Academic certificate

Academic certificate

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Academic certificate'
Start a new discussion about 'Academic certificate'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
An academic certificate is a document that certifies that a person has received specific education
Education
Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

 or has passed a test
Test (assessment)
A test or an examination is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics . A test may be administered orally, on paper, on a computer, or in a confined area that requires a test taker to physically perform a...

 or series of tests.

In many countries, certificate is a qualification attained in secondary education
Secondary education
Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education. Secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university...

. For instance, students in the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
Ireland , described as the Republic of Ireland , is a sovereign state in Europe occupying approximately five-sixths of the island of the same name. Its capital is Dublin. Ireland, which had a population of 4.58 million in 2011, is a constitutional republic governed as a parliamentary democracy,...

 sit the Junior Certificate
Junior Certificate
The Junior Certificate is an educational qualification awarded in Ireland by the Department of Education to students who have successfully completed the junior cycle of secondary education, and achieved a minimum standard in their Junior Cert. examinations...

 and follow it with the Leaving Certificate
Leaving Certificate
The Leaving Certificate Examinations , commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert is the final examination in the Irish secondary school system. It takes a minimum of two years preparation, but an optional Transition Year means that for those students it takes place three years after the Junior...

. Similarly, other countries have awards, for instance, in Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 the Higher School Certificate (HSC) in New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

, the Victorian Certificate of Education
Victorian Certificate of Education
The Victorian Certificate of Education or VCE is the credential awarded to secondary school students who successfully complete high school level studies in the state of Victoria, Australia. Study for the VCE is usually completed over two years, but it can be spread over a longer period in some cases...

 (VCE) in Victoria
Victoria (Australia)
Victoria is the second most populous state in Australia. Geographically the smallest mainland state, Victoria is bordered by New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania on Boundary Islet to the north, west and south respectively....

, etc., is the examination taken on completion of secondary education.

In many other countries, certificates are qualifications in higher education. For example, in the Republic of Ireland, the National Certificate
National Certificate
National Certificate is the name of an educational award in a number of countries, although the actual merit of award is not always the same.-Ireland:...

, which is soon to be replaced by the "Higher Certificate
Higher Certificate
The Higher Certificate is an award that has replaced the National Certificate in the Republic of Ireland The Higher Certificate is awarded by various Institutes of Technology...

". These have the titles Certificate (at an undergraduate level), Graduate Certificate (at an undergraduate level, but requiring the completion of a prior undergraduate degree for admission) and Postgraduate Certificate (at a postgraduate level). In Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

, students take the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination
Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination
The Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination was a standardized examination between 1974 and 2011 after most local students’ five-year secondary education, conducted by the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority . The examination will be discontinued in 2012...

. Certificate is below the standard of the associate degree and higher diploma, which are below the bachelor's degree. Postgraduate certificates are taken after the bachelor's degree and are more vocational oriented than master's degree.

In Australia, a certificate is a qualification offered by a university or other higher education provider which is shorter than a degree or diploma. Certificates are generally provided by TAFE colleges or non-academic Registered Training Organizations (often workplaces). There are four ranks of Certificate in Australia, indicated by Roman Numeral
Roman numerals
The numeral system of ancient Rome, or Roman numerals, uses combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet to signify values. The numbers 1 to 10 can be expressed in Roman numerals as:...

, e.g., Cert. IV in Horticulture. The time spent varies, but in general a Certificate I will be granted after a course of only a few weeks, while a Cert. IV may take up to six months. A Diploma
Diploma
A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study or confers an academic degree. In countries such as the United Kingdom and Australia, the word diploma refers to...

 directly follows Cert. IV and may rightly be considered equivalent to a hypothetical Certificate V.

In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, a Certificate of Higher Education
Certificate of Higher Education
A Certificate of Higher Education is a higher education qualification in the United Kingdom. It is awarded after one year full-time study at a university or other higher education institution. A Cert.HE is an independent tertiary award, an award in its own right, and students can study for a...

 (CertHE) requires successful completion of 120 CATS points at Level One. This is equivalent to one year of full-time university education, at first year level. Each credit point takes about 10 hours to achieve, and as such the CertHE is 1, 200 hours of study. This compares with 360 credit points for an undergraduate degree, and 240 credits for a Diploma of Higher Education
Diploma of Higher Education
A Diploma of Higher Education is a higher education qualification in the United Kingdom. It is awarded after two years to three years' full-time study at a university or other higher education institution...

.

In the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, a certificate may be offered by an institute of higher education. These certificates usually signify that a student has reached a standard of knowledge of a certain vocational subject. Certificate programs can be completed more quickly than associate's degrees and often do not have general education requirements.

In the State of Maryland
Maryland
Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

, a Certificate of Merit was, until recently, issued to graduating high-school seniors
Twelfth grade
Twelfth grade or Senior year, or Grade Twelve, are the North American names for the final year of secondary school. In most countries students then graduate at age 17 or 18. In some countries, there is a thirteenth grade, while other countries do not have a 12th grade/year at all...

 who met certain academic requirements (such as completion of advanced courses and a cumulative GPA of 3.00); the statewide certificate has since been replaced by "endorsements" defined by each local school system.

It also may be awarded as a necessary certification to validate that a student is considered competent in a certain specific networking skill area in information technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

. Thus a computer engineer or computer science
Computer science
Computer science or computing science is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems...

 graduation most likely will have to obtain additional certificates on and pertaining to the specific technologies or equipments used by the hiring corporation; if not, such employer may suffer unwanted penalties like foregoing (voiding the contract) the protections of a certain level of customer service or warranties.

Higher level academic certificates


It is becoming more common for higher education instutitions to award certificates to continuing education students. These certificates can vary, usually involve rigorous courses, and can be affiliated with many associations. Examples would include CMA
Certified Management Accountant
The title Certified Management Accountant is used by various professional bodies around the world to designate their different professional certifications....

 or CGA
Certified General Accountant
Certified General Accountant is the designation of professionals who are jointly members of the Certified General Accountants Association of Canada and a provincial or territorial CGA association, or a CGA association overseas...

.