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The Absheron peninsula
A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland. In many Germanic and Celtic languages and also in Baltic, Slavic and Hungarian, peninsulas are called "half-islands"....

, is a region in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

. It is host to Baku, the biggest and the most populous city of the country, and also the Baku metropolitan area, with its satellite cities Sumgayit and Khyrdalan
Xırdalan is a city and municipality in and the capital of the Absheron Rayon of Azerbaijan...


There are three districts, of which two are urban (Baku and Sumgayit), and one (Absheron Rayon), is suburban district in Absheron region.

It extends 37 miles (60 km) eastward into the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. The sea has a surface area of and a volume of...

, and reaches a maximum width of 19 miles (30 km). Though technically the easternmost extension of the Caucasus Mountains, the landscape is only mildly hilly, a gently undulating plain that ends in a long spit of sand dunes known as Shah Dili, and now declared the Absheron National Park
Absheron National Park
Absheron National Park — is a national park of Azerbaijan and was established on 8 February 2005 by the decree of the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev, on an area of in the administrative territory of the Azizbeyov district of Baku city, on the base of Absheron State Nature Preserve...

. In this part the peninsula is dissected by ravines and characterized by frequent salt lakes.

Origin of the name

The etymology is as follows: The word Absheron consists of a few parts. Ab means water, shour means salty and an is the suffix that makes plural in Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

. So, Abshouran, which came out these words, means "place of salty water".


Absheron peninsula is nearly the metropolitan area of Baku because Baku metropolitan area consists of Baku city, Sumgayit and Khyrdalan whereas Absheron peninsula consists of Baku city, Sumgayit and Absheron rayon whose center is Khyrdalan.


Beginning in the 1870s, Absheron peninsula was the site of some of the world's earliest petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 production. Much of the landscape remains scarred with rusting oil derricks. Despite serious problems with environmental damage and pollution, the Absheron is known for its flowers, horticulture, mulberries and figs. The northern coast has wide though less-than-pristine beaches which are popular local tourist attractions.

Wealthy people have settled in the Absheron peninsula, including Nobel
Nobel can mean:*Nobel Prize, awarded annually since 1901, from the bequest of Swedish inventor Alfred NobelThe Nobel family:*Alfred Nobel, , the inventor of dynamite, instituted the Nobel Prizes...

 and Zeynalabdin Taghiyev.

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