2nd millennium BC

2nd millennium BC

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The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the Stone Age and Iron Age...

.

Its first half is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, between 2055 BC and 1650 BC, although some writers include the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties in the Second Intermediate...

 and Babylonia
Babylonia
Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia , with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as a major power when Hammurabi Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as...

. The alphabet
Middle Bronze Age alphabets
Proto-Sinaitic is a Middle Bronze Age script attested in a very small collection of inscriptions at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula. Due to the extreme scarcity of Proto-Sinaitic signs, very little is known with certainty about the nature of the script...

 develops. Indo-Iranian
Indo-Iranians
Indo-Iranian peoples are a linguistic group consisting of the Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Dardic and Nuristani peoples; that is, speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family....

 migration onto the Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
The Iranian plateau, or Iranic plateau, is a geological formation in Southwest Asia. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Hormuz Strait and Persian...

 and onto the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent, also Indian Subcontinent, Indo-Pak Subcontinent or South Asian Subcontinent is a region of the Asian continent on the Indian tectonic plate from the Hindu Kush or Hindu Koh, Himalayas and including the Kuen Lun and Karakoram ranges, forming a land mass which extends...

 propagates the use of the chariot
Chariot
The chariot is a type of horse carriage used in both peace and war as the chief vehicle of many ancient peoples. Ox carts, proto-chariots, were built by the Proto-Indo-Europeans and also built in Mesopotamia as early as 3000 BC. The original horse chariot was a fast, light, open, two wheeled...

. Chariot warfare and population movements lead to violent changes at the center of the millennium, and a new order emerges with Greek
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 dominance of the Aegean
Aegean Sea
The Aegean Sea[p] is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus...

 and the rise of the Hittite Empire. The end of the millennium sees the transition to the Iron Age
Iron Age
The Iron Age is the archaeological period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron. The early period of the age is characterized by the widespread use of iron or steel. The adoption of such material coincided with other changes in society, including differing...

. World population
World population
The world population is the total number of living humans on the planet Earth. As of today, it is estimated to be  billion by the United States Census Bureau...

 begins to rise steadily, reaching some 50 million towards 1000 BC.

Middle Bronze Age


Spending much of their energies in trying to recuperate from the anarchic situation that was at the turn of the millennium, the most powerful civilizations of the time, Egypt
History of Ancient Egypt
The History of Ancient Egypt spans the period from the early predynastic settlements of the northern Nile Valley to the Roman conquest in 30 BC...

 and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran.Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the...

, turned their attention to more modest goals. The Pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, between 2055 BC and 1650 BC, although some writers include the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties in the Second Intermediate...

 and their contemporary Kings of Babylon, of Amorite
Amorite
Amorite refers to an ancient Semitic people who occupied large parts of Mesopotamia from the 21st Century BC...

 origin, brought good governance without much tyranny, and favoured elegant art and architecture. Farther east, the Indus Valley civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

 was in a period of decline, possibly as a result of intense, ruinous flooding.

Egypt and Babylonia's military tactics were still based on foot soldiers transporting their equipment on donkeys. Combined with a weak economy and difficulty in maintaining order, this was a fragile situation that crumbled under the pressure of external forces they could not oppose.

Unrest of the 16th century


About a century before the middle of the millennium, bands of Indo-European
Proto-Indo-Europeans
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language , a reconstructed prehistoric language of Eurasia.Knowledge of them comes chiefly from the linguistic reconstruction, along with material evidence from archaeology and archaeogenetics...

 invaders came from the Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

 plains and swept through the Near East. They were riding fast two-wheeled chariot
Chariot
The chariot is a type of horse carriage used in both peace and war as the chief vehicle of many ancient peoples. Ox carts, proto-chariots, were built by the Proto-Indo-Europeans and also built in Mesopotamia as early as 3000 BC. The original horse chariot was a fast, light, open, two wheeled...

s powered by horse
Horse
The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus, or the wild horse. It is a single-hooved mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature into the large, single-toed animal of today...

s, a system of weaponry developed earlier within the context of plains warfare. This tool of war was unknown among the classical oriental civilizations. Egypt and Babylonia's foot soldiers were unable to defend against the invaders: In 1630 BC, the Hyksos
Hyksos
The Hyksos were an Asiatic people who took over the eastern Nile Delta during the twelfth dynasty, initiating the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt....

 swept into the Nile Delta, and in 1595 BC, the Hittites
Hittites
The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia.They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia c. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height c...

 swept into Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran.Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the...

.

Late Bronze Age


The peoples in place were quick to adapt to the new tactics, and a new international situation resulted from the change. Though during most of the second half of the 2nd millennium BC several regional powers competed relentlessly for hegemony, many developments occurred: there was new emphasis on grandiose architecture, new clothing fashions, vivid diplomatic correspondence on clay tablet
Clay tablet
In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age....

s, renewed economic exchanges, and the New Kingdom
New Kingdom
The New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt....

 of Egypt played the role of the main superpower
Superpower
A superpower is a state with a dominant position in the international system which has the ability to influence events and its own interests and project power on a worldwide scale to protect those interests...

. Among the great states of the time, only Babylon
Babylon
Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

 refrained from taking part in battles, mainly due to its new position as the world's religious and intellectual capital.

The Bronze Age
Bronze Age
The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the Stone Age and Iron Age...

 civilization at its final period of time, displayed all its characteristic social traits: low level of urbanization, small cities centered around temples or royal palaces, strict separation of classes between an illiterate mass of peasants and craftsmen, and a powerful military elite
Elite
Elite refers to an exceptional or privileged group that wields considerable power within its sphere of influence...

, knowledge of writing and education reserved to a tiny minority of scribe
Scribe
A scribe is a person who writes books or documents by hand as a profession and helps the city keep track of its records. The profession, previously found in all literate cultures in some form, lost most of its importance and status with the advent of printing...

s, and pronounced aristocrat
Aristocracy
Aristocracy , is a form of government in which a few elite citizens rule. The term derives from the Greek aristokratia, meaning "rule of the best". In origin in Ancient Greece, it was conceived of as rule by the best qualified citizens, and contrasted with monarchy...

ic life.

Near the end of the 2nd millennium BC, new waves of barbarian
Barbarian
Barbarian and savage are terms used to refer to a person who is perceived to be uncivilized. The word is often used either in a general reference to a member of a nation or ethnos, typically a tribal society as seen by an urban civilization either viewed as inferior, or admired as a noble savage...

s, this time riding on horseback, wholly destroyed the Bronze Age world, and were to be followed by waves of social changes that marked the beginning of different times. Also contributing to the changes were the Sea Peoples
Sea Peoples
The Sea Peoples were a confederacy of seafaring raiders of the second millennium BC who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty and especially during year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty...

, ship-faring raiders of the Mediterranean.

Events






  • Second dynasty of Babylon
    Babylon
    Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

    .
  • c. 2000 BC Middle Kingdom
    Middle Kingdom of Egypt
    The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, between 2055 BC and 1650 BC, although some writers include the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties in the Second Intermediate...

     in Egypt (2052
    21st century BC
    The 21st century BC is a century which lasted from the year 2100 BC to 2001 BC.- Events :Note: all dates from this long ago should be regarded as either approximate or conjectural; there are no absolutely certain dates, and multiple competing reconstructed chronologies, for this time period.* c....

    1570 BC
    16th century BC
    The 16th century BC is a century which lasted from 1600 BC to 1501 BC.-Events:* 1700 BC – 1500 BC: Hurrian conquests.* 1595 BC: Sack of Babylon by the Hittite king Mursilis I....

    ).
  • c. 2000 BC Nubia
    Nubia
    Nubia is a region along the Nile river, which is located in northern Sudan and southern Egypt.There were a number of small Nubian kingdoms throughout the Middle Ages, the last of which collapsed in 1504, when Nubia became divided between Egypt and the Sennar sultanate resulting in the Arabization...

     in her Kerma
    Kingdom of Kerma
    The Kerma culture is a prehistoric culture which flourished from around 2500 BCE to about 1520 BCE in what is now Sudan, centered at Kerma.It emerged as a major centre during the Middle Kingdom period of Ancient Egypt....

     phase (2500-1520)
  • c. 2000 BC Tichit
    Tichit
    Tichit is a partly abandoned village at the foot of the Tagant Plateau in central southern Mauritania that is known for its vernacular architecture...

     (Ancient Ghana
    Ghana Empire
    The Ghana Empire or Wagadou Empire was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania, and Western Mali. Complex societies had existed in the region since about 1500 BCE, and around Ghana's core region since about 300 CE...

    ) settlements began
  • c. 2000 BC—Menhir
    Menhir
    A menhir is a large upright standing stone. Menhirs may be found singly as monoliths, or as part of a group of similar stones. Their size can vary considerably; but their shape is generally uneven and squared, often tapering towards the top...

     statue of a woman, from Montagnac
    Montagnac
    Montagnac may refer to the following places in France:*Montagnac, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, a former commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département that is now a part of Montagnac-Montpezat*Montagnac, Gard, in the Gard département...

    , France, was made. It is now at Musée d'Histoire Naturelle et de Préhistoire, Nîmes
    Nîmes
    Nîmes is the capital of the Gard department in the Languedoc-Roussillon region in southern France. Nîmes has a rich history, dating back to the Roman Empire, and is a popular tourist destination.-History:...

    .
  • c. 2000 BC—Seima-Turbino Phenomenon
    Seima-Turbino Phenomenon
    Seima-Turbino refers to burial sites dating around 1500 BC found across northern Eurasia, from Finland to Mongolia. The buried were nomadic warriors and metal-workers, travelling on horseback or two-wheeled chariots. These nomads originated from the Altai Mountains...

     originating in the Altai Mountains leads to rapid and massive migrations westward across the Urals into north-eastern Europe and eastward into China and South-east Asia
  • c. 2000 BC-1600 BC Erlitou period
    Erlitou culture
    The Erlitou culture is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age urban society that existed in China from 2000 BCE to 1500 BCE. The culture was named after the site discovered at Erlitou in Yanshi, Henan Province...

     (Xia Dynasty
    Xia Dynasty
    The Xia Dynasty is the first dynasty in China to be described in ancient historical chronicles such as Bamboo Annals, Classic of History and Records of the Grand Historian. The Xia Dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors gave his throne to him...

    ) in China.
  • c. 2000 BC–1900 BC—Kamares Ware jug, from Phaistos
    Phaistos
    Phaistos , also transliterated as Phaestos, Festos and Phaestus is an ancient city on the island of Crete. Phaistos was located in the south-central portion of the island, about 5.6 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea. It was inhabited from about 4000 BC. A palace, dating from the Middle Bronze...

    , Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    , is made. Old Palace period. It is now at Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Iraklion, Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    .
  • Hittites
    Hittites
    The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia.They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia c. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height c...

     Old Kingdom in Anatolia
    Anatolia
    Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

     (1900 BC
    19th century BC
    -Events:* Hittite empire in Hattusa, Anatolia.* 1900 BC: Proto-Greek invasions of Greece.* c. 1900 BC: Minoan Old Palace period starts in Crete.* c. 1900 BC: Fall of last Sumerian dynasty....

    )
  • Civilization
    Civilization
    Civilization is a sometimes controversial term that has been used in several related ways. Primarily, the term has been used to refer to the material and instrumental side of human cultures that are complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor. Such civilizations are generally...

     in Canaan
    Canaan
    Canaan is a historical region roughly corresponding to modern-day Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, and the western parts of Jordan...

     (1800 BC
    18th century BC
    The 18th century BCE was the century which lasted from 1800 BCE to 1701 BCE.-Events:*1800 BCE: Iron age in India*1800 BCE: Beginning of the Nordic Bronze Age in the period system devised by Oscar Montelius....

    ).
  • c. 1800 BC–1600 BC—Horse and sun chariot, from Trundholm Sun Chariot
    Trundholm sun chariot
    The Trundholm sun chariot , is a late Nordic Bronze Age artifact discovered in Denmark. It is a representatino of the sun chariot, a bronze statue of a horse and a large bronze disk, which are placed on a device with spoked wheels....

    , Zealand, Denmark, was made. It is now at National Museum
    National museum
    A national museum is a museum maintained by a nation.The following is a list of national museums:-Australia:*Australian National Aviation Museum*Australian National Maritime Museum*, Sydney*Australian War Memorial*Museum Victoria...

    , Copenhagen
    Copenhagen
    Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region...

    .
  • c. 1700 BC—An earthquake damages palaces at Knossos
    Knossos
    Knossos , also known as Labyrinth, or Knossos Palace, is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and probably the ceremonial and political centre of the Minoan civilization and culture. The palace appears as a maze of workrooms, living spaces, and store rooms close to a central square...

     and Phaistos
    Phaistos
    Phaistos , also transliterated as Phaestos, Festos and Phaestus is an ancient city on the island of Crete. Phaistos was located in the south-central portion of the island, about 5.6 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea. It was inhabited from about 4000 BC. A palace, dating from the Middle Bronze...

    .
  • c. 1700 BC—1550 BC—Woman or Goddess with snakes, from the palace complex, Second Palace period, Knossos
    Knossos
    Knossos , also known as Labyrinth, or Knossos Palace, is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and probably the ceremonial and political centre of the Minoan civilization and culture. The palace appears as a maze of workrooms, living spaces, and store rooms close to a central square...

    , Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    , is made. It is now at Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Iraklion, Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    .
  • c. 1700 BC–1550 BC—Pendant of gold bees or wasps, from Chryssolakkos
    Chryssolakkos
    Chryssolakkos means the "Pit of gold". This is where the ancient necropolis in Malia, an ancient Minoan town in Crete, Greece is located....

     near Mallia, Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    , is made. Old Palace period. It is now at Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Iraklion, Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    .
  • c. 1700 BC–1550 BC—Bull Jumper (?), from the palace complex, Knossos
    Knossos
    Knossos , also known as Labyrinth, or Knossos Palace, is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and probably the ceremonial and political centre of the Minoan civilization and culture. The palace appears as a maze of workrooms, living spaces, and store rooms close to a central square...

    , Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    , was made. It is now at Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Iraklion, Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    .
  • c. 1700 BC–1300 BC—Palace complex in Knossos
    Knossos
    Knossos , also known as Labyrinth, or Knossos Palace, is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and probably the ceremonial and political centre of the Minoan civilization and culture. The palace appears as a maze of workrooms, living spaces, and store rooms close to a central square...

    , Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    , was built.
  • c. 1650 BC–1450 BC—Harvester Vase, from Hagia Triada
    Hagia triada
    Hagia Triada is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan settlement. Hagia Triada is situated on a prominent coastal ridge, with the Mesara Plain below. Hagia triada sits at the western end of the ridge, while Phaistos is at the eastern end...

    , Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    , is made. Second Palace period. It is now at Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Iraklion, Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    .
  • c. 1650 BC–1450 BC—Vapheio cup, found near Sparta
    Sparta
    Sparta or Lacedaemon, was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece, situated on the banks of the River Eurotas in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese. It emerged as a political entity around the 10th century BC, when the invading Dorians subjugated the local, non-Dorian population. From c...

    , Greece, was made. It is now at Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Iraklion, Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    .
  • Either in 1620s BC
    1620s BC
    -Events and trends:* 1627 BC—Beginning of a period of cooling of the world climate lasting several years, recorded in tree-rings all over the world. It might have been caused by the Minoan eruption of Thera which according to the Parian Chronicle occurred in 1627, or the Avellino eruption of Mount...

     or 1520s BC
    1520s BC
    -Events and trends:* 1525 BC—End of Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt.* 1522 BC—Jacob migrates to Egypt, settling in the Land of Goshen, according to the Hebrew calendar.* 1521 BC—April 24—Lunar Saros 36 begins....

     the Minoan eruption of Thera
    Santorini
    Santorini , officially Thira , is an island located in the southern Aegean Sea, about southeast from Greece's mainland. It is the largest island of a small, circular archipelago which bears the same name and is the remnant of a volcanic caldera...

     (now known as Santorini), destroys Minoan Akrotiri.
  • c. 1600 BC Shang Dynasty
    Shang Dynasty
    The Shang Dynasty or Yin Dynasty was, according to traditional sources, the second Chinese dynasty, after the Xia. They ruled in the northeastern regions of the area known as "China proper" in the Yellow River valley...

     was founded in China.
  • c. 1600 BC
    17th century BC
    The 17th century BC is a century which lasted from 1700 BC to 1601 BC.-Events:*c. 1700 BC: Indus Valley Civilization comes to an end but is continued by the Cemetery H culture*1700 BC: Belu-bani became the King of Assyria....

    1360 BC
    14th century BC
    The 14th century BC is a century which lasted from the year 1400 BC until 1301 BC.-Events:* 1397 BC: Pandion I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Erechtheus II of Athens....

     Egyptian
    Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

     domination over Canaan
    Canaan
    Canaan is a historical region roughly corresponding to modern-day Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, and the western parts of Jordan...

     and Syria
    Syria
    Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

    .
  • c. 1575-1550 BC Nubia
    Nubia
    Nubia is a region along the Nile river, which is located in northern Sudan and southern Egypt.There were a number of small Nubian kingdoms throughout the Middle Ages, the last of which collapsed in 1504, when Nubia became divided between Egypt and the Sennar sultanate resulting in the Arabization...

    n Kerma
    Kingdom of Kerma
    The Kerma culture is a prehistoric culture which flourished from around 2500 BCE to about 1520 BCE in what is now Sudan, centered at Kerma.It emerged as a major centre during the Middle Kingdom period of Ancient Egypt....

     sacks Egypt
    Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

  • c. 1500 BC First Bantu expansion
    Bantu expansion
    The Bantu expansion or the Bantu Migration was a millennia-long series of migrations of speakers of the original proto-Bantu language group...

     out of West Africa
    West Africa
    West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. Geopolitically, the UN definition of Western Africa includes the following 16 countries and an area of approximately 5 million square km:-Flags of West Africa:...

  • c. 1520 BC Egypt
    Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

     conquers Nubia
    Nubia
    Nubia is a region along the Nile river, which is located in northern Sudan and southern Egypt.There were a number of small Nubian kingdoms throughout the Middle Ages, the last of which collapsed in 1504, when Nubia became divided between Egypt and the Sennar sultanate resulting in the Arabization...

    , beginning of Egyptian
    Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

     domination of Nubia
    Nubia
    Nubia is a region along the Nile river, which is located in northern Sudan and southern Egypt.There were a number of small Nubian kingdoms throughout the Middle Ages, the last of which collapsed in 1504, when Nubia became divided between Egypt and the Sennar sultanate resulting in the Arabization...

  • c. 1550 BC–1450 BC—Bull's-head rhyton
    Rhyton
    A rhyton is a container from which fluids were intended to be drunk, or else poured in some ceremony such as libation. Rhytons were very common in ancient Persia, where they were called takuk...

    , from the palace complex, Second Palace period, Knossos
    Knossos
    Knossos , also known as Labyrinth, or Knossos Palace, is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and probably the ceremonial and political centre of the Minoan civilization and culture. The palace appears as a maze of workrooms, living spaces, and store rooms close to a central square...

    , Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    , is made. It is now at Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Iraklion, Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    .
  • c. 1550 BC–1450 BC—Bull leaping, wall painting with areas of modern reconstruction, from the palace complex, Knossos
    Knossos
    Knossos , also known as Labyrinth, or Knossos Palace, is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and probably the ceremonial and political centre of the Minoan civilization and culture. The palace appears as a maze of workrooms, living spaces, and store rooms close to a central square...

    , Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    , is made. Late Minoan period. It is now at Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Iraklion, Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    .
  • c. 1500 BC–1450 BC—Octopus Flask, from Palaikastro, Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    , is made. Second Palace period. It is now at Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Iraklion, Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    .
  • 1274 BC—The Battle of Kadesh
    Battle of Kadesh
    The Battle of Kadesh took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II at the city of Kadesh on the Orontes River, in what is now the Syrian Arab Republic....

     in Syria
    Syria
    Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

     between the Egyptians
    Egyptians
    Egyptians are nation an ethnic group made up of Mediterranean North Africans, the indigenous people of Egypt.Egyptian identity is closely tied to geography. The population of Egypt is concentrated in the lower Nile Valley, the small strip of cultivable land stretching from the First Cataract to...

     and Hittites
    Hittites
    The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia.They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia c. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height c...

    .
  • 1269 BC—Ramses II, pharaoh of ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

    , and Hattusilis III, king of the Hittites
    Hittites
    The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia.They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia c. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height c...

    , sign the earliest known peace treaty
    Peace treaty
    A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a state of war between the parties...

    .
  • Athens
    Athens
    Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

     founded (1235 BC
    1230s BC
    -Significant people:* 1231 BC—King Telephus of Mysia is born in Arcadia ....

    ).
  • Conquest of Canaan
    Canaan
    Canaan is a historical region roughly corresponding to modern-day Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, and the western parts of Jordan...

     by the Israelites. The United Monarchy
    United Monarchy
    According to Biblical tradition, the united Kingdom of Israel was a kingdom that existed in the Land of Israel, a period referred to by scholars as the United Monarchy. Biblical historians date the kingdom from c. 1020 BCE to c...

     emerges in the last decades of the millennium. (According to the Bible.)
  • Beginnings of Judaism
    Judaism
    Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

     (1200 BC
    13th century BC
    The 13th century BC was the period from 1300 to 1201 BC.-Events:*1300 BC: Cemetery H culture comes to an end.*1292 BC: End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty....

    ).
  • Fall of Troy
    Troy
    Troy was a city, both factual and legendary, located in northwest Anatolia in what is now Turkey, southeast of the Dardanelles and beside Mount Ida...

     (traditional date 1184 BC. c.f. Troy VII
    Troy VII
    Troy VII, in the mound at Hisarlik, is an archaeological layer of Troy representing late Hittite Empire to Neo-Hittite times . It was a walled city with towers reaching a height of nine meters; the foundations of one of its bastions measure 18 meters by 18 meters...

    ).
  • 1045 BC Zhou Dynasty
    Zhou Dynasty
    The Zhou Dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty. Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the Ji family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as...

     was founded in China.
  • Austronesian peoples have migrated from Philippines to Celebes, the Moluccas, northern Borneo and eastern Java. From Moluccas a group heads west to Malagasy and another heads east into Oceania reaching Melanesia by 1200 BC

Inventions, discoveries, introductions


  • 2000 BC—Wheeled chariot
    Chariot
    The chariot is a type of horse carriage used in both peace and war as the chief vehicle of many ancient peoples. Ox carts, proto-chariots, were built by the Proto-Indo-Europeans and also built in Mesopotamia as early as 3000 BC. The original horse chariot was a fast, light, open, two wheeled...

    s and wagon
    Wagon
    A wagon is a heavy four-wheeled vehicle pulled by draught animals; it was formerly often called a wain, and if low and sideless may be called a dray, trolley or float....

    s appeared
  • Nebra sky disk the world's oldest visual representation of the cosmos
  • Development of the alphabet
    Middle Bronze Age alphabets
    Proto-Sinaitic is a Middle Bronze Age script attested in a very small collection of inscriptions at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula. Due to the extreme scarcity of Proto-Sinaitic signs, very little is known with certainty about the nature of the script...

  • Chinese
    China
    Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

     record the earliest known sighting of a comet
    Comet
    A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when close enough to the Sun, displays a visible coma and sometimes also a tail. These phenomena are both due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind upon the nucleus of the comet...

  • Earliest known use of Chinese
    Chinese language
    The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

     ideogram
    Ideogram
    An ideogram or ideograph is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept. Some ideograms are comprehensible only by familiarity with prior convention; others convey their meaning through pictorial resemblance to a physical object, and thus may also be referred to as pictograms.Examples of...

    s
  • Beginning of the Iron Age
    Iron Age
    The Iron Age is the archaeological period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron. The early period of the age is characterized by the widespread use of iron or steel. The adoption of such material coincided with other changes in society, including differing...

    : discovery of iron smelting and smithing techniques in Anatolia
    Anatolia
    Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

     or the Caucasus
    Caucasus
    The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

     in the late 2nd millennium BC
  • Introduction of the Peach
    Peach
    The peach tree is a deciduous tree growing to tall and 6 in. in diameter, belonging to the subfamily Prunoideae of the family Rosaceae. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a peach...

     from China to Persia and Europe
  • Emergence of the historical Vedic religion
    Historical Vedic religion
    The religion of the Vedic period is a historical predecessor of Hinduism. Its liturgy is reflected in the mantra portion of the four Vedas, which are compiled in Sanskrit. The religious practices centered on a clergy administering rites...

     (Rigveda
    Rigveda
    The Rigveda is an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns...

    )
  • Emergence of early monotheism
    Monotheism
    Monotheism is the belief in the existence of one and only one god. Monotheism is characteristic of the Baha'i Faith, Christianity, Druzism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Samaritanism, Sikhism and Zoroastrianism.While they profess the existence of only one deity, monotheistic religions may still...

     (Atenism
    Atenism
    Atenism, or the Amarna heresy, refers to the religious changes associated with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenophis IV, better known under his adopted name, Akhenaten...

    )

Cultures

  • Olmec
    Olmec
    The Olmec were the first major Pre-Columbian civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco....

     civilization in Mesoamerica
    Mesoamerica
    Mesoamerica is a region and culture area in the Americas, extending approximately from central Mexico to Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, within which a number of pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and...

    .
  • Middle Elamite period.
  • Oxus civilization.
  • Andronovo culture
    Andronovo culture
    The Andronovo culture, is a collection of similar local Bronze Age cultures that flourished ca. 21200–1400 BCE in western Siberia and the west Asiatic steppe. It is probably better termed an archaeological complex or archaeological horizon...

    , Central Asia
    Central Asia
    Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

    .
  • Aegean civilization
    Aegean civilization
    Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece around the Aegean Sea. There are three distinct but communicating and interacting geographic regions covered by this term: Crete, the Cyclades and the Greek mainland. Crete is associated with the Minoan civilization...

    .
  • Erlitou culture
    Erlitou culture
    The Erlitou culture is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age urban society that existed in China from 2000 BCE to 1500 BCE. The culture was named after the site discovered at Erlitou in Yanshi, Henan Province...

     (Xia Dynasty
    Xia Dynasty
    The Xia Dynasty is the first dynasty in China to be described in ancient historical chronicles such as Bamboo Annals, Classic of History and Records of the Grand Historian. The Xia Dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors gave his throne to him...

    ), China (c. 2000 BC to 1600 BC).
  • Wucheng culture
    Wucheng culture
    The Wucheng culture was a Bronze Age archaeological culture in Jiangxi, China. The initial site, spread out over , was discovered at Wucheng, Zhangshu. Located on the Gan River, the site was first excavated in 1973. The Wucheng culture probably developed in response to cultural contacts with the...

    , China.
  • Beaker culture
    Beaker culture
    The Bell-Beaker culture , ca. 2400 – 1800 BC, is the term for a widely scattered cultural phenomenon of prehistoric western Europe starting in the late Neolithic or Chalcolithic running into the early Bronze Age...

     (c. 2200 BC to 1800 BC).
  • Unetice culture
    Unetice culture
    Unetice; or more properly Únětice culture ; is the name given to an early Bronze Age culture, preceded by the Beaker culture and followed by the Tumulus culture. It was named after finds at site in Únětice, northwest of Prague. It is focused around the Czech Republic, southern and central Germany,...

     (c. 1800 BC to 1600 BC).
  • c. 1600 BC Shang Dynasty
    Shang Dynasty
    The Shang Dynasty or Yin Dynasty was, according to traditional sources, the second Chinese dynasty, after the Xia. They ruled in the northeastern regions of the area known as "China proper" in the Yellow River valley...

     in China.
  • c. 1600 BC—Cycladic culture ends in Ancient Greece
    Ancient Greece
    Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

    .
  • c. 1600 BC—Minoan civilization
    Minoan civilization
    The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete and flourished from approximately the 27th century BC to the 15th century BC. It was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of the British archaeologist Arthur Evans...

     reaches its peak.
  • Mycenaean
    Mycenaean Greece
    Mycenaean Greece was a cultural period of Bronze Age Greece taking its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in northeastern Argolis, in the Peloponnese of southern Greece. Athens, Pylos, Thebes, and Tiryns are also important Mycenaean sites...

     civilization (c. 1500 BC
    16th century BC
    The 16th century BC is a century which lasted from 1600 BC to 1501 BC.-Events:* 1700 BC – 1500 BC: Hurrian conquests.* 1595 BC: Sack of Babylon by the Hittite king Mursilis I....

    1100 BC
    12th century BC
    -Overview:The 12th century BC is the period from 1200 to 1101 BC. Although many human societies were literate in this period, most individual persons mentioned in this article ought to be considered legendary rather than historical...

    ).
  • c. 1600 BC—Mycenae
    Mycenae
    Mycenae is an archaeological site in Greece, located about 90 km south-west of Athens, in the north-eastern Peloponnese. Argos is 11 km to the south; Corinth, 48 km to the north...

    , Greece, becomes inhabited.
  • Tumulus culture
    Tumulus culture
    The Tumulus culture dominated Central Europe during the Middle Bronze Age .It was the descendant of the Unetice culture. Its heartland the area previously occupied by the Unetice culture besides Bavaria and Württemberg...

     (c. 1600 BC to 1200 BC).
  • c. 1500 BC—Mycenaean civilization starts in Ancient Greece
    Ancient Greece
    Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

    .
  • c. 1500 BC—Terramare culture
    Terramare culture
    Terramare, Terramara or Terremare is a technology complex mainly of the central Po valley, in Emilia, northern Italy, dating to the Middle and Late Bronze Age ca. 1700-1150 BC. It takes its name from the "black earth" residue of settlement mounds. Terramare is from terra marna, "marl-earth", where...

     starts in Italy and Dalmatia
    Dalmatia
    Dalmatia is a historical region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. It stretches from the island of Rab in the northwest to the Bay of Kotor in the southeast. The hinterland, the Dalmatian Zagora, ranges from fifty kilometers in width in the north to just a few kilometers in the south....

    .
  • c. 1450 BC—Minoan civilization
    Minoan civilization
    The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete and flourished from approximately the 27th century BC to the 15th century BC. It was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of the British archaeologist Arthur Evans...

     loses its power.
  • c. 1375 BC—Minoan culture ends on Crete
    Crete
    Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    .
  • Urnfield culture
    Urnfield culture
    The Urnfield culture was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe. The name comes from the custom of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields...

     (c. 1300 BC to 750 BC).
  • c. 1200 BC—Mycenae
    Mycenae
    Mycenae is an archaeological site in Greece, located about 90 km south-west of Athens, in the north-eastern Peloponnese. Argos is 11 km to the south; Corinth, 48 km to the north...

    , Greece, is abandoned.
  • c. 1100 BC—Mycenaean civilization ends in Ancient Greece
    Ancient Greece
    Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

    .
  • c. 1100 BC—Terramare culture
    Terramare culture
    Terramare, Terramara or Terremare is a technology complex mainly of the central Po valley, in Emilia, northern Italy, dating to the Middle and Late Bronze Age ca. 1700-1150 BC. It takes its name from the "black earth" residue of settlement mounds. Terramare is from terra marna, "marl-earth", where...

      ends in Italy and Dalmatia
    Dalmatia
    Dalmatia is a historical region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. It stretches from the island of Rab in the northwest to the Bay of Kotor in the southeast. The hinterland, the Dalmatian Zagora, ranges from fifty kilometers in width in the north to just a few kilometers in the south....

    .
  • c. 1045 BC—Zhou Dynasty
    Zhou Dynasty
    The Zhou Dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty. Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the Ji family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as...

     in China.
  • c. 1000 BC—Helladic period
    Helladic period
    Helladic is a modern archaeological term meant to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland ancient Greece during the Bronze Age. The term is commonly used in archaeology and art history...

     ends.

Significant people

  • Hammurabi
    Hammurabi
    Hammurabi Hammurabi Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ʻAmmurāpi, "the kinsman is a healer", from ʻAmmu, "paternal kinsman", and Rāpi, "healer"; (died c...

    , Babylonian king and law maker (1792–1745 BC)
  • Pharaoh
    Pharaoh
    Pharaoh is a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods. The title originates in the term "pr-aa" which means "great house" and describes the royal palace...

     Kamose
    Kamose
    Kamose was the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. He was probably the son of Seqenenre Tao II and Ahhotep I and the full brother of Ahmose I, founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reign fell at the very end of the Second Intermediate Period...

     of the Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt
    Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt
    The Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Second Intermediate Period. The Seventeenth Dynasty dates approximately from 1580 to 1550 BC.-Rulers:...

     (reigned 1573 BC
    1570s BC
    -Events and trends:* 1570 BC—The Second Intermediate Period of Egypt ends and the New Kingdom begins in Ancient Egypt.-Significant people:* Kamose, last Pharaoh of the 17th Dynasty of Egypt ....

    1570 BC
    1570s BC
    -Events and trends:* 1570 BC—The Second Intermediate Period of Egypt ends and the New Kingdom begins in Ancient Egypt.-Significant people:* Kamose, last Pharaoh of the 17th Dynasty of Egypt ....

    )
  • Pharaoh Ahmose I
    Ahmose I
    Ahmose I was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of pharaoh Tao II Seqenenre and brother of the last pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty, King Kamose...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt
    Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt
    The eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt is perhaps the best known of all the dynasties of ancient Egypt...

     (reigned 1550 BC
    1550s BC
    -Events and trends:*The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, comes to dominate the rest of Achaea, giving its name to Mycenaean civilization....

    1526 BC
    1520s BC
    -Events and trends:* 1525 BC—End of Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt.* 1522 BC—Jacob migrates to Egypt, settling in the Land of Goshen, according to the Hebrew calendar.* 1521 BC—April 24—Lunar Saros 36 begins....

    )
  • Pharaoh Amenhotep I
    Amenhotep I
    Amenhotep I was the second Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. His reign is generally dated from 1526 to 1506 BC. He was born to Ahmose I and Ahmose-Nefertari, but had at least two elder brothers, Ahmose-ankh and Ahmose Sapair, and was not expected to inherit the throne...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1526 BC
    1520s BC
    -Events and trends:* 1525 BC—End of Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt.* 1522 BC—Jacob migrates to Egypt, settling in the Land of Goshen, according to the Hebrew calendar.* 1521 BC—April 24—Lunar Saros 36 begins....

    –1506 BC)
  • Pharaoh Thutmose I
    Thutmose I
    Thutmose I was the third Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He was given the throne after the death of the previous king Amenhotep I. During his reign, he campaigned deep into the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt further than ever before...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1506 BC–1493 BC
    1490s BC
    -Events and trends:*Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant .*1497 BC—Cranaus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 10 years by his son-in-law Amphictyon of Thessaly, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha....

    )
  • Pharaoh Thutmose II
    Thutmose II
    Thutmose II was the fourth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. He built some minor monuments and initiated at least two minor campaigns but did little else during his rule and was probably strongly influenced by his wife, Hatshepsut...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1493 BC
    1490s BC
    -Events and trends:*Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant .*1497 BC—Cranaus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 10 years by his son-in-law Amphictyon of Thessaly, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha....

    1479 BC
    1470s BC
    -Events:* c. 1478 BC–1390 BC—Hand mirror, Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, is made. It is now at The Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York.* c. 1473 BC—Hatshepsut started to rule. She is a daughter of Thutmose I. Married to her half brother Thutmose II....

    )
  • Pharaoh Thutmose III
    Thutmose III
    Thutmose III was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. During the first twenty-two years of Thutmose's reign he was co-regent with his stepmother, Hatshepsut, who was named the pharaoh...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1479 BC
    1400s BC
    -Events and trends:* April 16, 1409 BC Lunar Saros 38 begins.* 1400 BC—Palace of Minos destroyed by fire.* 1400 BC—Estimation: Thebes, capital of Egypt becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Memphis in Egypt....

    1425 BC
    1420s BC
    -Events and trends:* Crete conquered by Mycenae —start of the Mycenaean period.-Significant people:* Thutmose III of Egypt, Pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt * Amenhotep II, Pharaoh of Egypt,...

    )
  • Pharaoh Hatshepsut
    Hatshepsut
    Hatshepsut also Hatchepsut; meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies;1508–1458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1479 BC
    1490s BC
    -Events and trends:*Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant .*1497 BC—Cranaus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 10 years by his son-in-law Amphictyon of Thessaly, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha....

    1458 BC
    1450s BC
    -Events and trends:* Battle of Megiddo between Thutmose III and a coalition under the King of Kadesh. It is the first battle to have been recorded in what is accepted as relatively reliable detail. The battle took place in year 23 I Shemsu day 20...

    )
  • Pharaoh Amenhotep II
    Amenhotep II
    Amenhotep II was the seventh Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. Amenhotep inherited a vast kingdom from his father Thutmose III, and held it by means of a few military campaigns in Syria; however, he fought much less than his father, and his reign saw the effective cessation of hostilities...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1427 BC
    1450s BC
    -Events and trends:* Battle of Megiddo between Thutmose III and a coalition under the King of Kadesh. It is the first battle to have been recorded in what is accepted as relatively reliable detail. The battle took place in year 23 I Shemsu day 20...

    1401 BC
    1400s BC
    -Events and trends:* April 16, 1409 BC Lunar Saros 38 begins.* 1400 BC—Palace of Minos destroyed by fire.* 1400 BC—Estimation: Thebes, capital of Egypt becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Memphis in Egypt....

  • Pharaoh Thutmose IV
    Thutmose IV
    Thutmose IV was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, who ruled in approximately the 14th century BC...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1401 BC
    1400s BC
    -Events and trends:* April 16, 1409 BC Lunar Saros 38 begins.* 1400 BC—Palace of Minos destroyed by fire.* 1400 BC—Estimation: Thebes, capital of Egypt becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Memphis in Egypt....

    1391 BC
    1380s BC
    The 1380s BC refers to the period between 1389 BC and 1380 BC, the 1380s was the second decade of the 14th century BC.-Events and Trends:* Decline of the Minoan Culture in Crete.* Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt marries Tiy, his Chief Queen....

    )
  • Pharaoh Amenhotep III
    Amenhotep III
    Amenhotep III also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC or June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC after his father Thutmose IV died...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1391 BC
    1390s BC
    -Events and trends:*1397 BC—Pandion I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Erechtheus II of Athens.*c. 1390 BC–1352 BC: Queen Tiy, bust from Kom Medinet el-Ghurab was made. 18th dynasty...

    1353 BC
    1350s BC
    -Events and trends:* 1350 BC—Yin becomes the new capital of the Shang dynasty.* 1352 BC—Amenhotep III dies.* c. 1352 BC—Amenhotep IV starts to rule.* c. 1352 BC—Amarna period in Ancient Egypt starts.-Significant people:...

    )
  • Pharaoh Akhenaten
    Akhenaten
    Akhenaten also spelled Echnaton,Ikhnaton,and Khuenaten;meaning "living spirit of Aten") known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV , was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1351 BC
    1350s BC
    -Events and trends:* 1350 BC—Yin becomes the new capital of the Shang dynasty.* 1352 BC—Amenhotep III dies.* c. 1352 BC—Amenhotep IV starts to rule.* c. 1352 BC—Amarna period in Ancient Egypt starts.-Significant people:...

    1334 BC
    1330s BC
    -Events and trends:* 1336 BC—Pharaoh Akhenaten of Egypt names Smenkhkare as a co-ruler.* 1336 BC—Tutankhaten becomes Pharaoh of Egypt and marries Ankhesenpaaten, daughter and wife of his predecessor Akhenaten.* c...

    )
  • Pharaoh Smenkhkare
    Smenkhkare
    Smenkhkare was an ephemeral Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh of the late Eighteenth Dynasty, of whom very little is known for certain...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1336 BC
    1330s BC
    -Events and trends:* 1336 BC—Pharaoh Akhenaten of Egypt names Smenkhkare as a co-ruler.* 1336 BC—Tutankhaten becomes Pharaoh of Egypt and marries Ankhesenpaaten, daughter and wife of his predecessor Akhenaten.* c...

    1334 BC
    1330s BC
    -Events and trends:* 1336 BC—Pharaoh Akhenaten of Egypt names Smenkhkare as a co-ruler.* 1336 BC—Tutankhaten becomes Pharaoh of Egypt and marries Ankhesenpaaten, daughter and wife of his predecessor Akhenaten.* c...

    )
  • Pharaoh Tutankhamun
    Tutankhamun
    Tutankhamun , Egyptian , ; approx. 1341 BC – 1323 BC) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty , during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1333 BC
    1330s BC
    -Events and trends:* 1336 BC—Pharaoh Akhenaten of Egypt names Smenkhkare as a co-ruler.* 1336 BC—Tutankhaten becomes Pharaoh of Egypt and marries Ankhesenpaaten, daughter and wife of his predecessor Akhenaten.* c...

    1324 BC
    1320s BC
    -Events:* 1323 BC—Death of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt.* 1323 BC—Ay succeeds Tutankhamun...

    )
  • Pharaoh Ay
    Ay
    Ay was the penultimate Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty. He held the throne of Egypt for a brief four-year period , although he was a close advisor to two and perhaps three of the pharaohs who ruled before him and was the power behind the throne during Tutankhamun's reign...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1324 BC
    1320s BC
    -Events:* 1323 BC—Death of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt.* 1323 BC—Ay succeeds Tutankhamun...

    1320 BC
    1320s BC
    -Events:* 1323 BC—Death of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt.* 1323 BC—Ay succeeds Tutankhamun...

    )
  • Pharaoh Horemheb
    Horemheb
    Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty from either 1319 BC to late 1292 BC, or 1306 to late 1292 BC although he was not related to the preceding royal family and is believed to have been of common birth.Before he became pharaoh, Horemheb was the commander in chief...

     of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1320 BC
    1320s BC
    -Events:* 1323 BC—Death of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt.* 1323 BC—Ay succeeds Tutankhamun...

    1292 BC
    1290s BC
    -Events and trends:* c. 1295 BC–1186 BC–Great Temple of Amun, Karnak, is built. New Kingdom.* 1292 BC—End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty.* 1292 BC—The coronation of Ramses I....

    )
  • Pharaoh Ramesses I
    Ramesses I
    Menpehtyre Ramesses I was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 19th dynasty. The dates for his short reign are not completely known but the time-line of late 1292-1290 BC is frequently cited as well as 1295-1294 BC...

     of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt
    Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt
    The Nineteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was one of the periods of the Egyptian New Kingdom. Founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne, this dynasty is best known for its military conquests in Palestine, Lebanon, and Syria.The warrior kings of the...

     (reigned 1292 BC
    1290s BC
    -Events and trends:* c. 1295 BC–1186 BC–Great Temple of Amun, Karnak, is built. New Kingdom.* 1292 BC—End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty.* 1292 BC—The coronation of Ramses I....

    1290 BC
    1290s BC
    -Events and trends:* c. 1295 BC–1186 BC–Great Temple of Amun, Karnak, is built. New Kingdom.* 1292 BC—End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty.* 1292 BC—The coronation of Ramses I....

    )
  • Pharaoh Seti I
    Seti I
    Menmaatre Seti I was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt , the son of Ramesses I and Queen Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II...

     of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1290 BC
    1290s BC
    -Events and trends:* c. 1295 BC–1186 BC–Great Temple of Amun, Karnak, is built. New Kingdom.* 1292 BC—End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty.* 1292 BC—The coronation of Ramses I....

    1279 BC
    1270s BC
    -Events and trends:*1279 BC—Pharaoh Seti I dies.*c. 1279 BC—Troy VI, speculated to be the city mentioned in Homer's Iliad, is presumed to have been destroyed by Greek armies.*c. 1279 BC —Ramesses II becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt....

    )
  • Pharaoh Ramesses II
    Ramesses II
    Ramesses II , referred to as Ramesses the Great, was the third Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth dynasty. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire...

     of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1279 BC
    1270s BC
    -Events and trends:*1279 BC—Pharaoh Seti I dies.*c. 1279 BC—Troy VI, speculated to be the city mentioned in Homer's Iliad, is presumed to have been destroyed by Greek armies.*c. 1279 BC —Ramesses II becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt....

    1213 BC
    1210s BC
    -Events and trends:*1213–1203 BC—Merneptah Stele makes the earliest recorded mention of Israel.*1213 BC—Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erechtheus and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus...

    )
  • Pharaoh Merneptah
    Merneptah
    Merneptah was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He ruled Egypt for almost ten years between late July or early August 1213 and May 2, 1203 BC, according to contemporary historical records...

     of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1213 BC
    1210s BC
    -Events and trends:*1213–1203 BC—Merneptah Stele makes the earliest recorded mention of Israel.*1213 BC—Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erechtheus and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus...

    1203 BC
    13th century BC
    The 13th century BC was the period from 1300 to 1201 BC.-Events:*1300 BC: Cemetery H culture comes to an end.*1292 BC: End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty....

    )
  • Shalmaneser I
    Shalmaneser I
    Shalmaneser I was a king of Assyria.Son of Adad-nirari I, he succeeded his father as king in 1265 BC....

    , King of Assyria
    Kings of Assyria
    The list of Assyrian kings is compiled from the Assyrian King List, an ancient kingdom in northern Mesopotamia with information added from recent archaeological findings. The Assyrian King List includes regnal lengths that appear to have been based on now lost limmu lists...

     (reigned 1274
    1270s BC
    -Events and trends:*1279 BC—Pharaoh Seti I dies.*c. 1279 BC—Troy VI, speculated to be the city mentioned in Homer's Iliad, is presumed to have been destroyed by Greek armies.*c. 1279 BC —Ramesses II becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt....

    1245 BC
    1240s BC
    -Events and trends:* Deborah, Judge of Israel, accompanies Barak on a military campaign in Qedesh, according to Judges 4:6–10.* Jael assassinates Sisera, a retreating general who was the enemy of the Israelites, according to Judges 5:23–27....

    )
  • Theseus
    Theseus
    For other uses, see Theseus Theseus was the mythical founder-king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, both of whom Aethra had slept with in one night. Theseus was a founder-hero, like Perseus, Cadmus, or Heracles, all of whom battled and overcame foes that were...

    , Legendary King of Athens
    King of Athens
    Before the Athenian democracy, the tyrants, and the Archons, the city-state of Athens was ruled by kings. Most of these are probably mythical or only semi-historical...

    , credited with the political unification of Attica
    Attica
    Attica is a historical region of Greece, containing Athens, the current capital of Greece. The historical region is centered on the Attic peninsula, which projects into the Aegean Sea...

     under Athens
    Athens
    Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

     (reign estimated to 1234 BC
    1230s BC
    -Significant people:* 1231 BC—King Telephus of Mysia is born in Arcadia ....

    1204 BC
    13th century BC
    The 13th century BC was the period from 1300 to 1201 BC.-Events:*1300 BC: Cemetery H culture comes to an end.*1292 BC: End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty....

     or 1213 BC
    1210s BC
    -Events and trends:*1213–1203 BC—Merneptah Stele makes the earliest recorded mention of Israel.*1213 BC—Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erechtheus and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus...

    )

Biblical

  • The biblical patriarch
    Patriarch
    Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of such rule of families by senior males is called patriarchy. This is a Greek word, a compound of πατριά , "lineage, descent", esp...

    s, Abraham
    Abraham
    Abraham , whose birth name was Abram, is the eponym of the Abrahamic religions, among which are Judaism, Christianity and Islam...

    , Isaac
    Isaac
    Isaac as described in the Hebrew Bible, was the only son Abraham had with his wife Sarah, and was the father of Jacob and Esau. Isaac was one of the three patriarchs of the Israelites...

    , Jacob
    Jacob
    Jacob "heel" or "leg-puller"), also later known as Israel , as described in the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the New Testament and the Qur'an was the third patriarch of the Hebrew people with whom God made a covenant, and ancestor of the tribes of Israel, which were named after his descendants.In the...

    , in the Genesis narrative are set in the early-to-mid-2nd millennium.
  • The Exodus
    The Exodus
    The Exodus is the story of the departure of the Israelites from ancient Egypt described in the Hebrew Bible.Narrowly defined, the term refers only to the departure from Egypt described in the Book of Exodus; more widely, it takes in the subsequent law-givings and wanderings in the wilderness...

     and Moses
    Moses
    Moses was, according to the Hebrew Bible and Qur'an, a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed...

     are set in the late 2nd millennium (possibly the Amarna Period
    Amarna Period
    The Amarna Period was an era of Egyptian history during the latter half of the Eighteenth Dynasty when the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was shifted to Akhetaten in what is now modern-day Amarna...

    , see also Osarseph
    Osarseph
    Osarseph is a legendary figure of Ancient Egypt who has been equated with Moses. His story was recounted by the Ptolemaic Egyptian historian Manetho in his Aigyptiaca ; Manetho's work is lost, but the 1st century AD Jewish historian Josephus quotes extensively from it.The story depicts Osarseph as...

    , Moses and Monotheism
    Moses and Monotheism
    Moses and Monotheism, 1939 by Sigmund Freud, ISBN 978-0394700144 is a book where Freud hypothesizes that Moses was not Jewish, but actually born into Ancient Egyptian nobility and was perhaps a follower of Akhenaten, an ancient Egyptian monotheist, or perhaps Akhenaten himself...

    ).

Fiction

  • The Canadian–American speculative fiction
    Speculative fiction
    Speculative fiction is an umbrella term encompassing the more fantastical fiction genres, specifically science fiction, fantasy, horror, supernatural fiction, superhero fiction, utopian and dystopian fiction, apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction, and alternate history in literature as well as...

     author S.M. Stirling has written a trilogy
    Trilogy
    A trilogy is a set of three works of art that are connected, and that can be seen either as a single work or as three individual works. They are commonly found in literature, film, or video games...

     (the Nantucket series) set in Bronze Age
    Bronze Age
    The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the Stone Age and Iron Age...

     era, circa the 1250s BC
    1250s BC
    -Events and trends:*c. 1259 BC—Ramesses II makes peace agreement with the Hittites .*c. 1258 BC—The Exodus as depicted in the Bible....

    . The trilogy describes the conflict between the different factions of the population of the island of Nantucket after an unknown phenomenon ("The Event") transports them into the past—some trying to dominate the world for their own benefit, others trying to better it—and the different Bronze Age civilizations.

Centuries and Decades

20th century BC
20th century BC
The 20th century BC is a century which lasted from the year 2000 BC to 1901 BC.-Events:* 2000 BC: Arrival of the ancestors of the Latins in Italy.* 2000 BC: Town of Mantua was presumably founded.* 2000 BC: Stonehenge is believed to have been completed....

1990s BC  1980s BC 1970s BC 1960s BC  1950s BC 1940s BC 1930s BC  1920s BC 1910s BC  1900s BC
19th century BC
19th century BC
-Events:* Hittite empire in Hattusa, Anatolia.* 1900 BC: Proto-Greek invasions of Greece.* c. 1900 BC: Minoan Old Palace period starts in Crete.* c. 1900 BC: Fall of last Sumerian dynasty....

1890s BC  1880s BC 1870s BC 1860s BC  1850s BC 1840s BC 1830s BC  1820s BC 1810s BC  1800s BC
18th century BC
18th century BC
The 18th century BCE was the century which lasted from 1800 BCE to 1701 BCE.-Events:*1800 BCE: Iron age in India*1800 BCE: Beginning of the Nordic Bronze Age in the period system devised by Oscar Montelius....

1790s BC  1780s BC 1770s BC 1760s BC  1750s BC 1740s BC 1730s BC  1720s BC 1710s BC  1700s BC
17th century BC
17th century BC
The 17th century BC is a century which lasted from 1700 BC to 1601 BC.-Events:*c. 1700 BC: Indus Valley Civilization comes to an end but is continued by the Cemetery H culture*1700 BC: Belu-bani became the King of Assyria....

1690s BC
1690s BC
-Events and trends:*The Minoan and Harappan Civilizations continue to exist in Crete and Ancient India respectively.*1700–1500 BC—Hurrian conquests.*Second Intermediate Period, in which the Hyksos invade Egypt, continues....

 
1680s BC
1680s BC
-Events and trends:* Egypt—Start of the Sixteenth Dynasty.* Egypt—Development of leavened bread .-Significant people:* 1686 BC—Death of Hammurabi * 1684 BC—Death of Érimón, Irish legend...

1670s BC
1670s BC
-Events and trends:* c. 1674 BC—End of Middle Kingdom in Ancient Egypt. Start of Second intermediate period, the 15th–17th Dynasties.* Egypt—Start of Fifteenth Dynasty.* 1674 BC—Death of Pharaoh Tutimaios of Egypt.* 1674 BC—Ipuwer Papyrus written....

1660s BC
1660s BC
-Events and trends:* 1662 BC—May 22—Lunar Saros 33 begins.-Significant people:* 1664 BC—Death of Arpachshad, son of Shem, son of Noah, according to the Hebrew Calendar...

 
1650s BC
1650s BC
-Events and trends:* c. 1655 BC—Tan-Uli, the ruler of the Elamite Empire, dies.* c. 1650 BC—Greeks start to live in Mycenae.* c. 1650 BC—Middle Kingdom ends in Ancient Egypt ....

1640s BC
1640s BC
-Events and trends:* 1640 BC—The Middle Kingdom ends in Ancient Egypt and the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt starts.-Significant people:*Bazaia, King of Assyria, r. 1650–1622 BC*Ammi-Ditana, King of Babylonia, r. 1684–1647 BC...

1630s BC
1630s BC
-Events and trends:* 1633 BC—Egypt—End of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties of Egypt, start of the Fifteenth dynasty.* 1633 BC—May 2—Lunar Saros 34 begins....

 
1620s BC
1620s BC
-Events and trends:* 1627 BC—Beginning of a period of cooling of the world climate lasting several years, recorded in tree-rings all over the world. It might have been caused by the Minoan eruption of Thera which according to the Parian Chronicle occurred in 1627, or the Avellino eruption of Mount...

1610s BC
1610s BC
-Significant people:* King Tang of Shang of China...

 
1600s BC
16th century BC
16th century BC
The 16th century BC is a century which lasted from 1600 BC to 1501 BC.-Events:* 1700 BC – 1500 BC: Hurrian conquests.* 1595 BC: Sack of Babylon by the Hittite king Mursilis I....

1590s BC
1590s BC
-Events and trends:* ca. 1595 BC—Mursili I, king of the Hittites, sacks Babylon. This brings an end to the rule of the descendants of Hammurabi in that kingdom.-Significant people:* 1597 BC—Aaron born to Amram and his wife Jochebed...

 
1580s BC
1580s BC
-Events and trends:*The Egyptians invented a new and better calendar. It is based on both the moon and a star. They observed the annual appearance of the brightest star in the sky, Sirius. This calendar was more advanced than the Babylonian calendar....

1570s BC
1570s BC
-Events and trends:* 1570 BC—The Second Intermediate Period of Egypt ends and the New Kingdom begins in Ancient Egypt.-Significant people:* Kamose, last Pharaoh of the 17th Dynasty of Egypt ....

1560s BC
1560s BC
-Events and trends:* 1567 BC—Egypt: End of Fifteenth Dynasty, end of Sixteenth Dynasty, end of Seventeenth Dynasty, start of Eighteenth Dynasty.-Significant people:* Ahmose I, Pharaoh and founder of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt...

 
1550s BC
1550s BC
-Events and trends:*The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, comes to dominate the rest of Achaea, giving its name to Mycenaean civilization....

1540s BC
1540s BC
-Events and trends:* History of ancient Israel and Judah—earliest date for Ahmose I founding the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt.-Significant people:* 1545 BC—Ahmose I, Pharaoh and founder of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, dies, according to the High Chronology....

1530s BC
1530s BC
-Events and trends:* 1539 BC—End of Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Eighteenth Dynasty.* 1539 BC—Approximate first use of the Valley of the Kings.* 1534 BC—The oldest dated star chart was made in Ancient Egypt....

 
1520s BC
1520s BC
-Events and trends:* 1525 BC—End of Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt.* 1522 BC—Jacob migrates to Egypt, settling in the Land of Goshen, according to the Hebrew calendar.* 1521 BC—April 24—Lunar Saros 36 begins....

1510s BC
1510s BC
-Events and trends:* 1517 BC—The Heliacal rising of Sothis, a dating of the reign of Amenhotep I, followed by Thutmosis I.* 1512 BC—The flood of Deucalion, according to O'Flaherty, Augustine, Eusebius, and Isidore ....

 
1500s BC
15th century BC
15th century BC
The 15th century BC is a century which lasted from 1500 BC to 1401 BC.- Events :* 1504 BC – 1492 BC: Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant.* 1500 BC – 1400 BC: The Rigveda was composed around this time....

1490s BC
1490s BC
-Events and trends:*Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant .*1497 BC—Cranaus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 10 years by his son-in-law Amphictyon of Thessaly, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha....

 
1480s BC
1480s BC
-Events and trends:* 1487 BC—Amphictyon, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha and legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 10 years and is succeeded by Erichthonius I of Athens, a grandson of Cranaus.* 1481 BC—August 27—Lunar Saros 43 begins....

1470s BC
1470s BC
-Events:* c. 1478 BC–1390 BC—Hand mirror, Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, is made. It is now at The Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York.* c. 1473 BC—Hatshepsut started to rule. She is a daughter of Thutmose I. Married to her half brother Thutmose II....

1460s BC
1460s BC
-Events and trends:* c. 1469 BC—In the Battle of Megiddo, Egypt defeats Canaan.-Significant people:* Hatshepsut of Egypt, female Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty ....

 
1450s BC
1450s BC
-Events and trends:* Battle of Megiddo between Thutmose III and a coalition under the King of Kadesh. It is the first battle to have been recorded in what is accepted as relatively reliable detail. The battle took place in year 23 I Shemsu day 20...

1440s BC
1440s BC
-Events and trends:* 1445 BC—According to James Ussher's chronology, this is when Moses led the Hebrews from Egypt, to the land of Israel....

1430s BC
1430s BC
-Events and trends:* 1437 BC—Legendary King Erichthonius I of Athens dies after a reign of 50 years and is succeeded by his son Pandion I....

 
1420s BC
1420s BC
-Events and trends:* Crete conquered by Mycenae —start of the Mycenaean period.-Significant people:* Thutmose III of Egypt, Pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt * Amenhotep II, Pharaoh of Egypt,...

1410s BC
1410s BC
-Events and trends:* 1420 BC—Hebrew Exodus from Egypt .* 1420 BC—Incumbent Shahram from Persia declared his kingdom.-Significant people:* Amenhotep II, Pharaoh of Egypt,...

 
1400s BC
1400s BC
-Events and trends:* April 16, 1409 BC Lunar Saros 38 begins.* 1400 BC—Palace of Minos destroyed by fire.* 1400 BC—Estimation: Thebes, capital of Egypt becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Memphis in Egypt....

14th century BC
14th century BC
The 14th century BC is a century which lasted from the year 1400 BC until 1301 BC.-Events:* 1397 BC: Pandion I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Erechtheus II of Athens....

1390s BC
1390s BC
-Events and trends:*1397 BC—Pandion I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and is succeeded by his son Erechtheus II of Athens.*c. 1390 BC–1352 BC: Queen Tiy, bust from Kom Medinet el-Ghurab was made. 18th dynasty...

 
1380s BC
1380s BC
The 1380s BC refers to the period between 1389 BC and 1380 BC, the 1380s was the second decade of the 14th century BC.-Events and Trends:* Decline of the Minoan Culture in Crete.* Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt marries Tiy, his Chief Queen....

1370s BC
1370s BC
-Events and trends:* The cutting down of the oak log that the Egtved Girl was buried in. It is dated to the summer of 1370 BC.* c. 1375 BC—Minoan culture ends on Crete.* c. 1375 BC—Site of palace complex Knossos is abandoned....

1360s BC
1360s BC
-Significant people:*1368 BC—Death of Erichthonius, mythical King of Dardania.*1366 BC—Birth of Princess Tadukhipa to Tusratta, King of Mitanni and his Queen Juni. She will be later married to Amenhotep III and after his death to his son and heir Amenhotep IV Akhenaton...

 
1350s BC
1350s BC
-Events and trends:* 1350 BC—Yin becomes the new capital of the Shang dynasty.* 1352 BC—Amenhotep III dies.* c. 1352 BC—Amenhotep IV starts to rule.* c. 1352 BC—Amarna period in Ancient Egypt starts.-Significant people:...

1340s BC
1340s BC
-Events and trends:*c. 1348 BC—Amenhotep IV changes his name to Akhenaten.*1348 BC–1336 BC: Akhenaten and his family, relief from Akhetaten was made. 18th dynasty. It is now in Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Ägyptisches Museum.*c. 1348 BC–1336 BC: Nefertiti, bust from...

1330s BC
1330s BC
-Events and trends:* 1336 BC—Pharaoh Akhenaten of Egypt names Smenkhkare as a co-ruler.* 1336 BC—Tutankhaten becomes Pharaoh of Egypt and marries Ankhesenpaaten, daughter and wife of his predecessor Akhenaten.* c...

 
1320s BC
1320s BC
-Events:* 1323 BC—Death of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of Egypt.* 1323 BC—Ay succeeds Tutankhamun...

1310s BC
1310s BC
-Events:* The Bhagavad Gita is written, according to Hindu traditions.* 1319 BC—Horemheb assumes the throne of Ancient Egypt.* 1317 BC—Enlil-nirari succeeds his father as king of Assyria.* 1312 BC—The revelation of the Torah to Moses occurred....

 
1300s BC
13th century BC
13th century BC
The 13th century BC was the period from 1300 to 1201 BC.-Events:*1300 BC: Cemetery H culture comes to an end.*1292 BC: End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty....

1290s BC
1290s BC
-Events and trends:* c. 1295 BC–1186 BC–Great Temple of Amun, Karnak, is built. New Kingdom.* 1292 BC—End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty.* 1292 BC—The coronation of Ramses I....

 
1280s BC
1280s BC
-Events and trends:*1290 BC—Seti I becomes Pharaoh of Egypt.*c. 1285 BC—Judgement of Hunefer before Osiris, illustration from a Book of the Dead is painted. 19th dynasty. It is now in the British Museum, London....

1270s BC
1270s BC
-Events and trends:*1279 BC—Pharaoh Seti I dies.*c. 1279 BC—Troy VI, speculated to be the city mentioned in Homer's Iliad, is presumed to have been destroyed by Greek armies.*c. 1279 BC —Ramesses II becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt....

1260s BC
1260s BC
-Events and trends:* One of the three estimated dates of the Birth of Herakles in Thebes, Greece.* c. 1263 BC—Ramses II, king of ancient Egypt, and Hattusilis III, king of the Hittites, sign the earliest known peace treaty....

 
1250s BC
1250s BC
-Events and trends:*c. 1259 BC—Ramesses II makes peace agreement with the Hittites .*c. 1258 BC—The Exodus as depicted in the Bible....

1240s BC
1240s BC
-Events and trends:* Deborah, Judge of Israel, accompanies Barak on a military campaign in Qedesh, according to Judges 4:6–10.* Jael assassinates Sisera, a retreating general who was the enemy of the Israelites, according to Judges 5:23–27....

1230s BC
1230s BC
-Significant people:* 1231 BC—King Telephus of Mysia is born in Arcadia ....

 
1220s BC
1220s BC
-Events and trends:*1230 BC—Battle of Nihriya* 1221 BC—Pharaoh Merneptah defeats a Libyan invasion.-Significant people:* 1225 BC—Birth of legendary Helen of Troy to King Tyndareus of Sparta and his wife Leda. ....

1210s BC
1210s BC
-Events and trends:*1213–1203 BC—Merneptah Stele makes the earliest recorded mention of Israel.*1213 BC—Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed and succeeded by Menestheus, great-grandson of Erechtheus and second cousin of Theseus' father Aegeus...

 
1200s BC
12th century BC
12th century BC
-Overview:The 12th century BC is the period from 1200 to 1101 BC. Although many human societies were literate in this period, most individual persons mentioned in this article ought to be considered legendary rather than historical...

1190s BC
1190s BC
-Events and trends:* 1197 BC—The beginning of first period by Sau Yung's concept of the I Ching and history.* 1194 BC—The beginning of the legendary Trojan War.* 1192 BC—Wu Ding king of Shang Dynasty died....

 
1180s BC
1180s BC
-Events and trends:* 1186 BC—End of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Twentieth Dynasty.* 1184 BC—April 24, the traditional date of the fall of Troy....

1170s BC
1170s BC
-Events and trends:* 1178 BC, April 16—A solar eclipse occurs. This may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom after the Trojan War. He discovers a number of suitors competing to marry his wife Penelope, whom they believe to be a widow, in order to succeed him...

1160s BC
1160s BC
-Events and trends:* 1166 BC—The start of the Discordian calendar and within Discordianism the date of Curse of Greyface.* 1162 BC—The statue of Marduk is taken from Babylon by Elamite conquerors....

 
1150s BC
1150s BC
-Events and trends:*1159 BC—The Hekla 3 eruption triggers an 18-year period of climatic worsening. *1154 BC—Death of King Menelaus of Sparta .*1154 BC—Suicide of exiled Queen Helen of Sparta at Rhodes. ....

1140s BC
1140s BC
-Events and trends:* 1149 BC—The First Trojan War* 1147 BC—Demophon, legendary King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War, dies after a reign of 33 years and is succeeded by his son Oxyntes....

1130s BC
1130s BC
-Events and trends:* 1137 BC—Ramses VII begins his reign as the sixth ruler of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt.* 1135 BC—Oxyntes, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 12 years and is succeeded by his elder son Apheidas....

 
1120s BC
1120s BC
-Events and trends:* 1126 BC—Thymoetes, legendary King of Athens, dies childless after a reign of 8 years. He is succeeded by his designated heir Melanthus of Pylos, a fifth-generation descendant of Neleus who had reportedly assisted him in battle against the Boeotians.* 1122 BC—Legendary founding...

1110s BC
1110s BC
-Events and trends:* 1115 BC—Zhou cheng wang becomes king of the Zhou Dynasty of China. * 1115 BC—Tiglath-Pileser I becomes king of Assyria.-Significant people:...

 
1100s BC
11th century BC
11th century BC
The 11th century BC comprises all years from 1100 BC to 1001 BC. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some of the individuals mentioned below may be considered legendary rather than fully historical.-Events:...

1090s BC
1090s BC
-Events and trends:* 1090 BC—or the Year of the Hyenas, in the reign of Ramesses XI, there was a collapse in Egypt's economy leading to the emergence of tomb robbers. Because of this, it was also the last year that the Valley of the Kings was used for burial....

 
1080s BC
1080s BC
The 1080s BC witnessed the early years of the Iron Age. Many of the great powers of the High Bronze Age in the Western Mediterranean had either collapsed or been severely weakened...

1070s BC
1070s BC
-Events and trends:* 1079 BC—Death of Zhou cheng wang, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China.* 1078 BC—Zhou kang wang becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China.* c. 1075 BC—New Kingdom ends in Ancient Egypt ....

1060s BC
1060s BC
-Events and trends:* c. 1069 BC — End of New Kingdom in Ancient Egypt.* c. 1069 BC - Third Intermediate Period of Egypt starts.* 1069 BC — Ramses XI dies, ending the Twentieth Dynasty. He is succeeded by Smendes I, who founds the Twenty-first Dynasty....

 
1050s BC
1050s BC
-Events and trends:* 1054 BC Shamshi-Adad IV, son of Tiglath-Pileser I, usurps the Assyrian throne from his nephew, Eriba-Adad II.* 1053 BC—Death of Kang, king of the Zhou of ancient China...

1040s BC
1040s BC
-Events and trends:* 1048 BC—Medon, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 20 years and is succeeded by his son Acastus.* 1046 BC—Following the Battle of Muye, King Wu of Zhou overthrows the Shang Dynasty Chinese King Di Xin and founds the Zhou Dynasty .* 1044 BC—On the death of Smendes I, king of...

1030s BC
1030s BC
-Events and trends:* 1039 BC—Neferkare Amenemnisu, king of Egypt, dies.* 1031 BC—Shalmaneser II becomes King of Assyria* c. 1030 BC—The Belknap Volcano Erupts in The State of Oregon....

 
1020s BC
1020s BC
-Events and trends:* 1027 BC—Traditional date for the end of the Shang Dynasty in China, and the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty.* 1026 BC—Saul the King becomes the first king of the Israelites.* c. 1025 BC—Collapse of Mycenaean dominance ends....

1010s BC
1010s BC
-Events and trends:* 1012 BC—Acastus, Archon of Athens, dies after a reign of 36 years and is succeeded by his son Archippus. Solar Eclipse seen in Ugarit from 6:09 PM to 6:39 PM, May 9....

 
1000s BC