Bulghur and flour are found at all the kitchens in Çukurova. In almost every home, red pepper, spices, tahini, chopping block and pastry board can be found. The bulghur used in cooking is specific to Adana, made from dark colored hard wheat species. Bulghur that is made of other species of wheat is not used in area, because of the missing flavor.
Adana Kebab
Adana Kebab
Adana kebabı is a long, hand-minced meat kebab mounted on a wide iron skewer and grilled on an open mangal over braizing charcoals. It is named for Adana, the fifth largest city of Turkey, in the Eastern part of the Mediterranean region...

, called "Kebap" locally, is a kebab made from minced meat. Since it can be found at all kebab restaurants in Turkey and at most Turkish restaurants around the world, Adana name still bears kebab to many people. Adana Kebab is the most popular dining choice in Adana, although foods from other cultures are getting increasingly popular. Besides many kebab restaurants, there are also many kebab serving vendors on the older streets of Adana.

Adana Kebab is usually served with onion salad, green salad or with well-chopped tomato salad. Rakı
Raki
-Alcoholic beverages:*Rakı, an anise-flavored spirit popular in Turkey*Any anise-flavored drink.-Fictional characters:*Raki, a character in the manga/anime series Claymore*Raki, a character in the game Ar tonelico II: Melody of Metafalica...

 and Şalgam are usually accompanied with it as drinks. There are many varieties of salads typical to the city. Radish salad with tahini is popular and it is found only in the Çukurova region. Şalgam and pickle juice are the drinks of the winter and aşlama (licorice juice) is the choice of drink in summer.

Vegetable dishes are also popular in the city. Besides the tomato paste, pepper paste is used in almost every dish. The city is also famous for its Şırdan a kind of home-made sausage stuffed with rice, and eaten with cumin
Cumin
Cumin is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to India. Its seeds are used in the cuisines of many different cultures, in both whole and ground form.-Etymology:...

; paça, boiled sheep's feet; bicibici made from diced semolina, rose water and sugar, and served with crushed ice, consumed especially in summer time. Furthermore, the city has a number of famous desserts, such as Halka Tatlı, a round-shaped dessert, and Taş Kadayıf, a bow-shaped dessert. Several types of fruit, including the apricot
Apricot
The apricot, Prunus armeniaca, is a species of Prunus, classified with the plum in the subgenus Prunus. The native range is somewhat uncertain due to its extensive prehistoric cultivation.- Description :...

, are native to this area.

Education


Public, private and not-for profit foundation institutions conduct education in Adana. There are 282 public and 12 private primary schools which pupils attend from grade 1 to 8. From grade 9 to 11, pupils go to one of the 85 public and 26 private high schools. Notable high schools of the city that require examination to enter are; Adana Fen Lisesi (Lycee for Science), Adana Anadolu Lisesi (Anatolian Lycee),Gündoğdu Lisesi(Private) and Bilfen Lisesi (Private). There are also 6 public and 6 private schools for pupils with special needs. 9 Community Training Centers serve adult residents to improve their skills. There are two state universities in the city and one university just outside.

Çukurova University
Çukurova University
Çukurova University has eleven faculties, three colleges, seven vocational colleges, three institutes and twenty six research and application centers...

 is a state university located at the east shores of Seyhan Reservoir. In 2008, with 3 faculties, it is placed among the top 500 universities of the world at a research conducted by Blackwell Publishing, Quacquarelli Symonds
Quacquarelli Symonds
Quacquarelli Symonds is a company specializing in education and study abroad. The company was founded in 1990 by Wharton School MBA graduate Nunzio Quacquarelli...

 and The Times
The Times
The Times is a British daily national newspaper, first published in London in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register . The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary since 1981 of News International...

. The university was founded in 1973 with the union of the colleges of Agriculture and Medicine. It has a beautiful campus overlooking to the reservoir with many cultural, social and athletic facilities, currently holding 40,000 students.

Çağ University is a not-for-profit tuition-based university founded in 1997. The university is located just outside of the city, midway to Tarsus. University holds around 2500 students, most of them commuting from Adana, Tarsus
Tarsus (city)
Tarsus is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea. It is part of the Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Turkey with a population of 2.75 million...

 and Mersin.

Adana University for Science and Technology is a recently founded state university that is planned to have ten faculties, two institutions and a college. It will accommodate 1,700 academic, 470 administrative staff, and it is expected to enroll students by 2012.

Healthcare


Adana is a major health center to a wide region from Mediterrenean to Southeastern Anatolia. There are 4 university hospitals, 8 state hospitals and 7 private hospitals in the city. Balcalı Hospital of the Çukurova University is one of the major hospitals of Turkey.

Transportation


As being on the major route that is connecting Europe to Middle East, Adana is well served by many forms of transportation. Until the 16th century, Adana was a port city where ships could navigate on Seyhan River
Seyhan River
The Seyhan River is the longest river in Turkey that is flowing into Mediterranean Sea. The river is 560 km and flows southwest from its headwaters in the Tahtalı-Mountains in Anti-Taurus Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea via a broad delta...

 to the port just south of Taşköprü
Stone Bridge (Adana)
- External links :**...

.

Direct flights to major cities in Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, to Jeddah
Jeddah
Jeddah, Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. The...

 and to Nicosia
Nicosia
Nicosia from , known locally as Lefkosia , is the capital and largest city in Cyprus, as well as its main business center. Nicosia is the only divided capital in the world, with the southern and the northern portions divided by a Green Line...

 (TRNC) run from Adana Şakirpaşa Airport
Adana Sakirpasa Airport
Adana Airport or Adana Şakirpaşa Airport is an airport located in the city of Adana in the Adana Province of Turkey. Adana Airport was opened to service as a civil-military airport in 1937. It started to be used as a civil airport in 1956...

 by SunExpress
SunExpress
SunExpress is an airline based in Antalya, Turkey. It operates scheduled and charter flights to destinations in Europe. Its main base is Antalya International Airport .-History:...

, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey, headquartered in the Turkish Airlines General Management Building on the grounds of Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy, Bakirköy district, Istanbul...

, Germania
Germania (airline)
Germania Fluggesellschaft mbH, operating as Germania, is an airline with its headquarters in Berlin, Germany. It operates scheduled and chartered flights and aircraft lease services...

 and Cyprus Turkish Airlines. Mersin-Aleppo Train connects Adana and the rest of Çukurova region to Aleppo
Aleppo
Aleppo is the largest city in Syria and the capital of Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 2,301,570 , expanding to over 2.5 million in the metropolitan area, it is also one of the largest cities in the Levant...

, the largest metropolitan area of Syria. This train service started in 2008, but did not get popular, as the ride from Adana to Aleppo takes 8 hours. Hatay-based buses take this distance in 3-3.5 hours.


Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey, headquartered in the Turkish Airlines General Management Building on the grounds of Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy, Bakirköy district, Istanbul...

, Pegasus Airlines
Pegasus Airlines
Pegasus Airlines is a low-cost airline headquartered in the Halkalı area of Küçükçekmece, Istanbul, Turkey. Formerly a charter airline in partnership with Aer Lingus, Pegasus is now completely controlled by Esas Holding.- History :...

, Atlas Jet Airways, Anadolu Jet Airlines, Onur Air
Onur Air
Onur Air is an airline based in Florya, Bakırköy district, Istanbul, Turkey. It operates scheduled domestic services and charter flights to a large number of destinations throughout Europe from its main base at Atatürk International Airport...

 and SunExpress
SunExpress
SunExpress is an airline based in Antalya, Turkey. It operates scheduled and charter flights to destinations in Europe. Its main base is Antalya International Airport .-History:...

 provide daily or weekly flights to Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

, Ankara
Ankara
Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of , and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province had a population of 4.4 million....

, Izmir
Izmir
Izmir is a large metropolis in the western extremity of Anatolia. The metropolitan area in the entire Izmir Province had a population of 3.35 million as of 2010, making the city third most populous in Turkey...

, Antalya
Antalya
Antalya is a city on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey. With a population 1,001,318 as of 2010. It is the eighth most populous city in Turkey and country's biggest international sea resort.- History :...

, Trabzon
Trabzon
Trabzon is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Iran in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast...

, Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey...

 and Van
Van, Turkey
Van is a city in southeastern Turkey and the seat of the Kurdish-majority Van Province, and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. The city's official population in 2010 was 367,419, but many estimates put this as much higher with a 1996 estimate stating 500,000 and former Mayor Burhan...

 from Adana Şakirpaşa Airport
Adana Sakirpasa Airport
Adana Airport or Adana Şakirpaşa Airport is an airport located in the city of Adana in the Adana Province of Turkey. Adana Airport was opened to service as a civil-military airport in 1937. It started to be used as a civil airport in 1956...

. Turkish State Railways
Turkish State Railways
The State Railways of the Turkish Republic or TCDD is the government owned, national railway carrier in the Republic of Turkey, headquartered in Ankara...

(TCDD) provides trips to most of the cities in Turkey from the Adana Railway Station
Adana Railway Station
Adana Central Station is a train station in Adana and one of the major railway hubs in Turkey. The station is located at the Uğur Mumcu Square, steps to the Vilayet station of the metro.- History :...

.
The railway line was built during 1910s by the Ottoman-German co-operation and the bridges, tunnels that were built along the Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, dividing the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau. The system extends along a curve from Lake Eğirdir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the east...

 were the engineering wonders of their time. Numerous bus companies provide service to almost all the cities in Turkey. Although lost its popularity as private airlines introduced inexpensive flights to major cities, bus is still the major form of transportation to and from Adana. Adana has two intercity bus terminals. Bus companies that serve transportation to cities west of Adana, departs from Central Bus Terminal, whereas the buses that serve to cities east of Adana depart from Yüreğir Bus Terminal. There is shuttle service between two terminals.

Adana-Mersin Railway Line runs like a commuter train serving every 20 minutes between Mersin, Tarsus and Adana. With the new railbuses, train trip between Adana and Mersin takes 45 minutes. Train service from Adana to Ceyhan
Ceyhan
Ceyhan is a city in southeast Turkey and with 105,000 inhabitants it is the second largest city of Adana Province after the capital Adana. Ceyhan is the transportation hub for Middle Eastern, Central Asian and Russian oil and natural gas. It is situated on the Ceyhan River, from which it takes...

, Osmaniye
Osmaniye
-External links:...

 and Islahiye
Islahiye
Islahiye is a town and district of Gaziantep Province in southeastern Turkey. It is a railway border crossing into Syria.The train station of Islahiye is the last stop on the railway to Damascus in Syria...

 run three times per day. Regional bus services from Adana to other places in Çukurova are plentiful and carried by bus and minibus co-operatives. Seasonal Bus Services to high plains of Tekir, Bürücek and Kızıldag run in summer, due to high demand of Adana residents escaping the heat.

There is an extensive motorway network (O50-O59) in the region, connecting Adana to as far as Erdemli
Erdemli
Erdemli is a town and district of Mersin Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, west of the city of Mersin.-Geography:The district extends from the Mediterranean coastal plain, the largest agricultural area in Mersin Province, to high in the Taurus Mountains where there is forest, and...

 at the west, Niğde
Nigde
Niğde is a small city and the capital of Niğde Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. The population is 109,724 per the 2010 statistics...

 at the north, Şanlıurfa
Sanliurfa
Şanlıurfa, , often simply known as Urfa in daily language , in ancient times Edessa, is a city with 482,323 inhabitants Şanlıurfa, , often simply known as Urfa in daily language (Syriac ܐܘܪܗܝ Urhoy,Armenian Ուռհա Owr'ha, Arabic الرها ar-Ruhā), in ancient times Edessa, is a city with 482,323...

 at the east and Iskenderun
Iskenderun
İskenderun is a city and urban district in the province of Hatay on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The current mayor is Yusuf Hamit Civelek .-Names:...

 at the south. Traffic runs smooth at anytime of the day, driving can take as short as 40 minutes to Mersin and 2 hours to Gaziantep
Gaziantep
Gaziantep , Ottoman Turkish: Ayintab) previously and still informally called Antep; ʻayn tāb is a city in southeast Turkey and amongst the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world. The city is located 185 kilometres northeast of Adana and 127 kilometres by road north of Aleppo, Syria...

.

Local transport


Local transport in Adana is provided by the Metropolitan Municipality (through buses and the metro) and by dolmuş
Dolmuş
In Turkey and Turkish controlled Northern Cyprus, dolmuş are share taxis that run set routes within and between cities.Departing from the terminal only when a sufficient amount of passengers have boarded, their name is derived from Turkish for "apparently stuffed" for this reason.In some cities...

 (minibus) and bus co-operatives.
Adana Metro
Adana Metro
Adana Metro is a rail rapid transit system extending 14 km on the north-south corridor of Adana. It has 13 stations and can transport 21,600 passengers per hour one-way...

 is a rail rapid transit
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 system which fully opened to service on May 14, 2010. It is 14 km long and has 13 stations. The system can transport 21,600 passengers per hour one-way, a complete journey taking 21 minutes. The second line of the metro will run from Akıncılar to Çukurova University in the Sarıçam District. It will be 9.5 km long and will have 7 stations. The project is contracted in January 2010 and the construction is expected to start after an agreement is made with the Çukurova University. Adana Metro will then extend to 23.5 km. serving at 20 stations.

Adana Metropolitan Municipality Bus Department (ABBO) serves the city with 229 buses, 8 of them designed specifically for disabled users. Payments are collected by Kentkart Smartcard system; one of the most advanced in Turkey. 6 Bus Co-operatives (known as Can buses) serve the city with 411 buses. Kentkart and cash are accepted at these buses. 18 Dolmuş
Dolmuş
In Turkey and Turkish controlled Northern Cyprus, dolmuş are share taxis that run set routes within and between cities.Departing from the terminal only when a sufficient amount of passengers have boarded, their name is derived from Turkish for "apparently stuffed" for this reason.In some cities...

 Co-operatives, with total of 1,086 minibuses, provide service even to secondary streets. The only form of payment is by cash.

Twin towns — sister cities


Adana is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Córdoba
Córdoba, Spain
-History:The first trace of human presence in the area are remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 32,000 BC. In the 8th century BC, during the ancient Tartessos period, a pre-urban settlement existed. The population gradually learned copper and silver metallurgy...

, Spain Beer Sheba, Israel Shymkent
Shymkent
Shymkent , formerly known as Chimkent , is the capital city of South Kazakhstan Province, the most populated region in Kazakhstan. It is the third most populous city in Kazakhstan behind Almaty and Astana with a population of 629,600 . A major railroad junction on the Turkestan-Siberia Railway, the...

, Kazakhstan
Famagusta
Famagusta
Famagusta is a city on the east coast of Cyprus and is capital of the Famagusta District. It is located east of Nicosia, and possesses the deepest harbour of the island.-Name:...

, Cyprus
Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

 Bremerhaven
Bremerhaven
Bremerhaven is a city at the seaport of the free city-state of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. It forms an enclave in the state of Lower Saxony and is located at the mouth of the River Weser on its eastern bank, opposite the town of Nordenham...

, Germany Skopje
Skopje
Skopje is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia with about a third of the total population. It is the country's political, cultural, economic, and academic centre...

, Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
Macedonia , officially the Republic of Macedonia , is a country located in the central Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991...

Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

, Russia Livorno
Livorno
Livorno , traditionally Leghorn , is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno, having a population of approximately 160,000 residents in 2009.- History :...

, Italy Ulan Bator, Mongolia

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