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The 42nd Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment
was an infantry
Infantrymen are soldiers who are specifically trained for the role of fighting on foot to engage the enemy face to face and have historically borne the brunt of the casualties of combat in wars. As the oldest branch of combat arms, they are the backbone of armies...
A regiment is a major tactical military unit, composed of variable numbers of batteries, squadrons or battalions, commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel...
raised in Virginia
The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...
for service in the Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the army of the Confederate States of America while the Confederacy existed during the American Civil War. On February 8, 1861, delegates from the seven Deep South states which had already declared their secession from the United States of America adopted the...
during the American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...
. It fought mostly with the Army of Northern Virginia
The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, as well as the primary command structure of the Department of Northern Virginia. It was most often arrayed against the Union Army of the Potomac...
The 42nd Virginia, organized at Staunton, Virginia, in July,1861, recruited its members in Henry, Floyd, Bedford, Campbell, Roanoke, Patrick, and Franklin counties.
After fighting at First Kernstown and in Jackson's Valley Campaign, the unit was assigned to J.R. Jones' and W. Terry's Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia. It was active in many conflicts from the Seven Days' Battles to Cold Harbor, then moved with Early to the Shenandoah Valley and was involved in the Appomattox operations. This regiment reported 70 casualties at First Kernstown and totaled 750 effectives in May 1862. It sustained no losses during the Seven Days' Battles but had many at Cedar Mountain. There were 62 disabled at Second Manassas, 26 at Fredericksburg, and 135 at Chancellorsville. Of the 265 engaged at Gettysburg, twenty-one percent were killed, wounded, or missing. Only 1 officer and 44 men surrendered.
The field officers were Colonels Jesse S. Burks, Andrew J. Deyerle, John E. Penn, and R.W.Withers; Lieutenant Colonels Daniel A. Langhorne, William Martin, and Samuel H. Saunders; and Majors P.B. Adams, Henry Lane, and Jesse M. Richardson.