Abu Dhabi (emirate)

Abu Dhabi (emirate)

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Abu Dhabi, officially the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, ( , literally "father of gazelle
Gazelle
A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus Gazella, or formerly considered to belong to it. Six species are included in two genera, Eudorcas and Nanger, which were formerly considered subgenera...

"), is one of seven emirates
Emirates of the United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates is composed of 7 emirates :-References:...

 that constitute the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, abbreviated as the UAE, or shortened to "the Emirates", is a state situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman, and Saudi Arabia, and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran.The UAE is a...

 (UAE). It is the capital of UAE and is the largest emirate by area (67,340 km²), and second-largest by population (after Dubai
Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

), accounting for approximately 86% of the total land area of the UAE. The seat of the President of the United Arab Emirates
President of the United Arab Emirates
The President is the Head of State of the United Arab Emirates. Because the current ruler of Abu Dhabi customarily also holds the presidency of the UAE, the office is de facto hereditary. The President is also Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces and Chairman of the Supreme Council and...

 is located in Abu Dhabi city, which also hosts many oil companies, foreign embassies and the federal cabinet.

The emirate's main revenues are from industry, construction and financial services
Financial services
Financial services refer to services provided by the finance industry. The finance industry encompasses a broad range of organizations that deal with the management of money. Among these organizations are credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, consumer finance companies,...

  which make up Abu Dhabi's US$187 billion economy (2008). Revenues from the industry contributed 65.5% to the economy in 2008. Construction activities represent 11.5% of the economy in 2008, and commercial and financial activities make up the remaining 23.6%.

History


Parts of Abu Dhabi were settled as far back as the 3rd millennium BC
3rd millennium BC
The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age.It represents a period of time in which imperialism, or the desire to conquer, grew to prominence, in the city states of the Middle East, but also throughout Eurasia, with Indo-European expansion to Anatolia, Europe and Central Asia. The...

 and its early history fits the nomadic herding and fishing pattern typical of the broader region. Modern Abu Dhabi traces its origins to the rise of an important tribal confederation, the Bani Yas
Bani Yas
Bani Yas is a tribe in the United Arab Emirates that had a coalition with many other tribes in the region. The tribal coalition which consists of tribes from Dubai to Khawr al Udayd southeast of Qatar, was called the Bani Yas Coalition. The tribe has been led by their rulers the Al Nahyan and their...

, in the late 18th century, which also assumed control of Dubai
Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

. In the 19th century the Dubai and Abu Dhabi branches parted ways.

Into the mid-20th century, the economy of Abu Dhabi continued to be sustained mainly by camel
Camel
A camel is an even-toed ungulate within the genus Camelus, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as humps on its back. There are two species of camels: the dromedary or Arabian camel has a single hump, and the bactrian has two humps. Dromedaries are native to the dry desert areas of West Asia,...

 herding, production of date
Date Palm
The date palm is a palm in the genus Phoenix, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from lands around the Persian Gulf. It is a medium-sized plant, 15–25 m tall, growing singly or forming a clump with...

s and vegetables at the inland oases
Oasis
In geography, an oasis or cienega is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source...

 of Al Ain and Liwa
Liwa
*Liwa "Liwa" means "standard" or "banner" in Arabic.*Liwa *Liwa geography*Chad**Liwa in Mamdi Department*Oman**Liwa, Oman**Liwa Province, Oman *United Arab Emirates**Liwa Oasis *Poland...

, and fishing and pearl
Pearl
A pearl is a hard object produced within the soft tissue of a living shelled mollusk. Just like the shell of a mollusk, a pearl is made up of calcium carbonate in minute crystalline form, which has been deposited in concentric layers. The ideal pearl is perfectly round and smooth, but many other...

 diving off the coast of Abu Dhabi city, which was occupied mainly during the summer months. Most dwellings in Abu Dhabi city were, at this time, constructed of palm
Arecaceae
Arecaceae or Palmae , are a family of flowering plants, the only family in the monocot order Arecales. There are roughly 202 currently known genera with around 2600 species, most of which are restricted to tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate climates...

 fronds (barasti), with the wealthier families occupying mud huts
Mudbrick
A mudbrick is a firefree brick, made of a mixture of clay, mud, sand, and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw. They use a stiff mixture and let them dry in the sun for 25 days....

. The growth of the cultured pearl industry in the first half of the twentieth century created hardship for residents of Abu Dhabi as pearls represented the largest export and main source of cash earnings.

In 1939, Sheikh
Sheikh
Not to be confused with sikhSheikh — also spelled Sheik or Shaikh, or transliterated as Shaykh — is an honorific in the Arabic language that literally means "elder" and carries the meaning "leader and/or governor"...

 Shakhbut Bin-Sultan Al Nahyan
Shakhbut Bin-Sultan Al Nahyan
Shakhbut Bin Sultan Al Nahyan was the eldest son of Sheikh Sultan II bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the ruler of Abu Dhabi from 1922 to 1926. He succeeded his uncle Sheikh Saqr I bin Zayed Al Nahyan in 1928...

 granted petroleum concessions, and oil was first found in 1958. At first, oil money had a marginal impact. A few lowrise concrete buildings were erected, and the first paved road was completed in 1961, but Sheikh Shakbut, uncertain whether the new oil royalties would last, took a cautious approach, preferring to save the revenue rather than investing it in development. His brother, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, saw that oil wealth had the potential to transform Abu Dhabi. The ruling Al Nahyan family decided that Sheikh Zayed should replace his brother as ruler and carry out his vision of developing the country. On August 6, 1966, with the assistance of the British, Sheikh Zayed became the new ruler.

With the announcement by the UK in 1968 that it would withdraw from the Persian Gulf area by 1971, Sheikh Zayed became the main driving force behind the formation of the United Arab Emirates.

After the Emirates gained independence in 1971, oil wealth continued to flow to the area and traditional mud-brick huts were rapidly replaced with banks, boutiques and modern highrises.

At present, Abu Dhabi boasts the world's highest absolute and per-capita level of sovereign wealth funds, calculated at USD 1,000,000.00 per inhabitant.

Geography




The emirate of Abu Dhabi is located in the oil-rich and strategic Persian Gulf region. It adjoins the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

 and the Sultanate of Oman. The emirate border
Border
Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states and other subnational entities. Some borders—such as a state's internal administrative borders, or inter-state borders within the Schengen Area—are open and...

s the emirate of Dubai
Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

 and Sharjah to its north.

Towns and cities


Abu Dhabi city is a modern city with broad boulevards, tall office and apartment buildings, and busy shops.

Other urban centers in the Abu Dhabi emirate are Al 'Ain, Baniyas and Ruwais
Ruwais
Al Ruwais is a town located some 240 kilometers west of Abu Dhabi city. The Ruwais industrial and housing complex has been developed by ADNOC as a major contributor to the national economy and represents a series of multi-million-dollar investments by the company...

. Al Ain is an agglomeration of several villages scattered around a valuable desert oasis; today it is the site of the national university, UAEU. Al Ain is billed as the Garden City of the UAE. Other work includes the 1st prize international competition of the Abu Dhabi Library and Cultural Center won by the Architects Collaborative, designed by Hisham N. Ashkouri
Hisham N. Ashkouri
Hisham N. Ashkouri is a Boston and New York-based architect.Dr. Ashkouri graduated first in class in 1970 with a Bachelor of Architecture Degree from the University of Baghdad and continued for his Masters of Architecture at the University of Pennsylvania under the late Louis I. Kahn in 1973...

 of Boston, Massachusetts and New York, NY.

Main cities and towns

  • Abu Dhabi
    Abu Dhabi
    Abu Dhabi , literally Father of Gazelle, is the capital and the second largest city of the United Arab Emirates in terms of population and the largest of the seven member emirates of the United Arab Emirates. Abu Dhabi lies on a T-shaped island jutting into the Persian Gulf from the central western...

  • Abu al Abyad
    Abu al Abyad
    Abu al Abyad is the largest of about 200 islands along the coast of the United Arab Emirates. It is situated in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. Its area is...

  • Al Ain
    Al Ain
    Al Ain |Spring]]), also known as the Garden City due to its greenery, is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the fourth largest city in the United Arab Emirates. With a population of 374,000 , it is located approximately 160 km east of the capital Abu Dhabi and about...

  • Al-Aryam Island
    Al-Aryam Island
    Al-Aryam Island is an island off the west coast of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. It was formerly known as Bu Khushaishah. It contains the royal palaces and horse ranches which belong to the ruling family, the Al Nahyans. Access is strictly prohibited to the public...

  • Al Mushrif
    Al Mushrif
    Al Mushrif is a central neighborhood in the city of Abu Dhabi. Made up mostly of villas, it is located in an area between Airport Road and The Beach Road, which extends to Mussafah Bridge. It contains the Al Mushrif Palace and Al Mushrif Children's Park...

  • Bahrani Island
  • Dalma
    Dalma (island)
    Dalma is an Emarati island located in Persian Gulf approximately 26 miles off the coast of Abu Dhabi and 72 miles from Doha. The Abu Dhabi Islands Archaeological Survey ADIAS carried out an initial archaeological survey of Dalma island in 1992. A total of more than 20 archaeological sites were...

  • Habshan
    Habshan
    Habshan is an area in the southwestern part of the emirate of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates.It is currently a major oil and gas field for both ADCO and GaSCO companies. It contains oil field and camps for oil workers. The major part of this region is marked as a red zone due to the presence...

  • Khalifa City
    Khalifa City
    Khalifa City is a residential suburb of the city of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. It is divided into 3 areas: Khalifa City A, Khalifa City B, and New Khalifa City. Khalifa City A is on the main highway to Dubai and lies about 30 kilometres from Abu Dhabi. It is close to Abu Dhabi...

  • Liwa Oasis
    Liwa Oasis
    The Liwa Oasis is a large oasis area in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.- Geography :Liwa Oasis is about 100 km south of the Persian Gulf coast and 150 km SSW of the city of Abu Dhabi, on the northern edge of Rub' al Khali desert. It is centered around and stretches about 100 km east-west, along...

  • Marawah
  • Mussafah
    Mussafah
    Mussafah, is an emerging satellite town of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. It holds one of the primary industrial areas of Abu Dhabi and locally known as Mussafah Sanaiya. Engineering and steel industries are the major thrust areas...

  • Port Zayed
  • Ruwais
    Ruwais
    Al Ruwais is a town located some 240 kilometers west of Abu Dhabi city. The Ruwais industrial and housing complex has been developed by ADNOC as a major contributor to the national economy and represents a series of multi-million-dollar investments by the company...

  • Sila
  • Sir Bani
  • Tarif
    Tarif
    Tarif is a surname and may refer to:*Mowafak Tarif*Salah Tarif*Salih ibn Tarif*Yemek tarifi...

  • Yas Island
    Yas Island
    Yas Island is an island in Abu Dhabi.The island is the site of a US$36 billion development project by Aldar Properties. It occupies a total land area of 2,500 hectares, of which 1,700 hectares will be claimed for development. The island contains the Yas Marina Circuit, which hosts the Formula One...


Climate


Sunny/blue skies can be expected throughout the year. The months June through September are generally hot and humid with temperatures averaging above 43 °C (110 °F). During this time, sandstorms also occur intermittently, in some cases reducing visibility down to a few meters. The weather is usually pleasant from October to May. January to February is cooler and may require the use of a light jacket. This period also sees dense fog on some days. The oasis city of Al Ain
Al Ain
Al Ain |Spring]]), also known as the Garden City due to its greenery, is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the fourth largest city in the United Arab Emirates. With a population of 374,000 , it is located approximately 160 km east of the capital Abu Dhabi and about...

, about 150 km away, bordering Oman, regularly records the highest summer temperatures in the country, however the dry desert air and cooler evenings make it a traditional retreat from the intense summer heat and year round humidity of the capital city.

Transport


Abu Dhabi International Airport
Abu Dhabi International Airport
Abu Dhabi International Airport is an airport in Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates. The airport is one of the fastest growing airports in the world in terms of passengers , new airline operators, and infrastructural development...

 (AUH) and Al Ain International Airport
Al Ain International Airport
Al Ain International Airport is an airport located in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. It was opened in March 31, 1994. Fourteen flights and 4,000 passenger pass through the airport each week...

 (AAN) serves the emirate. The local time is GMT + 4 hours. Private vehicles and taxis are the primary means of transportation in the city, although public buses, run by the Abu Dhabi Municipality, are available, but mostly used by the lower-income population. There are bus routes to nearby towns such as Baniyas, Habashan and the garden city of UAE Al Ain, among others. There is a newer service started in 2005 between Abu Dhabi and the commercial city of Dubai
Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

 (about 160 km away).

Schools and universities


Schools and universities in Abu Dhabi:
  • Zayed University
    Zayed University
    Zayed University , established in 1998, is the newest of the three government sponsored higher educational institutions in the United Arab Emirates. The other two institutions are the Higher Colleges of Technology established in 1988 and the United Arab Emirates University established in 1976...

  • Sherwood Academy CBSE
  • Sherwood Academy IGCSC
  • Merryland International, Musaffah
  • Masdar Institute of Science and Technology
    Masdar Institute of Science and Technology
    The Masdar Institute of Science and Technology is a graduate level, research-oriented university which is focused on alternative energy, sustainability, and the environment...

     (research oriented graduate-level university)
  • The Petroleum Institute
  • Abu Dhabi Men's College (a campus of The Higher Colleges of Technology
    Higher Colleges of Technology
    The Higher Colleges of Technology was established in 1988, and is the largest institution of higher learning in the United Arab Emirates with over 19,000 students. During the 2011 - 2012 academic year there were 12,217 female and 7,298 male students enrolled at 17 campuses and 92 programs...

    )
  • Abu Dhabi Women's College (a campus of The Higher Colleges of Technology
    Higher Colleges of Technology
    The Higher Colleges of Technology was established in 1988, and is the largest institution of higher learning in the United Arab Emirates with over 19,000 students. During the 2011 - 2012 academic year there were 12,217 female and 7,298 male students enrolled at 17 campuses and 92 programs...

    )
  • Abu Dhabi University
    Abu Dhabi University
    Abu Dhabi University was established in 2003, after three years of planning by H. H. Sheikh Hamdan Bin Zayed Al Nayhan and other distinguished citizens of the United Arab Emirates.The University has stated: -Accreditation:...

  • INSEAD
    INSEAD
    INSEAD is an international graduate business school and research institution. It has campuses in Europe , Asia , and the Middle East , as well as a research center in Israel...

     Centre in Abu Dhabi
  • Strathclyde Business School (MSc/MBA)
  • AAESS
  • Abu Dhabi Indian School
    Abu Dhabi Indian School
    Abu Dhabi Indian School is one of the largest private school offering Indian curriculum education in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The School is managed by a Honorary Board of Governors, with the head chairman being Dr. B R Shetty...

  • Indian Islahi Islamic School
  • Al-Noor Indian Islamic School
  • The American International School in Abu Dhabi
    American International School - Abu Dhabi
    The American International School in Abu Dhabi or AISA was founded in 1995 to serve the needs of the local and expatriate residents of Abu Dhabi who want their children to pursue both American and International Baccalaureate curricula...

  • Emirates College for Advanced Education (ECAE) The first college for education in Abu Dhabi
  • New York Institute of Technology
    New York Institute of Technology
    New York Institute of Technology is a private, non-sectarian, co-educational research university in New York City. NYIT has five schools and two colleges, all with a strong emphasis on technology and applied scientific research...

  • International School of Choueifat, Abu Dhabi
    International School of Choueifat, Abu Dhabi
    The International School of Choueifat is a branch of the school system of the International School of Choueifat located in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates that follows the 'SABIS' system.The school opened in 1975 and is located just off Airport Road in the Mushref area...

  • Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Bangladesh Islamia School and College , Abu Dhabi
  • Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Arab Pakistani School (Kindergarten through 12th grade FSC)
  • Islamia English School
    Islamia English School
    Islamia English School , popularly abbreviated as IES by its students, is in the Al-Dhafra neighborhood of Abu Dhabi...

     (Kindergarten through 12th grade FSC, IGCSE : O Levels and A Levels also offered)
  • Al Nahda National Schools (Boys' and Girls' school O Levels, A Levels, American High school system)
  • The Cambridge High School
  • The British School – Al Khubairat
  • Abu Dhabi Grammar School (Canada)
  • Abu Dhabi International School
  • First Steps School Nursery
  • Tweety Nursery
  • International Community School
  • Our Own English High School
  • The American Community School of Abu Dhabi
    American Community School of Abu Dhabi
    The American Community School of Abu Dhabi is school operating in the United Arab Emirates) founded in 1972. Instructio is co-educational, in English and based on the American educational system...

  • The British School
    The British School - Al Khubairat
    The School British Al Khubairat, commonly known and referred to as "Al Khubairat", "BSAK", "The British School" or and formerly known as "AKCS — Al Khubairat Community School", is a school for English speaking children in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.- Overview :The school broadly follows the...

  • Raha International School
  • NYU Abu Dhabi
  • The Glenelg School of Abu Dhabi
  • The Elite Private School
  • Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR)

Torture controversy



Sheik Issa bin Zayed Al Nayhan, the brother of the present ruler of Abu Dhabi, was recently accused of torturing a business partner after a videotape clearly showed him participating in a 3-hour long torture session in the desert. The 45-minute tape shows a man that the Government of Abu Dhabi has acknowledged is Sheikh Issa bin Zayed al-Nahyan – one of 22 royal brothers of the UAE President and Abu Dhabi Crown Prince – mercilessly and repeatedly beating a man with a cattle prod and a nailed board, burning his genitals and driving his Range Rover over him several times, he is assisted by a uniformed policeman.
The UAE first investigated the tape four years ago, and filed no charges against the sheikh. Now, with the public release of the video, the Government has issued a statement in which it “unequivocally condemns the actions depicted on the video”. It pledged to conduct “a comprehensive review of the matter immediately”.
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. Its headquarters are in New York City and it has offices in Berlin, Beirut, Brussels, Chicago, Geneva, Johannesburg, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, Paris, San Francisco, Tokyo,...

, an international rights watchdog group, criticised the United Arab Emirate's trial and called on the government to establish an independent body to investigate allegations of abuse by security personnel and other persons of authority.

See also

  • Qasr al-Hosn
    Qasr al-Hosn
    The Qasr al-Hosn , is the oldest stone building in the city of Abu Dhabi, capital of the United Arab Emirates.- Location :It is located along Sheikh Zayed the First Street , on the same compound as the .- History :Also known as the 'white fort' The Qasr al-Hosn , is the oldest stone building in...

    , the palace-fort, seat of government and palace of the rulers of Abu Dhabi ca. 1760/1790 to 1966.
  • Mina' Zayid
    Mina' Zayid
    Mina Zayid , is the commercial deep-water port that serves the city and Emirate of Abu Dhabi, located in the North-East section of Abu Dhabi....

    , the port of Abu Dhabi.
  • Postal Authorities
  • Transportation in the United Arab Emirates
  • Emirates Palace
    Emirates Palace
    The Emirates Palace is a luxury hotel located in the United Arab Emirates city of Abu Dhabi.-Construction:The building was designed by renowned architect, John Elliott RIBA, who was Senior Vice President at Wimberly, Allison, Tong and Goo, an international firm specialising in Luxury Hotels.It...

    , the most expensive hotel ever built
  • Abu Dhabi Grand Prix
    Abu Dhabi Grand Prix
    The Abu Dhabi Grand Prix is a Formula One race. It was announced in early 2007 at the Abu Dhabi F1 Festival in the United Arab Emirates...

    , a Formula One
    Formula One
    Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

     motor race held in the city

External links



UAE-based newspapers