. Chariot warfare and population movements lead to violent changes at the center of the millennium, and a new order emerges with
and the rise of the Hittite Empire. The end of the millennium sees the transition to the
Spending much of their energies in trying to recuperate from the anarchic situation that was at the turn of the millennium, the most powerful civilizations of the time,
, turned their attention to more modest goals. The
origin, brought good governance without much tyranny, and favoured elegant art and architecture. Farther east, the
was in a period of decline, possibly as a result of intense, ruinous flooding.
Egypt and Babylonia's military tactics were still based on foot soldiers transporting their equipment on donkeys. Combined with a weak economy and difficulty in maintaining order, this was a fragile situation that crumbled under the pressure of external forces they could not oppose.
plains and swept through the Near East. They were riding fast two-wheeled
s, a system of weaponry developed earlier within the context of plains warfare. This tool of war was unknown among the classical oriental civilizations. Egypt and Babylonia's foot soldiers were unable to defend against the invaders: In 1630 BC, the
The peoples in place were quick to adapt to the new tactics, and a new international situation resulted from the change. Though during most of the second half of the 2nd millennium BC several regional powers competed relentlessly for hegemony, many developments occurred: there was new emphasis on grandiose architecture, new clothing fashions, vivid diplomatic correspondence on
. Among the great states of the time, only
refrained from taking part in battles, mainly due to its new position as the world's religious and intellectual capital.
civilization at its final period of time, displayed all its characteristic social traits: low level of urbanization, small cities centered around temples or royal palaces, strict separation of classes between an illiterate mass of peasants and craftsmen, and a powerful military
s, this time riding on horseback, wholly destroyed the Bronze Age world, and were to be followed by waves of social changes that marked the beginning of different times. Also contributing to the changes were the
| 20th century BC
The 20th century BC is a century which lasted from the year 2000 BC to 1901 BC.-Events:* 2000 BC: Arrival of the ancestors of the Latins in Italy.* 2000 BC: Town of Mantua was presumably founded.* 2000 BC: Stonehenge is believed to have been completed....
| 1990s BC
|| 1980s BC
|| 1970s BC
|| 1960s BC
|| 1950s BC
|| 1940s BC
|| 1930s BC
|| 1920s BC
|| 1910s BC
|| 1900s BC
| 19th century BC
-Events:* Hittite empire in Hattusa, Anatolia.* 1900 BC: Proto-Greek invasions of Greece.* c. 1900 BC: Minoan Old Palace period starts in Crete.* c. 1900 BC: Fall of last Sumerian dynasty....
| 1890s BC
|| 1880s BC
|| 1870s BC
|| 1860s BC
|| 1850s BC
|| 1840s BC
|| 1830s BC
|| 1820s BC
|| 1810s BC
|| 1800s BC
| 18th century BC
The 18th century BCE was the century which lasted from 1800 BCE to 1701 BCE.-Events:*1800 BCE: Iron age in India*1800 BCE: Beginning of the Nordic Bronze Age in the period system devised by Oscar Montelius....
| 1790s BC
|| 1780s BC
|| 1770s BC
|| 1760s BC
|| 1750s BC
|| 1740s BC
|| 1730s BC
|| 1720s BC
|| 1710s BC
|| 1700s BC
| 17th century BC
The 17th century BC is a century which lasted from 1700 BC to 1601 BC.-Events:*c. 1700 BC: Indus Valley Civilization comes to an end but is continued by the Cemetery H culture*1700 BC: Belu-bani became the King of Assyria....
| 1690s BC
-Events and trends:*The Minoan and Harappan Civilizations continue to exist in Crete and Ancient India respectively.*1700–1500 BC—Hurrian conquests.*Second Intermediate Period, in which the Hyksos invade Egypt, continues....
| 1680s BC
-Events and trends:* Egypt—Start of the Sixteenth Dynasty.* Egypt—Development of leavened bread .-Significant people:* 1686 BC—Death of Hammurabi * 1684 BC—Death of Érimón, Irish legend...
| 1670s BC
-Events and trends:* c. 1674 BC—End of Middle Kingdom in Ancient Egypt. Start of Second intermediate period, the 15th–17th Dynasties.* Egypt—Start of Fifteenth Dynasty.* 1674 BC—Death of Pharaoh Tutimaios of Egypt.* 1674 BC—Ipuwer Papyrus written....
| 1660s BC
-Events and trends:* 1662 BC—May 22—Lunar Saros 33 begins.-Significant people:* 1664 BC—Death of Arpachshad, son of Shem, son of Noah, according to the Hebrew Calendar...
| 1650s BC
-Events and trends:* c. 1655 BC—Tan-Uli, the ruler of the Elamite Empire, dies.* c. 1650 BC—Greeks start to live in Mycenae.* c. 1650 BC—Middle Kingdom ends in Ancient Egypt ....
| 1640s BC
-Events and trends:* 1640 BC—The Middle Kingdom ends in Ancient Egypt and the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt starts.-Significant people:*Bazaia, King of Assyria, r. 1650–1622 BC*Ammi-Ditana, King of Babylonia, r. 1684–1647 BC...
| 1630s BC
-Events and trends:* 1633 BC—Egypt—End of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties of Egypt, start of the Fifteenth dynasty.* 1633 BC—May 2—Lunar Saros 34 begins....
| 1620s BC
-Events and trends:* 1627 BC—Beginning of a period of cooling of the world climate lasting several years, recorded in tree-rings all over the world. It might have been caused by the Minoan eruption of Thera which according to the Parian Chronicle occurred in 1627, or the Avellino eruption of Mount...
| 1610s BC
-Significant people:* King Tang of Shang of China...
| 1600s BC
| 16th century BC
The 16th century BC is a century which lasted from 1600 BC to 1501 BC.-Events:* 1700 BC – 1500 BC: Hurrian conquests.* 1595 BC: Sack of Babylon by the Hittite king Mursilis I....
| 1590s BC
-Events and trends:* ca. 1595 BC—Mursili I, king of the Hittites, sacks Babylon. This brings an end to the rule of the descendants of Hammurabi in that kingdom.-Significant people:* 1597 BC—Aaron born to Amram and his wife Jochebed...
| 1580s BC
-Events and trends:*The Egyptians invented a new and better calendar. It is based on both the moon and a star. They observed the annual appearance of the brightest star in the sky, Sirius. This calendar was more advanced than the Babylonian calendar....
| 1570s BC
-Events and trends:* 1570 BC—The Second Intermediate Period of Egypt ends and the New Kingdom begins in Ancient Egypt.-Significant people:* Kamose, last Pharaoh of the 17th Dynasty of Egypt ....
| 1560s BC
-Events and trends:* 1567 BC—Egypt: End of Fifteenth Dynasty, end of Sixteenth Dynasty, end of Seventeenth Dynasty, start of Eighteenth Dynasty.-Significant people:* Ahmose I, Pharaoh and founder of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt...
| 1550s BC
-Events and trends:*The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, comes to dominate the rest of Achaea, giving its name to Mycenaean civilization....
| 1540s BC
-Events and trends:* History of ancient Israel and Judah—earliest date for Ahmose I founding the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt.-Significant people:* 1545 BC—Ahmose I, Pharaoh and founder of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, dies, according to the High Chronology....
| 1530s BC
-Events and trends:* 1539 BC—End of Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Eighteenth Dynasty.* 1539 BC—Approximate first use of the Valley of the Kings.* 1534 BC—The oldest dated star chart was made in Ancient Egypt....
| 1520s BC
-Events and trends:* 1525 BC—End of Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt.* 1522 BC—Jacob migrates to Egypt, settling in the Land of Goshen, according to the Hebrew calendar.* 1521 BC—April 24—Lunar Saros 36 begins....
| 1510s BC
-Events and trends:* 1517 BC—The Heliacal rising of Sothis, a dating of the reign of Amenhotep I, followed by Thutmosis I.* 1512 BC—The flood of Deucalion, according to O'Flaherty, Augustine, Eusebius, and Isidore ....
| 1500s BC
| 15th century BC
The 15th century BC is a century which lasted from 1500 BC to 1401 BC.- Events :* 1504 BC – 1492 BC: Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant.* 1500 BC – 1400 BC: The Rigveda was composed around this time....
| 1490s BC
-Events and trends:*Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant .*1497 BC—Cranaus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 10 years by his son-in-law Amphictyon of Thessaly, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha....
| 1480s BC
-Events and trends:* 1487 BC—Amphictyon, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha and legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 10 years and is succeeded by Erichthonius I of Athens, a grandson of Cranaus.* 1481 BC—August 27—Lunar Saros 43 begins....
| 1470s BC
-Events:* c. 1478 BC–1390 BC—Hand mirror, Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, is made. It is now at The Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York.* c. 1473 BC—Hatshepsut started to rule. She is a daughter of Thutmose I. Married to her half brother Thutmose II....
| 1460s BC
-Events and trends:* c. 1469 BC—In the Battle of Megiddo, Egypt defeats Canaan.-Significant people:* Hatshepsut of Egypt, female Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty ....
| 1450s BC
-Events and trends:* Battle of Megiddo between Thutmose III and a coalition under the King of Kadesh. It is the first battle to have been recorded in what is accepted as relatively reliable detail. The battle took place in year 23 I Shemsu day 20...
| 1440s BC
-Events and trends:* 1445 BC—According to James Ussher's chronology, this is when Moses led the Hebrews from Egypt, to the land of Israel....
| 1430s BC
-Events and trends:* 1437 BC—Legendary King Erichthonius I of Athens dies after a reign of 50 years and is succeeded by his son Pandion I....
| 1420s BC
-Events and trends:* Crete conquered by Mycenae —start of the Mycenaean period.-Significant people:* Thutmose III of Egypt, Pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt * Amenhotep II, Pharaoh of Egypt,...
| 1410s BC
-Events and trends:* 1420 BC—Hebrew Exodus from Egypt .* 1420 BC—Incumbent Shahram from Persia declared his kingdom.-Significant people:* Amenhotep II, Pharaoh of Egypt,...
| 1400s BC
-Events and trends:* April 16, 1409 BC Lunar Saros 38 begins.* 1400 BC—Palace of Minos destroyed by fire.* 1400 BC—Estimation: Thebes, capital of Egypt becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Memphis in Egypt....
| 14th century BC
The 14th century BC is a century which lasted from the year 1400 BC until 1301 BC.-Events:* 1397 BC: Pandion I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Erechtheus II of Athens....
| 1390s BC
-Events and trends:*1397 BC—Pandion I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Erechtheus II of Athens.*c. 1390 BC–1352 BC: Queen Tiy, bust from Kom Medinet el-Ghurab was made. 18th dynasty...
| 1380s BC
The 1380s BC refers to the period between 1389 BC and 1380 BC, the 1380s was the second decade of the 14th century BC.-Events and Trends:* Decline of the Minoan Culture in Crete.* Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt marries Tiy, his Chief Queen....
| 1370s BC
-Events and trends:* The cutting down of the oak log that the Egtved Girl was buried in. It is dated to the summer of 1370 BC.* c. 1375 BC—Minoan culture ends on Crete.* c. 1375 BC—Site of palace complex Knossos is abandoned....
| 1360s BC
-Significant people:*1368 BC—Death of Erichthonius, mythical King of Dardania.*1366 BC—Birth of Princess Tadukhipa to Tusratta, King of Mitanni and his Queen Juni. She will be later married to Amenhotep III and after his death to his son and heir Amenhotep IV Akhenaton...
| 1350s BC
-Events and trends:* 1350 BC—Yin becomes the new capital of the Shang dynasty.* 1352 BC—Amenhotep III dies.* c. 1352 BC—Amenhotep IV starts to rule.* c. 1352 BC—Amarna period in Ancient Egypt starts.-Significant people:...
| 1340s BC
-Events and trends:*c. 1348 BC—Amenhotep IV changes his name to Akhenaten.*1348 BC–1336 BC: Akhenaten and his family, relief from Akhetaten was made. 18th dynasty. It is now in Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Ägyptisches Museum.*c. 1348 BC–1336 BC: Nefertiti, bust from...
| 1330s BC
-Events and trends:* 1336 BC—Pharaoh Akhenaten of Egypt names Smenkhkare as a co-ruler.* 1336 BC—Tutankhaten becomes Pharaoh of Egypt and marries Ankhesenpaaten, daughter and wife of his predecessor Akhenaten.* c...
| 1320s BC
-Events:* 1323 BC—Death of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt.* 1323 BC—Ay succeeds Tutankhamun...
| 1310s BC
-Events:* The Bhagavad Gita is written, according to Hindu traditions.* 1319 BC—Horemheb assumes the throne of Ancient Egypt.* 1317 BC—Enlil-nirari succeeds his father as king of Assyria.* 1312 BC—The revelation of the Torah to Moses occurred....
| 1300s BC
| 13th century BC
The 13th century BC was the period from 1300 to 1201 BC.-Events:*1300 BC: Cemetery H culture comes to an end.*1292 BC: End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty....
| 1290s BC
-Events and trends:* c. 1295 BC–1186 BC–Great Temple of Amun, Karnak, is built. New Kingdom.* 1292 BC—End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty.* 1292 BC—The coronation of Ramses I....
| 1280s BC
-Events and trends:*1290 BC—Seti I becomes Pharaoh of Egypt.*c. 1285 BC—Judgement of Hunefer before Osiris, illustration from a Book of the Dead is painted. 19th dynasty. It is now in the British Museum, London....
| 1270s BC
-Events and trends:*1279 BC—Pharaoh Seti I dies.*c. 1279 BC—Troy VI, speculated to be the city mentioned in Homer's Iliad, is presumed to have been destroyed by Greek armies.*c. 1279 BC —Ramesses II becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt....
| 1260s BC
-Events and trends:* One of the three estimated dates of the Birth of Herakles in Thebes, Greece.* c. 1263 BC—Ramses II, king of ancient Egypt, and Hattusilis III, king of the Hittites, sign the earliest known peace treaty....
| 1250s BC
-Events and trends:*c. 1259 BC—Ramesses II makes peace agreement with the Hittites .*c. 1258 BC—The Exodus as depicted in the Bible....
| 1240s BC
-Events and trends:* Deborah, Judge of Israel, accompanies Barak on a military campaign in Qedesh, according to Judges 4:6–10.* Jael assassinates Sisera, a retreating general who was the enemy of the Israelites, according to Judges 5:23–27....
| 1230s BC
-Significant people:* 1231 BC—King Telephus of Mysia is born in Arcadia ....
| 1220s BC
-Events and trends:*1230 BC—Battle of Nihriya* 1221 BC—Pharaoh Merneptah defeats a Libyan invasion.-Significant people:* 1225 BC—Birth of legendary Helen of Troy to King Tyndareus of Sparta and his wife Leda. ....
| 1210s BC
-Events and trends:*1213–1203 BC—Merneptah Stele makes the earliest recorded mention of Israel.*1213 BC—Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erechtheus and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus...
| 1200s BC
| 12th century BC
-Overview:The 12th century BC is the period from 1200 to 1101 BC. Although many human societies were literate in this period, most individual persons mentioned in this article ought to be considered legendary rather than historical...
| 1190s BC
-Events and trends:* 1197 BC—The beginning of first period by Sau Yung's concept of the I Ching and history.* 1194 BC—The beginning of the legendary Trojan War.* 1192 BC—Wu Ding king of Shang Dynasty died....
| 1180s BC
-Events and trends:* 1186 BC—End of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Twentieth Dynasty.* 1184 BC—April 24, the traditional date of the fall of Troy....
| 1170s BC
-Events and trends:* 1178 BC, April 16—A solar eclipse occurs. This may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom after the Trojan War. He discovers a number of suitors competing to marry his wife Penelope, whom they believe to be a widow, in order to succeed him...
| 1160s BC
-Events and trends:* 1166 BC—The start of the Discordian calendar and within Discordianism the date of Curse of Greyface.* 1162 BC—The statue of Marduk is taken from Babylon by Elamite conquerors....
| 1150s BC
-Events and trends:*1159 BC—The Hekla 3 eruption triggers an 18-year period of climatic worsening. *1154 BC—Death of King Menelaus of Sparta .*1154 BC—Suicide of exiled Queen Helen of Sparta at Rhodes. ....
| 1140s BC
-Events and trends:* 1149 BC—The First Trojan War* 1147 BC—Demophon, legendary King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War, dies after a reign of 33 years and is succeeded by his son Oxyntes....
| 1130s BC
-Events and trends:* 1137 BC—Ramses VII begins his reign as the sixth ruler of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt.* 1135 BC—Oxyntes, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 12 years and is succeeded by his elder son Apheidas....
| 1120s BC
-Events and trends:* 1126 BC—Thymoetes, legendary King of Athens, dies childless after a reign of 8 years. He is succeeded by his designated heir Melanthus of Pylos, a fifth-generation descendant of Neleus who had reportedly assisted him in battle against the Boeotians.* 1122 BC—Legendary founding...
| 1110s BC
-Events and trends:* 1115 BC—Zhou cheng wang becomes king of the Zhou Dynasty of China. * 1115 BC—Tiglath-Pileser I becomes king of Assyria.-Significant people:...
| 1100s BC
| 11th century BC
The 11th century BC comprises all years from 1100 BC to 1001 BC. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some of the individuals mentioned below may be considered legendary rather than fully historical.-Events:...
| 1090s BC
-Events and trends:* 1090 BC—or the Year of the Hyenas, in the reign of Ramesses XI, there was a collapse in Egypt's economy leading to the emergence of tomb robbers. Because of this, it was also the last year that the Valley of the Kings was used for burial....
| 1080s BC
The 1080s BC witnessed the early years of the Iron Age. Many of the great powers of the High Bronze Age in the Western Mediterranean had either collapsed or been severely weakened...
| 1070s BC
-Events and trends:* 1079 BC—Death of Zhou cheng wang, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China.* 1078 BC—Zhou kang wang becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China.* c. 1075 BC—New Kingdom ends in Ancient Egypt ....
| 1060s BC
-Events and trends:* c. 1069 BC — End of New Kingdom in Ancient Egypt.* c. 1069 BC - Third Intermediate Period of Egypt starts.* 1069 BC — Ramses XI dies, ending the Twentieth Dynasty. He is succeeded by Smendes I, who founds the Twenty-first Dynasty....
| 1050s BC
-Events and trends:* 1054 BC Shamshi-Adad IV, son of Tiglath-Pileser I, usurps the Assyrian throne from his nephew, Eriba-Adad II.* 1053 BC—Death of Kang, king of the Zhou of ancient China...
| 1040s BC
-Events and trends:* 1048 BC—Medon, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 20 years and is succeeded by his son Acastus.* 1046 BC—Following the Battle of Muye, King Wu of Zhou overthrows the Shang Dynasty Chinese King Di Xin and founds the Zhou Dynasty .* 1044 BC—On the death of Smendes I, king of...
| 1030s BC
-Events and trends:* 1039 BC—Neferkare Amenemnisu, king of Egypt, dies.* 1031 BC—Shalmaneser II becomes King of Assyria* c. 1030 BC—The Belknap Volcano Erupts in The State of Oregon....
| 1020s BC
-Events and trends:* 1027 BC—Traditional date for the end of the Shang Dynasty in China, and the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty.* 1026 BC—Saul the King becomes the first king of the Israelites.* c. 1025 BC—Collapse of Mycenaean dominance ends....
| 1010s BC
-Events and trends:* 1012 BC—Acastus, Archon of Athens, dies after a reign of 36 years and is succeeded by his son Archippus. Solar Eclipse seen in Ugarit from 6:09 PM to 6:39 PM, May 9....
| 1000s BC