2002 Commonwealth Games

2002 Commonwealth Games

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The 2002 Commonwealth Games were held in Manchester
Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

, England from 25 July to 4 August 2002. The XVII Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
The Commonwealth Games is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930 and takes place every four years....

 was the largest multi-sport event ever to be held in the UK, eclipsing London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

's 1948 Summer Olympics
1948 Summer Olympics
The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in London, England, United Kingdom. After a 12-year hiatus because of World War II, these were the first Summer Olympics since the 1936 Games in Berlin...

 in numbers of teams and athletes participating.

After the 1996 Manchester bombing
1996 Manchester bombing
The 1996 Manchester bombing was an attack carried out by the Provisional Irish Republican Army on 15 June 1996 in Manchester, England. The bomb, placed in a van on Corporation Street in city centre, targeted the city's infrastructure and economy and caused widespread damage, estimated by...

, the Games formed the catalyst for the widespread regeneration and heavy development of Manchester, and bolstered its reputation as a European and Global City
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

 internationally. Rapid economic development
Economy of Manchester
The economy of Manchester is amongst the largest in England. Manchester, a city of 498,800 people in North West England. The city lies at the heart of one of Europe's largest metropolitan areas, Greater Manchester, with a population of 2.6 million...

 and continued urban regeneration of the now thriving city continued after the Games and has helped cement its place as one of the main cities in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

.

Events were held across Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.6 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan, and the...

. The opening and closing ceremonies, the athletic and the rugby sevens events were held at the City of Manchester Stadium
City of Manchester Stadium
The City of Manchester Stadium in Manchester, England – also known as the Etihad Stadium for sponsorship purposes– is the home ground of...

, which was purpose built for the Games. Unusually for a large multi-sport event – the second largest competition by number of countries and athletes participating – the shooting events were held in the National Shooting Centre in Bisley
Bisley, Surrey
Bisley is a large village in Surrey, England, which is notable for rifle shooting. Bisley's immediate neighbours are West End, Chobham and Knaphill.- History :...

, Surrey, some 200 miles (322 km) from the main focus of the Games in Manchester. Seventy-two nations competed in 14 individual sports and 3 team sports events.
Sporting legacy includes the British Cycling
British Cycling
British Cycling is the national governing body for cycle racing in Great Britain. It administers most competitive cycling in Great Britain, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man...

 team who inherited the Manchester Velodrome and went on to win eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympics, partly attributed to the availability of the velodrome. Manchester City Football Club inherited the City of Manchester Stadium, and as a result, have since found themselves in a desirable investment opportunity in age of foreign football investment. The club was taken over by the Abu Dhabi United Group
Abu Dhabi United Group
The Abu Dhabi United Group for Development and Investment is a United Arab Emirates private equity company owned by Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan, member of the Abu Dhabi Royal Family and Minister of Presidential Affairs for the UAE...

 led by Sheikh Mansour in 2008, without the stadium, a takeover would have been far less certain. The club are now one of the leading football clubs in England which has heightened the profile of Manchester further.

List of sports



There were the maximum of 17 sports included in the schedule for the 2002 Commonwealth Games.

Sport Venue Number of medal events
Aquatics
Aquatics at the 2002 Commonwealth Games
The aquatics events at the 2002 Commonwealth Games were held at the Manchester Aquatics Centre and were divided into 3 separate disciplines, with medals awarded in 54 events:* Diving * Swimming * Synchronized swimming -Men:-Women:-Men:...

Manchester Aquatics Centre
Manchester Aquatics Centre
The Manchester Aquatics Centre is a public aquatics sports facility south of the centre of Manchester, England, north of the main buildings of the University of Manchester, and near the Manchester Metropolitan University. It was purpose–built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, and cost £32 million to...

50
Athletics
Athletics at the 2002 Commonwealth Games
At the 2002 Commonwealth Games, the athletics events were held at the City of Manchester Stadium from the 26–30 July 2002. The route for the marathon event crossed Manchester city centre and finished in the stadium. The race walk events began alongside the Lowry Centre at Salford Quays...

City of Manchester Stadium
City of Manchester Stadium
The City of Manchester Stadium in Manchester, England – also known as the Etihad Stadium for sponsorship purposes– is the home ground of...

46
Badminton Bolton Arena
Bolton Arena
The Bolton Arena is a multi-purpose indoor arena, located at Middlebrook on the boundary between Horwich and Lostock in the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, Greater Manchester, England....

5
Boxing
Boxing at the 2002 Commonwealth Games
Final results for the men's boxing Competition at the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester, United Kingdom from August 4 to July 27.- Light Flyweight :- Flyweight :- Bantamweight :...

Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe is a district in the south of the city of Manchester, England.Formerly part of the administrative county of Cheshire, in 1931 Wythenshawe was transferred to the City of Manchester, which had begun building a massive housing estate there in the 1920s to resolve the problem of its inner...

 Forum, MEN Arena
Manchester Evening News Arena
The Manchester Evening News Arena is an indoor arena situated in Manchester, England. It is adjacent to Manchester Victoria station near Corporation Street...

12
Cycling
Cycling at the 2002 Commonwealth Games
The cycling competition at the 2002 Commonwealth Games involves three disciplines: mountain bike racing, road bicycle racing and track cycling. The track events were held at Manchester Velodrome.- Mountain biking:- Track:- Road:...

Manchester Velodrome
Manchester Velodrome
Manchester Velodrome is an indoor cycle-racing track or velodrome in Manchester, northwest England. It opened in September 1994 and is the leading indoor Olympic-standard track in the United Kingdom. It houses the National Cycling Centre and British Cycling...

 (track events), Rivington
Rivington
Rivington is a small village and civil parish of the Borough of Chorley, Lancashire, England, occupying . It is about southeast of Chorley and about northwest of Bolton. Rivington is situated on the fringe of the West Pennine Moors, at the foot of Rivington Pike...

 (mountain biking)
17
Gymnastics G-MEX Centre 15
Hockey
Field Hockey at the 2002 Commonwealth Games
There were two competitions of Field Hockey at the 2002 Commonwealth Games:*Men's Hockey at the 2002 Commonwealth Games*Women's Hockey at the 2002 Commonwealth Games...

Belle Vue Complex 2
Judo G-MEX Centre 14
Lawn bowls Heaton Park
Heaton Park
Heaton Park, covering an area variously reported as , 247 hectares, , over and is the biggest park in Greater Manchester, England and one of the biggest municipal parks in Europe. The park comprises the grounds of a Grade I listed, neoclassical 18th century country house, Heaton Hall...

6
Netball MEN Arena 1
Rugby Sevens City of Manchester Stadium
City of Manchester Stadium
The City of Manchester Stadium in Manchester, England – also known as the Etihad Stadium for sponsorship purposes– is the home ground of...

1
Shooting Bisley Shooting Centre 40
Squash National Squash Centre
National Squash Centre
The National Squash Centre is a squash venue in Eastlands, Manchester, England which was constructed for the 2002 Commonwealth Games. The National Squash Centre is part of the Sportcity complex....

5
Table tennis Table Tennis Centre, Sportcity
Sportcity
Sportcity Manchester is a sports district in the City of Manchester, and was used to host of the 2002 Commonwealth Games. It is located in east Manchester, less than a mile away from Manchester city centre and was developed on former industrial land including the site of Bradford Colliery.The...

8
Triathlon
Triathlon at the 2002 Commonwealth Games
These page shows the results of the triathlon competition at the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester, United Kingdom, when the sport was for the first time on the program. The men's and the women's races were both held on 4 August 2002.-Men's competition:-Women's competition:- Triathlon medal...

Salford Quays
Salford Quays
Salford Quays is an area of Salford in Greater Manchester, England, near the end of the Manchester Ship Canal. Previously the site of Manchester Docks, it became one of the first and largest urban regeneration projects in the United Kingdom following the closure of the dockyards in...

2
Weightlifting G-MEX Centre 46
Wrestling G-MEX Centre 7


After experimenting with it on a smaller scale at the 1994 Commonwealth Games
1994 Commonwealth Games
The 1994 Commonwealth Games were held in Victoria, in the province of British Columbia in Canada, from 18 August to 28 August 1994.The XV Commonwealth Games marked South Africa's return to the Commonwealth Games following the apartheid era, and over 30 years since the country last competed in the...

 and dropping it at the 1998 Games
1998 Commonwealth Games
The 1998 XVI Commonwealth Games were held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 11 September to 21 September 1998 making it the first Asian country to act as host and the last Commonwealth Games for the 20th century. A record 70 nations supplied 3638 athletes...

, disabled competitions
Disabled sports
Disabled sports are sports played by persons with a disability, including physical and intellectual disabilities. As many of these based on existing sports modified to meet the needs of persons with a disability, they are sometimes referred to as adapted sports...

 were held in swimming, athletics, bowls, table tennis and weightlifting (powerlifting
Powerlifting
Powerlifting is a strength sport. It resembles the sport of Olympic weightlifting, as both disciplines involve lifting weights in three attempts. Powerlifting evolved from a sport known as 'odd lifts' which followed the same three attempt format but used a wide variety of events akin to Strongman...

). The medals were added to the final tally for each nation.

Participating teams


There were 72 participating countries, territories, and Commonwealth regions at the 2002 Commonwealth Games. In alphabetical order, these included:

Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay


The 2002 Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay
Queen's Baton Relay
The Queen's Baton Relay, similar to the Olympic Torch Relay, is a relay around the world held prior to the beginning of the Commonwealth Games. The Baton carries a message from the Head of the Commonwealth, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The Relay traditionally begins at Buckingham Palace in London...

, the continuation of a tradition that started with the 1958 Games
1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games
The 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games were held in Cardiff, capital of Wales from 18–26 July 1958.Thirty-five nations sent a total of 1,130 athletes and 228 officials to the Cardiff Games and 23 countries and dependencies won medals, including, for the first time, Singapore, Ghana, Kenya...

, consisted of the relay of an electronic baton, containing a personal message from Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
Elizabeth II is the constitutional monarch of 16 sovereign states known as the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize,...

 across 23 Commonwealth nations. The relay culminated in the arrival of the baton at the City of Manchester Stadium, opening the Games. The speech was then removed electronically from the baton, and read by Her Majesty to open the Games.

The 2002 Baton itself was designed by a company called IDEO, and was constructed of machined aluminium
Aluminium
Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al, and its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances....

 with the handle plated for conductivity. It weighed 1.69 kg, reached over 710 mm, and was 42.5 mm to 85 mm in diameter. The Queen’s message itself was held in an aluminium capsule inserted into the top of the Baton. On either side of the Baton were two sterling silver
Sterling silver
Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by mass of silver and 7.5% by mass of other metals, usually copper. The sterling silver standard has a minimum millesimal fineness of 925....

 coins, designed by Mappin and Webb
Mappin and Webb
Mappin & Webb is a company originally founded in Sheffield, England. The company is a noted firm of Silversmiths and formerly cutlery manufactures with roots back to 1774 when Joseph Mappin founded the firm. The company is now a retail jeweller, and Royal Warrant holder.-Arundel & Mappin:The firm...

, which celebrated the City of Manchester as host of the XVII Commonwealth Games.

The Baton was also equipped with sensors that detected and monitored the Runner’s pulse rate. This information was then conveyed to a series of light-emitting diode
Light-emitting diode
A light-emitting diode is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting...

s (LEDs), via a light behaviour module. The lens then transformed the LEDs into a shaft of bright blue pulsating light which synchronised with each new Runner. The hearts of the Runner and the Baton then beat as one until it was passed on, symbolising the journey of humanity and the essence of life.

The Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay passed through over 500 cities, towns and villages across the UK and the Baton was carried by 5,000 individuals, with each Runner carrying the Baton up to 500 yards, however on Saturday 15 June, the baton was snatched from a runners hand in the town of Connah's Quay
Connah's Quay
Connah's Quay is the largest town in Flintshire, North Wales, lying on the River Dee, near the border with England. It can be accessed by road from the A550, by rail from the nearby Shotton station and also lies on the National Cycle Network Route 5. It is situated near the region's industrial...

, Deeside
Deeside
For Strathdee in Scotland see River Dee, AberdeenshireDeeside is the name given to the predominantly industrial conurbation of towns and villages that lie on, or near the River Dee in Chester. These include, Connah's Quay, Mancot, Pentre, Shotton, Queensferry, Sealand, Broughton, Hawarden,...

.

The UK Baton Runners were made up of people from all walks of life including athletes, celebrities and local heroes from all over the country. Around 2500 Jubilee Runners were nominated by the community to carry the Baton, because they made a special contribution to their community or achieved a personal goal against the odds.

The judging of the Jubilee Runners was conducted by a panel of judges under the supervision of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award in January 2002. The relay was sponsored by Cadbury Schweppes
Cadbury Schweppes
Cadbury is a confectionery company owned by Kraft Foods and is the industry's second-largest globally after Mars, Incorporated. Headquartered in Uxbridge, London, United Kingdom, the company operates in more than 50 countries worldwide....

, a major UK confectionery and soft drinks manufacturer.

Opening ceremony


The Opening Ceremony was produced by Jack Morton Worldwide. David Zolkwer
David Zolkwer
David Zolkwer was born in June 1964 in Manchester, England. He is one of the world's leading producers and directors of public events and ceremonies and a Board Director of leading international design and communications company Jack Morton Worldwide ....

 was the Project & Artistic Director, Julie Brooks was Executive Producer.

Five-time Olympic champion Sir Steve Redgrave opened the two-and-a-quarter-hour opening ceremony by banging a large drum, which initiated a co-ordinated dance and fireworks act. The champion rower was joined on the stage by sporting stars including yachtswoman Ellen MacArthur
Ellen MacArthur
Dame Ellen Patricia MacArthur, DBE is an English sailor, up until 2009, from Whatstandwell near Matlock in Derbyshire, now based in West Cowes, on the Isle of Wight. She is best known as a solo long-distance yachtswoman. On 7 February 2005 she broke the world record for the fastest solo...

, heptathlete Denise Lewis
Denise Lewis
Denise Lewis OBE is a retired British athlete who specialised in the heptathlon. She won the gold medal in the heptathlon at the 2000 Sydney Olympics.-2000 Olympics:...

, long-distance runner Moses Kiptanui
Moses Kiptanui
Moses Kiptanui is a middle and long distance athlete mostly famous for 3,000 m steeplechase in which he was the number one ranked athlete from 1991 to 1995 and three time IAAF World Champion...

, swimmer Susie O'Neill and sprinter Donovan Bailey
Donovan Bailey
Donovan Bailey is a retired Canadian sprinter, who once held the world record for the 100 metres race following his gold medal performance in the 1996 Olympic Games. He was the first Canadian to legally break the 10-second barrier in the 100 m...

. The Grenadier Guards
Grenadier Guards
The Grenadier Guards is an infantry regiment of the British Army. It is the most senior regiment of the Guards Division and, as such, is the most senior regiment of infantry. It is not, however, the most senior regiment of the Army, this position being attributed to the Life Guards...

 shared the arena with pop band S Club and Salford-born opera singer Russell Watson
Russell Watson
Russell Watson is an English tenor who has released singles and albums of both operatic-style and pop songs. The self-styled "People's Tenor" had been singing since he was a child, and became known after performing at a working men's club...

 sang the Games' theme, "Faith of the Heart", while the arrival of Her Majesty the Queen
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
Elizabeth II is the constitutional monarch of 16 sovereign states known as the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize,...

 was greeted with a flypast
Flypast
Flypast is a term used in the United Kingdom, the Commonwealth, and other countries to denote ceremonial or honorific flights by groups of aircraft and, rarely, by a single aircraft...

 by the Red Arrows
Red Arrows
The Red Arrows, officially known as the Royal Air Force Aerobatic Team, is the aerobatics display team of the Royal Air Force based at RAF Scampton, but due to move to RAF Waddington in 2011...

.
England football captain David Beckham
David Beckham
David Robert Joseph Beckham, OBE is an English footballer who plays midfield for Los Angeles Galaxy in Major League Soccer, having previously played for Manchester United, Preston North End, Real Madrid, and A.C...

 helped chaperone Queen's Baton final runner Kirsty Howard
Kirsty Howard
Kirsty Howard is a 16-year-old British girl, most notable for her charity work.Kirsty is the figurehead of Kirsty's Appeal, a charitable foundation in her name, created to raise £5 million for Francis House, the hospice where she receives care. In October 2006, the appeal announced that it has...

, assisting the terminally ill six-year-old to hand the baton to the Queen. A 4,000-strong cast took part in the £12m spectacular, which in theme and tone consisted of a mix of "pomp and pop", combining the ceremonial aspects of the Games with a party-style atmosphere, based on Manchester's reputation as the party city of "Madchester
Madchester
Madchester was a music scene that developed in Manchester, England, towards the end of the 1980s and into the early 1990s. The music that emerged from the scene mixed alternative rock, psychedelic rock and dance music...

". The ceremony was voiced by broadcaster Anthony Davis
Anthony Davis (comedian)
Anthony Davis is a broadcaster, journalist and entertainer. He first appeared in BBC sitcoms and drama such as Grange Hill and Tricky Business in the 1980s as a child performer, earning him a place in the Radio Times Guide to TV Comedy.Since childhood Davis' talents encompassed music, magic,...

.

The traditional athletes' parade was led by previous hosts Malaysia, and England brought up the rear before the Queen as the Head of the Commonwealth
Head of the Commonwealth
The Head of the Commonwealth heads the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation which currently comprises 54 sovereign states. The position is currently occupied by the individual who serves as monarch of each of the Commonwealth realms, but has no day-to-day involvement in the...

, declared the Games open:

"All of us participating in this ceremony tonight, whether athletes or spectators, or those watching on television around the world, can share in the ideals of this unique association of nations,"

"We can all draw inspiration from what the Commonwealth stands for, our diversity as a source of strength, our tradition of tolerance...our focus on young people, for they are our future."

Venues



The Games' main venue was the City of Manchester Stadium, which hosted all athletics events, the rugby sevens and the opening and closing ceremonies. The stadium was a downscaled version of that proposed during Manchester's bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics
2000 Summer Olympics bids
Five cities made presentations to the IOC Session in Monte Carlo to host the 2000 Summer Olympics. These were awarded to Sydney, Australia on September 23, 1993...

. Construction started in January 2000, and was completed shortly before the Games. The cost was approximately £110 million, £77 million of which was provided by Sport England
Sport England
Sport England is the brand name for the English Sports Council and is a non-departmental public body under the Department for Culture, Media and Sport...

, with the remainder funded by Manchester City Council. For the Commonwealth Games the stadium featured a single lower tier running around three sides of the athletics track, and second tiers to the two sides, with an open-air temporary stand at one end, giving an overall capacity of 38,000. The stadium formed the centrepiece of an area known as Sportcity
Sportcity
Sportcity Manchester is a sports district in the City of Manchester, and was used to host of the 2002 Commonwealth Games. It is located in east Manchester, less than a mile away from Manchester city centre and was developed on former industrial land including the site of Bradford Colliery.The...

. Other venues in Sportcity include the Manchester Velodrome
Manchester Velodrome
Manchester Velodrome is an indoor cycle-racing track or velodrome in Manchester, northwest England. It opened in September 1994 and is the leading indoor Olympic-standard track in the United Kingdom. It houses the National Cycling Centre and British Cycling...

, which hosted cycling, and the £3.5m National Squash Centre
National Squash Centre
The National Squash Centre is a squash venue in Eastlands, Manchester, England which was constructed for the 2002 Commonwealth Games. The National Squash Centre is part of the Sportcity complex....

, which was built specifically for the Games.

Swimming and diving events took place at Manchester Aquatics Centre
Manchester Aquatics Centre
The Manchester Aquatics Centre is a public aquatics sports facility south of the centre of Manchester, England, north of the main buildings of the University of Manchester, and near the Manchester Metropolitan University. It was purpose–built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, and cost £32 million to...

, another purpose-built venue, and the only one in the United Kingdom with two 50m pools.

The shooting events were held at the National Shooting Centre, Bisley (located in Surrey). The NSC saw major redevelopment of all its ranges in order to host the fullbore rifle, smallbore rifle, pistol and clay target events.

New records or other notable events

  • Australian Ian Thorpe
    Ian Thorpe
    Ian James Thorpe OAM , nicknamed the Thorpedo and Thorpey, is an Australian swimmer who specialises in freestyle, but also competes in backstroke and the individual medley. He has won five Olympic gold medals, the most won by any Australian, and with three gold and two silver medals, was the most...

     set a world record in the 400 metre freestyle swimming
    Swimming (sport)
    Swimming is a sport governed by the Fédération Internationale de Natation .-History: Competitive swimming in Europe began around 1800 BCE, mostly in the form of the freestyle. In 1873 Steve Bowyer introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native...

    .

  • English Zoë Baker
    Zoë Baker
    Zoë Baker is a former world record holder in swimming who represented Great Britain until 2005 and now represents New Zealand.Baker represented England at the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester winning the gold medal in the women's 50 m breaststroke in a time of 30.60 seconds...

     set a world record in the 50 metre breaststroke.

  • English
    England
    England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

     track athlete Paula Radcliffe
    Paula Radcliffe
    Paula Jane Radcliffe, MBE is an English long-distance runner. She is the current women's world record holder in the marathon with her time of 2:15:25 hours...

     won her first major gold medal in the 5,000 metres, to record a time of 14:31.42, over 20 seconds ahead of silver medallist Edith Masai
    Edith Masai
    Edith Chewangel Masai is a Kenyan former long-distance runner who specialised in cross country and track races, then road races in her late career. She represented Kenya at the 2004 Summer Olympics.. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2011-11-07...

     of Kenya
    Kenya
    Kenya , officially known as the Republic of Kenya, is a country in East Africa that lies on the equator, with the Indian Ocean to its south-east...

     and 1 minute 21 seconds faster than the inaugural running of the event four years earlier.

  • In the final of the 100 m for men (athletics), the two English
    England
    England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

     favourites (Dwain Chambers
    Dwain Chambers
    Dwain Anthony Chambers is an English sprinter of Afro-Caribbean descent. He has won medals on the international stage numerous times and is one of the fastest European sprinters in the history of recorded athletics. His primary event is the 100 metres sprint, in which he has the second...

     & Mark Lewis-Francis
    Mark Lewis-Francis
    Mark Anthony Lewis-Francis is a British track and field athlete, specifically a sprinter, who specialises in the 100 metres. A renowned junior, his greatest sporting achievement at senior level has been to anchor the Great Britain and Northern Ireland 4 x 100 metres relay team to a shock gold...

    ) both pulled up with injuries. The race was won by Kim Collins
    Kim Collins
    Kim Collins is a track and field sprinter from the Caribbean nation of Saint Kitts and Nevis. In 2003, he became the World Champion in the 100 m. He represented his country at the Summer Olympics on four occasions, from 1996 to 2008, and was the country's first athlete to ever reach an event...

     of Saint Kitts and Nevis
    Saint Kitts and Nevis
    The Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis , located in the Leeward Islands, is a federal two-island nation in the West Indies. It is the smallest sovereign state in the Americas, in both area and population....

    , winning the country's first Commonwealth title.

  • Simon Whitfield
    Simon Whitfield
    Simon St. Quentin Whitfield is an Olympic triathlon champion from Canada.-Biography:Whitfield was born in Kingston, Ontario. As a young boy he played soccer but at age 11 began triathlon, honing his early competitive skills in the Canadian Kids of Steel program. By age 15 he was pursuing...

     of Canada
    Canada
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

    , the 2000 Olympic champion and the 2008 Olympic silver medallist, won gold in the triathlon
    Triathlon
    A triathlon is a multi-sport event involving the completion of three continuous and sequential endurance events. While many variations of the sport exist, triathlon, in its most popular form, involves swimming, cycling, and running in immediate succession over various distances...

    .

  • On the last day of track competition, England won gold in both the men's 4x100 and 4x400 relays by tiny margins, recording the same time (38.62) as the Jamaica
    Jamaica
    Jamaica is an island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length, up to in width and 10,990 square kilometres in area. It is situated in the Caribbean Sea, about south of Cuba, and west of Hispaniola, the island harbouring the nation-states Haiti and the Dominican Republic...

    n quartet in sprint relay and holding off a fast finishing Welsh
    Wales
    Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west. It has a population of three million, and a total area of 20,779 km²...

     team by 1/100th of a second in the longer race, with a winning time of 3:00.40.

  • The women's 4x400 relay was won by Australia after the favoured Jamaican team dropped the baton.

  • In winning the triple jump England's Jonathan Edwards
    Jonathan Edwards (athlete)
    Jonathan David Edwards, CBE, is a former British triple jumper. He is a former Olympic, Commonwealth, European and World champion, and has held the world record in the event since 1995....

     simultaneously held the World, Olympic, European and Commonwealth championships and the World record. He would lose the European title a week later in Munich.

  • Another world record was set in the 4000 metre team pursuit at the track cycling
    Track cycling
    Track cycling is a bicycle racing sport usually held on specially built banked tracks or velodromes using track bicycles....

     by the Australian team. Scot
    Scotland
    Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

     Chris Hoy
    Chris Hoy
    Sir Christopher Andrew "Chris" Hoy, MBE is a Scottish track cyclist representing Great Britain and Scotland. He is a multiple world champion and Olympic Games gold medal winner...

     took the individual time trial
    Individual time trial
    An individual time trial is a road bicycle race in which cyclists race alone against the clock . There are also track-based time trials where riders compete in velodromes, and team time trials...

     and 19-year old Nicole Cooke
    Nicole Cooke
    Nicole Denise Cooke, MBE is a Welsh professional road bicycle racer for the Mario Cipollini - Giordana Team team, and is the current Olympic road race champion.-Early life:...

     of Wales won the women's cycling road race.

  • South Africa
    South Africa
    The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

    n swimmer Natalie du Toit
    Natalie du Toit
    Natalie du Toit is a South African swimmer. She is best known for the gold medals she won at the 2004 Paralympic Games as well as the Commonwealth Games. She was one of two Paralympians to compete at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing; the other being table tennis player Natalia Partyka...

     created history. As well as winning her events in the newly-included disabled swimming event, the 18-year-old, missing the lower section of her left leg, made the final of the 800 metre able-bodied freestyle event in one of a small number of disabled sporting events integrated into the games.

  • In gymnastics England's Beth Tweddle
    Beth Tweddle
    Elizabeth "Beth" Kimberly Tweddle MBE is an English gymnast. Tweddle is a three time world champion having won the 2010 World Championships and 2006 World Championshipson the uneven bars and the 2009 World Championships on the floor...

     and Kanukai Jackson took gold in the asymmetric bars and all around events respectively. Herodotos Giorgallas
    Herodotos Giorgallas
    Herodotos Giorgallas is a Gymnast from Cyprus who took gold at the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester. Herodotos shared the gold with Steve Frew of Scotland. He won the bronze medal in the Gymnastics for Men's Rings at the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne.-External links:*...

     also won the first gymnastics gold ever for Cyprus
    Cyprus
    Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

     when tying with Scotland
    Scotland
    Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

    's Steve Frew
    Steve Frew
    Steve Frew is a Scottish gymnast.He has represented Scotland and Great Britain over 100 times at various International Gymnastics Competitions....

    .

Cultureshock and Festival Live


Cultureshock was the Commonwealth Games Cultural Programme which ran alongside the Games themselves. The events ranged from images of the athlete as hero in sculpture and photography (Go! Freeze, which ran at Turton Tower in Bolton
Bolton
Bolton is a town in Greater Manchester, in the North West of England. Close to the West Pennine Moors, it is north west of the city of Manchester. Bolton is surrounded by several smaller towns and villages which together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, of which Bolton is the...

) to a Zulu performance at The Lowry
The Lowry
The Lowry is a theatre and gallery complex situated on Pier 8 at Salford Quays, in Salford, Greater Manchester, England. It is named after the early-20th century painter, L. S. Lowry, known for his paintings of industrial scenes in North West England...

. There was an exhibition at the Whitworth Art Gallery
Whitworth Art Gallery
The Whitworth Art Gallery is an art gallery in Manchester, England, containing about 55,000 items in its collection. The museum is located south of the Manchester University campus, in Whitworth Park....

 called Tales of Power: West African Textiles, and a performance of the film Monsoon Wedding
Monsoon Wedding
* Originally featured in the Hindi film Loafer * Originally featured in the Hindi film Biwi No.1 -Awards:The movie won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival...

 at Clwyd Theatr Cymru
Clwyd Theatr Cymru
Clwyd Theatr Cymru , known until 1998 as Theatr Clwyd, is a regional arts centre located 1 mile from Mold, Flintshire, in north-east Wales.The complex contains five auditoria:*The Anthony Hopkins Theatre ....

. The geographical range was from Cheshire in the south to Blackburn and Cumbria in the north, and included that year the various Mela
Mela
Mela is a Sanskrit word meaning 'gathering' or 'to meet' or a Fair. It is used in the Indian subcontinent for all sizes of gathering and can be religious, commercial, cultural or sports. In rural traditions melas or village fairs were of great importance...

s that take place around the region.

Cultureshock also ensured that a wide range of cultural events and acts reached the "man on the street", with the city centre of Manchester filled with bands, performers, and artists of various forms entertaining the thousands of visitors to the Games. It also coincided with the BBC's 2002 Festival Live series of open air concerts and celebrations around the country, held to celebrate the Queen's Golden Jubilee
Golden Jubilee
A Golden Jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 50th anniversary.- In Thailand :King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the world's longest-reigning monarch, celebrated his Golden Jubilee on 9 June 1996.- In the Commonwealth Realms :...

. Many of the cultural events were covered by the BBC 2002
BBC 2002
BBC 2002 was a radio station exclusively serving Greater Manchester throughout the duration of the 2002 Commonwealth Games. The station was produced by BBC North West, the region in which it inhabits, and included a crowded schedule of live sporting events from the games alongside some local news....

 radio station covering the games.

Closing ceremony


The Closing Ceremony was produced by Jack Morton Worldwide. David Zolkwer
David Zolkwer
David Zolkwer was born in June 1964 in Manchester, England. He is one of the world's leading producers and directors of public events and ceremonies and a Board Director of leading international design and communications company Jack Morton Worldwide ....

 was the Project & Creative Director, Julie Brooks was the Executive Producer and Nigel Jameson was Artistic Director.

The Queen ended 11 days of competition at a rain-drenched closing ceremony in the City of Manchester Stadium. She declared the Games closed in front of a sell-out crowd gathered in the stadium. She also called on the athletes to assemble again in four years in Melbourne
Melbourne
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...

 and to continue displaying the "friendship" they had shown in Manchester. The ceremony, attended by Prime Minister
Prime minister
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...

 Tony Blair
Tony Blair
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair is a former British Labour Party politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to 27 June 2007. He was the Member of Parliament for Sedgefield from 1983 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007...

 and several other dignitaries, took place in pouring rain and like the opening ceremony, mixed "pomp with pop". Australian Ian Thorpe, the star of the Games with his six swimming golds, carried his national flag into the arena, along with athletes from each of the other competing countries. Around balloons were released into the rainy Manchester sky as the ceremony concluded with a spectacular fireworks display.

Closing ceremony highlights included:
  • Children covering themselves with red, blue and white paint to portray a giant British flag before unveiling a giant portrait of the Queen as a Golden Jubilee gift.

  • The athletes bringing their national flags into the stadium

  • South African swimmer Natalie du Toit
    Natalie du Toit
    Natalie du Toit is a South African swimmer. She is best known for the gold medals she won at the 2004 Paralympic Games as well as the Commonwealth Games. She was one of two Paralympians to compete at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing; the other being table tennis player Natalia Partyka...

     being honoured as the outstanding athlete of the Games.

  • The symbolic handover of the Commonwealth Games Ceremonial Flag to Melbourne
    Melbourne
    Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...

    , host city for the 2006 Games.

  • A spectacular presentation with over lanterns, which ended with the message 'Seek Peace' lit up in vast letters on the floor of the arena.

  • Coronation Street
    Coronation Street
    Coronation Street is a British soap opera set in Weatherfield, a fictional town in Greater Manchester based on Salford. Created by Tony Warren, Coronation Street was first broadcast on 9 December 1960...

     stars Steve Arnold and Tracy Shaw (who played characters Ashley and Maxine Peacock) arriving in one of 40 Morris Minor
    Morris Minor
    The Morris Minor was a British economy car that debuted at the Earls Court Motor Show, London, on 20 September 1948. Designed under the leadership of Alec Issigonis, more than 1.3 million were manufactured between 1948 and 1971...

    s which became the centre of a song-and-dance showpiece.

  • Hip-hop DJ Grandmaster Flash
    Grandmaster Flash
    Joseph Saddler better known as King Grandmaster Flash, is an American hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing....

     encouraging the massed ranks to "make some noise" as athletes and volunteers poured into the arena to music from the likes of Will Young
    Will Young
    William Robert "Will" Young is a British singer-songwriter and actor who came to prominenceafter winning the 2002 inaugural series of the British music contest Pop Idol, making him the first winner of the now-worldwide Idols-format franchise...

    , Dave Stewart
    David A. Stewart
    David Allan Stewart , often known as Dave Stewart, is an English musician, songwriter and record producer, best known for his work with Eurythmics. He is usually credited as David A. Stewart, to avoid confusion with other musicians named "Dave Stewart".-Early life:Stewart was born in Sunderland,...

    , Heather Small
    Heather Small
    Heather Small is a British soul singer, best known for being the lead singer in the Manchester based band M People. Her debut solo album was Proud in 2000...

    , Jimmy Cliff
    Jimmy Cliff
    Jimmy Cliff, OM is a Jamaican musician, singer and actor. He is the only currently living musician to hold the Order of Merit, the highest honour that can be granted by the Jamaican government for achievement in the arts and sciences...

     and Toploader
    Toploader
    Toploader are an English band from Eastbourne who formed in 1997, with over two million album sales to their name and a string of top 20 hits both home and abroad. Their debut album, Onka's Big Moka, sold over 1 million units and remained in the Top 5 of the UK album chart for over six months...

    .

  • Australian singer Vanessa Amorosi
    Vanessa Amorosi
    Vanessa Amorosi is an Australian singer-songwriter and recording artist. Her combined album and single sales have reached over 2 million worldwide.-Early life:...

     sang her signature tune, Shine and a song about the city of Melbourne, "I’ll always be a Melbourne girl" just as it began to pour with rain.

Legacy and impact on host nation


In terms of infrastructure, the Games were the catalyst for the widespread redevelopment of the east of the city, an area which had remained derelict since the departure of heavy industry some decades before. To many these Commonwealth Games are the benchmark for the new era in CWG hosting and for cities wishing to bid for them.

Sporting legacy included the City of Manchester Stadium which was handed to Manchester City Football Club, which in turn replaced the ageing Maine Road
Maine Road
Maine Road was a football stadium in Moss Side, Manchester, England that was home to Manchester City F.C. from its construction in 1923 until 2003...

. The club has since found themselves in a desirable position for investment with a 50,000, modern stadium with striking architecture - only Arsenal with the Emirates Stadium can propose a similar alternative. In 2008, the club was taken over by the Abu Dhabi United Group
Abu Dhabi United Group
The Abu Dhabi United Group for Development and Investment is a United Arab Emirates private equity company owned by Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan, member of the Abu Dhabi Royal Family and Minister of Presidential Affairs for the UAE...

 led by Sheikh Mansour. Consequently they have become one of the most talked about clubs in the world with a series of transfers which has increased the profile of Manchester further as Manchester City became challengers for titles. Journalists have stated Mansour would not had bought the City had the club not had the 50,000 stadium.

British Cycling inheriting the Manchester Velodrome after the games. At the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, the Great British cycling claimed 8 of the 18 gold medals on offer, including 14 of the 54 medals available altogether. This unprecedented achievement was partly attributed the availability of a velodrome.

Local communities benefited from facilities built for the game such as the Manchester Aquatics Centre
Manchester Aquatics Centre
The Manchester Aquatics Centre is a public aquatics sports facility south of the centre of Manchester, England, north of the main buildings of the University of Manchester, and near the Manchester Metropolitan University. It was purpose–built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, and cost £32 million to...

, the Northern Regional Tennis Centre and the National Squash Centre
National Squash Centre
The National Squash Centre is a squash venue in Eastlands, Manchester, England which was constructed for the 2002 Commonwealth Games. The National Squash Centre is part of the Sportcity complex....

. There were comprehensive upgrades of Belle Vue
Belle Vue, Manchester
Belle Vue is an area of Gorton, in the city of Manchester, England. It lies in the eastern part of the city, close to its boundary with Tameside, and is bordered by the Hope Valley Line on the east and the Glossop Line on the west...

 and Moss Side
Moss Side
Moss Side is an inner-city area and electoral ward of Manchester, England. It lies south of Manchester city centre and has a population of around 17,537...

 leisure centres serve their local communities.

Olympic president Jacques Rogge said the Games had gone a long way to restoring Britain's credibility in terms of hosting big sporting events. It has since been said that the success of the games was a major factor in reassuring the UK's sporting authorities and the government that the country could successfully stage major successful international sporting events and that, without them, London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

's successful bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
The 2012 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the "London 2012 Olympic Games", are scheduled to take place in London, England, United Kingdom from 27 July to 12 August 2012...

 would not have come about. Public house
Public house
A public house, informally known as a pub, is a drinking establishment fundamental to the culture of Britain, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. There are approximately 53,500 public houses in the United Kingdom. This number has been declining every year, so that nearly half of the smaller...

s and restaurants in Manchester reported a threefold increase in takings during the Games, and local tourism board Marketing Manchester
Marketing Manchester
Marketing Manchester the official tourist board for Manchester, England. Established in 1996, Marketing Manchester is responsible for promoting Greater Manchester on a national and international scale...

 estimate some more visitors will come to the city each year as a result of its increased profile. It is estimated that by 2008 £600m has been invested in the region as a result of the Games and that about 20,000 jobs had been created.

Medal table by country


1 82 62 63 207
2 54 52 60 166
3 31 41 46 118
4 30 22 17 69
5 11 13 21 45
6 9 20 17 46
7 9 1 2 12
8 7 9 18 34
9 6 13 12 31
10 6 8 16 30
11 5 3 12 20
12 4 8 4 16
13 4 6 7 17
14 4 2 7 13
15 4 0 4 8
16 2 5 8 15
17 2 2 1 5
18 2 1 1 4
19 1 3 4 8
20 1 1 1 3
20 1 1 1 3
22 1 1 0 2
23 1 0 4 5
24 1 0 1 2
25 1 0 0 1
25 1 0 0 1
25 1 0 0 1
25 1 0 0 1
29 0 2 1 3
30 0 2 0 2
31 0 1 2 3
32 0 1 0 1
33 0 0 1 1
33 0 0 1 1
33 0 0 1 1
33  Lesotho 0 0 1 1
33 0 0 1 1
33 0 0 1 1
33 0 0 1 1
Total 282 280 336 898

External links