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90 nanometer

90 nanometer

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The 90 nm
Nanometre
A nanometre is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre. The name combines the SI prefix nano- with the parent unit name metre .The nanometre is often used to express dimensions on the atomic scale: the diameter...

process refers to the level of CMOS
CMOS
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor is a technology for constructing integrated circuits. CMOS technology is used in microprocessors, microcontrollers, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits...

 process technology that was reached in the 2002–2003 timeframe, by most leading semiconductor companies, like Intel, AMD, Infineon, Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments Inc. , widely known as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, United States, which develops and commercializes semiconductor and computer technology...

, IBM
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

, and TSMC
TSMC
Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Limited or TSMC is the world's largest dedicated independent semiconductor foundry, with its headquarters and main operations located in the Hsinchu Science Park in Hsinchu, Taiwan.-Overview:...

.

The origin of the 90 nm value is historical, as it reflects a trend of 70% scaling every 2–3 years. The naming is formally determined by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors
International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors
The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors is a set of documents produced by a group of semiconductor industry experts. These experts are representative of the sponsoring organisations which include the Semiconductor Industry Associations of the US, Europe, Japan, South Korea and...

 (ITRS
ITRS
ITRS or ItRS can refer to:* International Terrestrial Reference System for creating earth measurement reference frames.* International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, an international body for guiding the semiconductor industry....

).

The 193 nm wavelength was introduced by many (but not all) companies for lithography
Photolithography
Photolithography is a process used in microfabrication to selectively remove parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate. It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask to a light-sensitive chemical "photoresist", or simply "resist," on the substrate...

 of critical layers mainly during the 90 nm node. Yield issues associated with this transition (due to the use of new photoresist
Photoresist
A photoresist is a light-sensitive material used in several industrial processes, such as photolithography and photoengraving to form a patterned coating on a surface.-Tone:Photoresists are classified into two groups: positive resists and negative resists....

s) were reflected in the high costs associated with this transition.

Even more significantly, the 300 mm wafer size became mainstream at the 90 nm node. The previous wafer size was 200 mm diameter.

Example: Elpida 90 nm DDR2 SDRAM process

  • Use of 300 mm wafer size
  • Use of KrF (248 nm) lithography with optical proximity correction
    Optical proximity correction
    Optical proximity correction is a photolithography enhancement technique commonly used to compensate for image errors due to diffraction or process effects...

  • 512 Mbit
  • 1.8 V operation
  • Derivative of earlier 110 nm and 100 nm processes

Processors using 90 nm process technology

  • IBM PowerPC G5 970FX - 2004
  • IBM PowerPC G5 970MP - 2005
  • IBM PowerPC G5 970GX - 2005
  • IBM "Waternoose"
    Xenon (processor)
    Xenon is a CPU that is used in the Xbox 360 game console. The processor, internally codenamed "Waternoose", which was named after Henry J. Waternoose III in Monsters Inc. by IBM and XCPU by Microsoft, is based on IBM's PowerPC instruction set architecture, consisting of three independent processor...

     Xbox 360 Processor - 2005
  • IBM/Sony/ Toshiba Cell Processor
    Cell (microprocessor)
    Cell is a microprocessor architecture jointly developed by Sony, Sony Computer Entertainment, Toshiba, and IBM, an alliance known as "STI". The architectural design and first implementation were carried out at the STI Design Center in Austin, Texas over a four-year period beginning March 2001 on a...

     - 2005
  • Intel Pentium 4
    Pentium 4
    Pentium 4 was a line of single-core desktop and laptop central processing units , introduced by Intel on November 20, 2000 and shipped through August 8, 2008. They had a 7th-generation x86 microarchitecture, called NetBurst, which was the company's first all-new design since the introduction of the...

     Prescott - 2004-02
  • Intel Celeron
    Celeron
    Celeron is a brand name given by Intel Corp. to a number of different x86 computer microprocessor models targeted at budget personal computers....

     D Prescott-256 - 2004-05
  • Intel Pentium M
    Pentium M
    The Pentium M brand refers to a family of mobile single-core x86 microprocessors introduced in March 2003 , and forming a part of the Intel Carmel notebook platform under the then new Centrino brand...

     Dothan - 2004-05
  • Intel Celeron
    Celeron
    Celeron is a brand name given by Intel Corp. to a number of different x86 computer microprocessor models targeted at budget personal computers....

     M Dothan-1024 - 2004-08
  • Intel Xeon
    Xeon
    The Xeon is a brand of multiprocessing- or multi-socket-capable x86 microprocessors from Intel Corporation targeted at the non-consumer server, workstation and embedded system markets.-Overview:...

     Nocona, Irwindale, Cranford, Potomac, Paxville - 2004-06
  • Intel Pentium D
    Pentium D
    The Pentium D brand refers to two series of desktop dual-core 64-bit x86-64 microprocessors with the NetBurst microarchitecture manufactured by Intel. Each CPU comprised two dies, each containing a single core, residing next to each other on a multi-chip module package. The brand's first processor,...

     Smithfield - 2005-05
  • AMD Athlon 64
    Athlon 64
    The Athlon 64 is an eighth-generation, AMD64-architecture microprocessor produced by AMD, released on September 23, 2003. It is the third processor to bear the name Athlon, and the immediate successor to the Athlon XP...

     Winchester, Venice, San Diego, Orleans - 2004-10
  • AMD Athlon 64 X2
    Athlon 64 X2
    The Athlon 64 X2 is the first dual-core desktop CPU designed by AMD. It was designed from scratch as native dual-core by using an already multi-CPU enabled Athlon 64, joining it with another functional core on one die, and connecting both via a shared dual-channel memory controller/north bridge and...

     Manchester, Toledo, Windsor - 2005-05
  • AMD Sempron
    Sempron
    Sempron has been the marketing name used by AMD for several different budget desktop CPUs, using several different technologies and CPU socket formats. The Sempron replaced the AMD Duron processor and competes against Intel's Celeron series of processors...

     Palermo and Manila - 2004-08
  • AMD Turion 64 Lancaster and Richmond - 2005-03
  • AMD Turion 64 X2 Taylor and Trinidad - 2006-05
  • AMD Opteron
    Opteron
    Opteron is AMD's x86 server and workstation processor line, and was the first processor which supported the AMD64 instruction set architecture . It was released on April 22, 2003 with the SledgeHammer core and was intended to compete in the server and workstation markets, particularly in the same...

     Venus, Troy, and Athens - 2005-08
  • AMD Dual-core Opteron
    Opteron
    Opteron is AMD's x86 server and workstation processor line, and was the first processor which supported the AMD64 instruction set architecture . It was released on April 22, 2003 with the SledgeHammer core and was intended to compete in the server and workstation markets, particularly in the same...

     Denmark, Italy, Egypt, Santa Ana, and Santa Rosa
  • VIA C7
    VIA C7
    The VIA C7 is an x86 central processing unit designed by Centaur Technology and sold by VIA Technologies.- Product history :The C7 delivers a number of improvements to the older VIA C3 cores but is nearly identical to the latest VIA C3 Nehemiah core. The C7 was officially launched in May 2005,...

     - 2005-05
  • Loongson (Godson) 2Е STLS2E02 - 2007-04
  • Loongson (Godson) 2F STLS2F02 - 2008-07
  • MCST-4R - 2010-12

External links