3GPP Long Term Evolution

3GPP Long Term Evolution

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3GPP Long Term Evolution, usually referred to as LTE, is a standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for mobile phones and data terminals. It is based on the GSM/EDGE
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution is a digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates as a backward-compatible extension of GSM...

 and UMTS
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is a third generation mobile cellular technology for networks based on the GSM standard. Developed by the 3GPP , UMTS is a component of the International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard set and compares with the CDMA2000 standard set for...

/HSPA
High Speed Packet Access
High Speed Packet Access is an amalgamation of two mobile telephony protocols, High Speed Downlink Packet Access and High Speed Uplink Packet Access , that extends and improves the performance of existing WCDMA protocols...

 network technologies, increasing the capacity and speed using new modulation techniques. The standard is developed by the 3GPP
3GPP
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project is a collaboration between groups of telecommunications associations, known as the Organizational Partners...

 (3rd Generation Partnership Project).

The world's first publicly available LTE service was launched by TeliaSonera
TeliaSonera
TeliaSonera AB is the dominant telephone company and mobile network operator in Sweden and Finland. The company has operations in other countries in Northern, Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Spain, with a total of 150 million mobile customers...

 in the Scandinavian capitals Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

 and Oslo
Oslo
Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

 on 14 December 2009. LTE is the natural upgrade path for carriers with GSM/UMTS networks, but even CDMA holdouts such as Verizon
Verizon Wireless
Cellco Partnership, doing business as Verizon Wireless, is one of the largest mobile network operators in the United States. The network has 107.7 million subscribers as of 2011, making it the largest wireless service provider in America....

 in North America and au by KDDI in Japan have announced that they will migrate to LTE in the future. LTE is therefore anticipated to become the first truly global mobile phone standard.

Although commonly referred to as a type of 4G
4G
In telecommunications, 4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to the 3G and 2G families of standards. In 2009, the ITU-R organization specified the IMT-Advanced requirements for 4G standards, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 Mbit/s...

 wireless service, LTE release 8 currently in use does not satisfy the requirements set forth by the ITU-R
ITU-R
The ITU Radiocommunication Sector is one of the three sectors of the International Telecommunication Union and is responsible for radio communication....

 organization. Future releases of LTE (referred to as LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced is a preliminary mobile communication standard, formally submitted as a candidate 4G system to ITU-T in late 2009, was approved into ITU, International Telecommunications Union, IMT-Advanced and expected to be finalized by 3GPP in early 2011...

) are expected to satisfy the requirements to be considered 4G
4G
In telecommunications, 4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to the 3G and 2G families of standards. In 2009, the ITU-R organization specified the IMT-Advanced requirements for 4G standards, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 Mbit/s...

.

Overview


LTE is a standard for wireless data communications technology and an evolution of the GSM/UMTS standards. The goal of LTE is to increase the capacity and speed of wireless data networks using new DSP
Digital signal processing
Digital signal processing is concerned with the representation of discrete time signals by a sequence of numbers or symbols and the processing of these signals. Digital signal processing and analog signal processing are subfields of signal processing...

 (Digital Signal Processing) techniques and modulations that were developed in the beginning of the new millennium. Its wireless interface is incompatible with 2G
2G
2G is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja in 1991...

 and 3G
3G
3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 specifications by the International Telecommunication Union...

 networks, and so it must be operated on a separate wireless spectrum.

LTE was first proposed by NTT DoCoMo
NTT DoCoMo
is the predominant mobile phone operator in Japan. The name is officially an abbreviation of the phrase, "do communications over the mobile network", and is also from a compound word dokomo, meaning "everywhere" in Japanese. Docomo provides phone, video phone , i-mode , and mail services...

 of Japan in 2004. The standard was finalized in December 2008, and the first publicly available LTE service was launched by TeliaSonera
TeliaSonera
TeliaSonera AB is the dominant telephone company and mobile network operator in Sweden and Finland. The company has operations in other countries in Northern, Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Spain, with a total of 150 million mobile customers...

 in the Scandinavian capitals Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

 and Oslo
Oslo
Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

 on December 14, 2009 as a data connection with a USB modem. In 2011, LTE services were launched by major North American carriers as well, with the Samsung Galaxy Indulge offered by MetroPCS
MetroPCS
MetroPCS Communications, Inc. , formerly known as General Wireless, Inc., is an American mobile phone service provider. It operates the fifth largest mobile telecommunications network in the US, with 8.9 million subscribers as of May 2011...

 starting on February 10, 2011 being the first commercially available LTE phone and HTC ThunderBolt
HTC ThunderBolt
The HTC ThunderBolt is the first 4G LTE smartphone on the Verizon Wireless network. It is a CDMA/LTE variant of the HTC Desire HD...

 offered by Verizon starting on March 17 being the second LTE phone to be sold commercially. Initially, CDMA operators planned to upgrade to a rival standard called the UMB
Ultra Mobile Broadband
UMB was the brand name for a project within 3GPP2 to improve the CDMA2000 mobile phone standard for next generation applications and requirements...

, but all the major CDMA operators (such as Verizon
Verizon Wireless
Cellco Partnership, doing business as Verizon Wireless, is one of the largest mobile network operators in the United States. The network has 107.7 million subscribers as of 2011, making it the largest wireless service provider in America....

, Sprint
Sprint Nextel
Sprint Nextel Corporation is an American telecommunications company based in Overland Park, Kansas. The company owns and operates Sprint, the third largest wireless telecommunications network in the United States, with 53.4 million customers, behind Verizon Wireless and AT&T Mobility...

 and MetroPCS
MetroPCS
MetroPCS Communications, Inc. , formerly known as General Wireless, Inc., is an American mobile phone service provider. It operates the fifth largest mobile telecommunications network in the US, with 8.9 million subscribers as of May 2011...

 in the United States, Bell
Bell Mobility
Bell Mobility is a CDMA and HSPA+ based wireless network and the division of Bell Canada which sells wireless services in Canada...

 and Telus
Telus Mobility
Telus Mobility is a division of Telus Communications which sells wireless services in Canada on its numerous networks. They currently have three different networks based on three different technologies: CDMA and HSPA+ on its mainstream networks, plus iDEN via its Mike division...

 in Canada, au by KDDI in Japan, SK Telecom
SK Telecom
SK Telecom Co., Ltd. or Sunkyoung Telecom is a South Korean wireless telecommunications operator, controlled by the SK Group, one of the country's largest chaebol. As a part of SK Group, SK stands for Sun Kyung.SK Telecom is a provider of mobile service in Korea, with 50.5% of the market share as...

 in South Korea and China Telecom
China Telecom
China Telecom Corp. Ltd. is a Chinese state-owned telecommunication company. It is the largest fixed line service and 3rd largest mobile telecommunication provider in the People's Republic of China.-Sectors:...

/China Unicom
China Unicom
China Unicom or China United Netcom Ltd , is a Chinese state-owned telecommunications operator in the People's Republic of China.-History:...

 in China) have announced that they intend to migrate to LTE after all. The evolution of LTE is LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced is a preliminary mobile communication standard, formally submitted as a candidate 4G system to ITU-T in late 2009, was approved into ITU, International Telecommunications Union, IMT-Advanced and expected to be finalized by 3GPP in early 2011...

, which was standardized in March 2011. Services are expected to commence in 2013.

The LTE specification provides down-link peak rates of 300 Mbit/s, uplink peak rates of 75 Mbit/s and QoS
Quality of service
The quality of service refers to several related aspects of telephony and computer networks that allow the transport of traffic with special requirements...

 provisions permitting round-trip times of less than 10 ms
Millisecond
A millisecond is a thousandth of a second.10 milliseconds are called a centisecond....

. LTE has the ability to manage fast-moving mobiles, and support for multi-cast and broadcast streams. LTE supports scalable carrier bandwidths, from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz and supports both frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time-division duplexing (TDD). The architecture of the network is simplified to a flat IP
Internet Protocol
The Internet Protocol is the principal communications protocol used for relaying datagrams across an internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite...

-based network architecture
Network architecture
Network architecture is the design of a communications network. It is a framework for the specification of a network's physical components and their functional organization and configuration, its operational principles and procedures, as well as data formats used in its operation.In...

 called the Evolved Packet Core (EPC), designed to replace the GPRS Core Network
GPRS Core Network
The GPRS core network is the central part of the General Packet Radio Service which allows 2G, 3G and WCDMA mobile networks to transmit IP packets to external networks such as the Internet...

 and support seamless handovers for both voice and data to cell towers with older network technology such as GSM, UMTS and CDMA2000
CDMA2000
CDMA2000 is a family of 3G mobile technology standards, which use CDMA channel access, to send voice, data, and signaling data between mobile phones and cell sites. The set of standards includes: CDMA2000 1X, CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. 0, CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. A, and CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. B...

. The simpler architecture results in lower operating costs (for example, each E-UTRAN cell will support up to four times the data and voice capacity when compared to HSPA).

Features



Much of the standard addresses upgrading 3G UMTS to what will eventually be 4G
4G
In telecommunications, 4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to the 3G and 2G families of standards. In 2009, the ITU-R organization specified the IMT-Advanced requirements for 4G standards, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 Mbit/s...

 mobile communications technology. A large amount of the work is aimed at simplifying the architecture of the system, as it transits from the existing UMTS circuit
Circuit switching
Circuit switching is a methodology of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel through the network before the nodes may communicate. The circuit guarantees the full bandwidth of the channel and remains connected for the...

 + packet switching
Packet switching
Packet switching is a digital networking communications method that groups all transmitted data – regardless of content, type, or structure – into suitably sized blocks, called packets. Packet switching features delivery of variable-bit-rate data streams over a shared network...

 combined network, to an all-IP flat architecture system. E-UTRA
E-UTRA
e-UTRAN or eUTRAN is the air interface of 3GPP's Long Term Evolution upgrade path for mobile networks. It is the abbreviation for evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, also referred to as the 3GPP work item on the Long Term Evolution also known as the Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio...

 is the air interface of LTE. Its main features are:
  • Peak download rates up to 299.6 Mbit/s and upload rates up to 75.4 Mbit/s depending on the user equipment category (with 4x4 antennas using 20 MHz of spectrum). Five different terminal classes have been defined from a voice centric class up to a high end terminal that supports the peak data rates. All terminals will be able to process 20 MHz bandwidth.
  • Low data transfer latencies (sub-5 ms latency for small IP packets in optimal conditions), lower latencies for handover
    Handover
    In cellular telecommunications, the term handover or handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another...

     and connection setup time than with previous radio access technologies
    Radio access network
    A radio access network is part of a mobile Telecommunication system. It implements a radio access technology. Conceptually, it resides between a device such as a Mobile phone, a computer, or any remotely controlled machine and provides connection with its core network...

    .
  • Improved support for mobility, exemplified by support for terminals moving at up to 350 km/h or 500 km/h depending on the frequency band.
  • OFDMA
    OFDMA
    Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access is a multi-user version of the popular Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing digital modulation scheme. Multiple access is achieved in OFDMA by assigning subsets of subcarriers to individual users as shown in the illustration below...

     for the downlink, SC-FDMA for the uplink to conserve power
  • Support for both FDD and TDD communication systems as well as half-duplex FDD with the same radio access technology
  • Support for all frequency bands currently used by IMT systems by ITU-R
    ITU-R
    The ITU Radiocommunication Sector is one of the three sectors of the International Telecommunication Union and is responsible for radio communication....

    .
  • Increased spectrum flexibility: 1.4 MHz, 3 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz and 20 MHz wide cells are standardized. (W-CDMA
    W-CDMA
    W-CDMA , UMTS-FDD, UTRA-FDD, or IMT-2000 CDMA Direct Spread is an air interface standard found in 3G mobile telecommunications networks. It is the basis of Japan's NTT DoCoMo's FOMA service and the most-commonly used member of the UMTS family and sometimes used as a synonym for UMTS...

     requires 5 MHz slices, leading to some problems with roll-outs of the technology in countries where 5 MHz is a commonly allocated amount of spectrum, and is frequently already in use with legacy standards such as 2G GSM and cdmaOne
    IS-95
    Interim Standard 95 is the first CDMA-based digital cellular standard by Qualcomm. The brand name for IS-95 is cdmaOne. IS-95 is also known as TIA-EIA-95....

    .)
  • Support for cell sizes from tens of metres radius (femto
    Femtocell
    In telecommunications, a femtocell is a small cellular base station, typically designed for use in a home or small business. It connects to the service provider’s network via broadband ; current designs typically support 2 to 4 active mobile phones in a residential setting, and 8 to 16 active...

     and picocell
    Picocell
    A picocell is a small cellular basestation typically covering a small area, such as in-building , or more recently in-aircraft...

    s) up to 100 km radius macrocell
    Macrocell
    A macrocell is a cell in a mobile phone network that provides radio coverage served by a high power cellular base station . Generally, macrocells provide coverage larger than microcell. The antennas for macrocells are mounted on ground-based masts, rooftops and other existing structures, at a...

    s. In the lower frequency bands to be used in rural areas, 5 km is the optimal cell size, 30 km having reasonable performance, and up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance. In city and urban areas, higher frequency bands (such as 2.6 GHz in EU) are used to support high speed mobile broadband. In this case, cell sizes may be 1 km or even less.
  • Supports at least 200 active data clients in every 5 MHz cell.
  • Simplified architecture: The network side of E-UTRAN is composed only of eNode Bs
  • Support for inter-operation and co-existence with legacy standards (e.g. GSM/EDGE
    Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
    Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution is a digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates as a backward-compatible extension of GSM...

    , UMTS
    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is a third generation mobile cellular technology for networks based on the GSM standard. Developed by the 3GPP , UMTS is a component of the International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard set and compares with the CDMA2000 standard set for...

     and CDMA2000
    CDMA2000
    CDMA2000 is a family of 3G mobile technology standards, which use CDMA channel access, to send voice, data, and signaling data between mobile phones and cell sites. The set of standards includes: CDMA2000 1X, CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. 0, CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. A, and CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. B...

    ). Users can start a call or transfer of data in an area using an LTE standard, and, should coverage be unavailable, continue the operation without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS or W-CDMA-based UMTS or even 3GPP2 networks such as cdmaOne or CDMA2000
    CDMA2000
    CDMA2000 is a family of 3G mobile technology standards, which use CDMA channel access, to send voice, data, and signaling data between mobile phones and cell sites. The set of standards includes: CDMA2000 1X, CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. 0, CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. A, and CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. B...

    )
  • Packet switched
    Packet switching
    Packet switching is a digital networking communications method that groups all transmitted data – regardless of content, type, or structure – into suitably sized blocks, called packets. Packet switching features delivery of variable-bit-rate data streams over a shared network...

     radio interface.
  • Support for MBSFN (Multicast-Broadcast Single Frequency Network
    Multicast-Broadcast Single Frequency Network
    Multicast-Broadcast Single Frequency Network is a communication channel defined in the fourth-generation cellular networking standard called Long Term Evolution . It can deliver services such as mobile TV using the LTE infrastructure, and is expected to compete with dedicated mobile/handheld TV...

    ). This feature can deliver services such as Mobile TV using the LTE infrastructure, and is a competitor for DVB-H
    DVB-H
    DVB-H is one of three prevalent mobile TV formats. It is a technical specification for bringing broadcast services to mobile handsets. DVB-H was formally adopted as ETSI standard EN 302 304 in November 2004. The DVB-H specification can be downloaded from the official DVB-H website...

    -based TV broadcast.

Voice calls



The LTE standard only supports packet switching with its all-IP network. Voice calls in GSM, UMTS and CDMA2000 are circuit switched, so with the adoption of LTE, carriers will have to re-engineer their voice call network. Three different approaches sprang up. Most major backers of LTE preferred and promoted VoLTE (Voice over LTE, an implementation of IP Multimedia Subsystem
IP Multimedia Subsystem
The IP Multimedia Subsystem or IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem is an architectural framework for delivering Internet Protocol multimedia services. It was originally designed by the wireless standards body 3rd Generation Partnership Project , as a part of the vision for evolving mobile...

 or IMS) from the beginning. The lack of software support in initial LTE devices as well as core network devices however led to a number of carriers promoting VoLGA
VOLGA Forum
VoLGA Forum was formed in March 2009 by a group of companies in the wireless industry in an effort to define a set of specifications for enabling delivery of voice services over 3GPP Long Term Evolution access networks based on the current 3GPP Generic Access Network standard.VoLGA is an acronym...

 (Voice over LTE Generic Access) as an interim solution. The idea was to use the same principles as GAN
Generic Access Network
Generic Access Network or GAN is a telecommunication system that extends mobile voice, data and IP Multimedia Subsystem/Session Initiation Protocol applications over IP networks...

 (Generic Access Network, also known as UMA or Unlicensed Mobile Access), which defines the protocols through which a mobile handset can perform voice calls over a customer's private Internet connection, usually over wireless LAN. VoLGA however never gained much support, because VoLTE (IMS) promises much more flexible services, albeit at the cost of having to upgrade the entire voice call infrastructure. While the industry has seemingly standardized on VoLTE for the future, the demand for voice calls today has led LTE carriers to introduce CSFB (Circuit Switched Fallback) as a stopgap measure. When placing or receiving a voice call, LTE handsets will fall back to old 2G or 3G networks for the duration of the call.

Frequency bands



The LTE standard can be used with many different frequency bands. In North America, 700 and 1700 MHz are planned to be used; 800, 1800, 2600 MHz in Europe; 1800 and 2600 MHz in Asia; and 1800 MHz in Australia. As a result, phones from one country may not work in other countries. Users will need a multi-band capable phone for roaming internationally.

See also

  • Comparison of wireless data standards
    Comparison of wireless data standards
    - Introduction :A wide variety of different wireless data technologies exist, some in direct competition with one another, others designed for specific applications...

  • E-UTRA
    E-UTRA
    e-UTRAN or eUTRAN is the air interface of 3GPP's Long Term Evolution upgrade path for mobile networks. It is the abbreviation for evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, also referred to as the 3GPP work item on the Long Term Evolution also known as the Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio...

     - the radio access network used in LTE
  • Flat IP
    Flat IP
    Flat IP architecture provides a way to identify devices using symbolic names, unlike the hierarchical architecture such as that used in "normal" IP addresses...

     – flat IP architectures in mobile networks
  • LTE Advanced
    LTE Advanced
    LTE Advanced is a preliminary mobile communication standard, formally submitted as a candidate 4G system to ITU-T in late 2009, was approved into ITU, International Telecommunications Union, IMT-Advanced and expected to be finalized by 3GPP in early 2011...

     - the successor to LTE
  • LSTI
    LSTI
    LSTI is a global collaboration between vendors and operators. The initiative’s main objective is the verification and promotion of 3GPP Long Term Evolution in order to ensure the global introduction of the technology as quickly as possible.The mobile phone ecosystem and industry is looking to:*...

     - LTE SAE Trial Initiative
  • System architecture evolution
    System Architecture Evolution
    System Architecture Evolution is the core network architecture of 3GPP's LTE wireless communication standard.SAE is the evolution of the GPRS Core Network, with some differences:* simplified architecture* all-IP Network...

     - the re-architecturing of core networks in LTE
  • TD-LTE (LTE TDD) - an alternative LTE standard developed by China
  • UMB
    Ultra Mobile Broadband
    UMB was the brand name for a project within 3GPP2 to improve the CDMA2000 mobile phone standard for next generation applications and requirements...

     - a proposed rival to LTE, never commercialized
  • WiMAX
    WiMAX
    WiMAX is a communication technology for wirelessly delivering high-speed Internet service to large geographical areas. The 2005 WiMAX revision provided bit rates up to 40 Mbit/s with the 2011 update up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations...

     - a competitor to LTE
  • Zadoff–Chu sequence
    Zadoff–Chu sequence
    A Zadoff–Chu sequence is a complex-valued mathematical sequence which, when applied to radio signals, gives rise to an electromagnetic signal of constant amplitude, whereby cyclically shifted versions of the sequence imposed on a signal result in zero cross-correlation with one another at the...


Further reading

  • Stefania Sesia, Issam Toufik, and Matthew Baker, "LTE – The UMTS Long Term Evolution – From Theory to Practice", Second Edition including Release 10 for LTE-Advanced, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, ISBN 978-0-470-66025-6
  • Chris Johnson, "LTE in BULLETS", CreateSpace, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4528-3464-1
  • Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Sköld, Per Beming, "3G Evolution – HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband", 2nd edition, Academic Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-12-374538-5
  • Borko Furht, Syed A. Ahson, "Long Term Evolution: 3GPP LTE Radio And Cellular Technology", Crc Press, 2009, ISBN 978-1-4200-7210-5
  • F. Khan, "LTE for 4G Mobile Broadband – Air Interface Technologies and Performance", Cambridge University Press, 2009
  • Mustafa Ergen, "Mobile Broadband – Including WiMAX and LTE", Springer, NY, 2009
  • H. Ekström, A. Furuskär, J. Karlsson, M. Meyer, S. Parkvall, J. Torsner, and M. Wahlqvist, "Technical Solutions for the 3G Long-Term Evolution," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, March 2006, pp. 38–45
  • E. Dahlman, H. Ekström, A. Furuskär, Y. Jading, J. Karlsson, M. Lundevall, and S. Parkvall, "The 3G Long-Term Evolution – Radio Interface Concepts and Performance Evaluation," IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC) 2006 Spring, Melbourne, Australia, May 2006
  • K. Fazel and S. Kaiser, Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectrum Systems: From OFDM and MC-CDMA to LTE and WiMAX, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2008, ISBN 978-0-470-99821-2
  • Agilent Technologies, "LTE and the Evolution to 4G Wireless: Design and Measurement Challenges", John Wiley & Sons, 2009 ISBN 978-0-470-68261-6
  • Sajal Kumar Das, John Wiley & Sons (April 2010): "Mobile Handset Design", ISBN 978-0-470-82467-2 .
  • Beaver, Paul, "What is TD-LTE?", RF&Microwave Designline, September 2011.

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