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Adenylate cyclase 10
also known as ADCY10
is an enzyme
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical reactions in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates...
that, in humans, is encoded by the ADCY10 gene
A gene is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism. It is a name given to some stretches of DNA and RNA that code for a type of protein or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism. Living beings depend on genes, as they specify all proteins and functional RNA chains...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a distinct class of mammalian adenylyl cyclase that is soluble and insensitive to G protein
G proteins are a family of proteins involved in transmitting chemical signals outside the cell, and causing changes inside the cell. They communicate signals from many hormones, neurotransmitters, and other signaling factors. G protein-coupled receptors are transmembrane receptors...
Forskolin is a labdane diterpene that is produced by the Indian Coleus plant . Forskolin is commonly used to raise levels of cyclic AMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin resensitizes cell receptors by activating the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and increasing the intracellular...
regulation. It is localized in the cytoplasm
The cytoplasm is a small gel-like substance residing between the cell membrane holding all the cell's internal sub-structures , except for the nucleus. All the contents of the cells of prokaryote organisms are contained within the cytoplasm...
and is thought to function as a general bicarbonate sensor throughout the body. It may also play an important role in the generation of cAMP
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate is a second messenger important in many biological processes...
in spermatozoa, implying possible roles in sperm maturation through the epididymis, capacitation, hypermotility, and/or the acrosome
The acrosome is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the head in the spermatozoa of many animals. It is a cap-like structure derived from the Golgi apparatus. Acrosome formation is completed during testicular maturation. In Eutherian mammals the acrosome contains digestive enzymes...
Mutations in the ADCY10
gene are associated with an increased risk of adsorptive hypercalciuria
Hypercalciuria or hypercalcinuria is the condition of elevated calcium in the urine. Chronic hypercalcinuria may lead to impairment of renal function, nephrocalcinosis, and renal insufficiency....