Abdessalam Jalloud

Abdessalam Jalloud

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Abdessalam Jalloud (born 15 December 1944) was the Prime Minister
Prime minister
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...

 of Libya
Libya is an African country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west....

 from 16 July 1972 to 2 March 1977. He was also Finance Minister from 1970 until 1972.

Major Abdessalam Jalloud was a close friend of Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar Gaddafi or "September 1942" 20 October 2011), commonly known as Muammar Gaddafi or Colonel Gaddafi, was the official ruler of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then the "Brother Leader" of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011.He seized power in a...

 since their school days at the preparatory school of Sabha. They both entered the military academy of Benghazi
Benghazi is the second largest city in Libya, the main city of the Cyrenaica region , and the former provisional capital of the National Transitional Council. The wider metropolitan area is also a district of Libya...

 where they formed the hard core of the "free officers" who staged a military coup in September 1969 launching the Libyan revolution. Jalloud became Gaddafi’s closest adviser and deputy chairman of the Libyan Revolutionary Command Council
Libyan Revolutionary Command Council
The Libyan Revolutionary Command Council was the twelve-person body that governed Libya after the 1969 revolution. Col. Muammar Gaddafi was its chairman.The other initial members were as follows:...

 (RCC). He was entrusted with the supervision of the oil sector, which represented 96% of the country's income. In September 1970 Jalloud succeeded in imposing a rise in oil prices to all companies operating in Libya, opening the way for the other oil producers and for the subsequent rises of the 1970s. Andrew F. Ensor, who negotiated the oil prices on behalf of the world's seven largest oil companies said that during the negotiations Jalloud kept a pistol on the table in front of him.

In March 1970, six months after the Libyan revolution, Jalloud went to Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

 looking for a Chinese nuclear bomb at a price of $100 million in order to "solve the Arab-Israel conflict once and for all", but Libya's demand was flatly refused by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976...

. In May 1974, Jalloud traveled to Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 and concluded the first in a series of arms sales agreements that remained the largest ever reached by the Soviets.

Considered a hard liner, Jalloud (from the Magariha tribe) was the second most powerful man in the Libyan regime for over two decades. After several disagreements with Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi (from the Qadhadhfa
The Qadhadhfa are a minor Arab or Arabized Berber tribe of the Sirte region in present-day northwestern Libya.They are now mostly centered at Sabha....

 tribe), Jalloud fell out of favour in August 1993, having been replaced by Captain Mohammad Emsied al-Majdoub al-Gaddafi as the general coordinator of the Revolutionary Committees. Allegations that the Magariha backed the coup attempt against the regime by officers of the Warfalla
The Warfalla are a major Arab or Arab-Berber tribal group of Tripolitania, Libya.The Warfalla historically inhabited the area of what is between the towns of Bani Walid, Sirte, Sabha, and Benghazi approximately South and East of Tripoli....

 tribe in October 1993 may have led to Gaddafi's order to place Jalloud under house arrest. The London-based newspaper Al Hayat reported in April 1995 that the authorities had confiscated Jalloud's passport and kept him under surveillance because of growing disagreement between him and Gaddafi. This disagreement was shown in public after the visit of a delegation of 192 Libyan pilgrims to Israel in May 1993. The paper added that Jalloud had submitted a note to Gaddafi blaming him personally for the suffering that the country was going through. The decision to confiscate Jalloud's passport was taken after he insisted on the need to carry out changes he had called for in his note.

The two Libyan suspects extradited to the Netherlands in the Lockerbie
Pan Am Flight 103
Pan Am Flight 103 was Pan American World Airways' third daily scheduled transatlantic flight from London Heathrow Airport to New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport...

 case, Abdelbaset al-Megrahi and Al Amin Khalifa Fhimah, belonged to an important branch of Jalloud's Magariha tribe. Jalloud was understood to have resisted the idea of extradition.

On 19 August 2011, during the 2011 Libyan civil war
2011 Libyan civil war
The 2011 Libyan civil war was an armed conflict in the North African state of Libya, fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government. The war was preceded by protests in Benghazi beginning on 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security...

, it was reported that Jalloud had defected to the rebel forces opposing Gaddafi and was on his way from Zintan to Europe.