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1988 Summer Olympics

1988 Summer Olympics

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The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, were an all international
International
----International mostly means something that involves more than one country. The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries...

 multi-sport events celebrated from September 17 to October 2, 1988 in Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

. They were the second summer Olympic Games
Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

 to be held in Asia and the first since the 1964 Summer Olympics
1964 Summer Olympics
The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan in 1964. Tokyo had been awarded with the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honor was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's...

 held in Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

. They were also the fourth Olympic Games to be held in autumn
Autumn
Autumn is one of the four temperate seasons. Autumn marks the transition from summer into winter usually in September or March when the arrival of night becomes noticeably earlier....

.

In the Seoul Games, 160 nations were represented by a total of 8391 athletes: 6197 men and 2194 women. 237 events were held. 27221 volunteers helped to prepare the Olympics. 11331 media (4978 written press and 6353 broadcasters) showed the Games all over the world.

These were the last Olympic Games for two of the world's "dominating" sport powers, Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 and East Germany, as both ceased to exist before the next Olympic Games.

North Korea
North Korea
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , , is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea...

, still officially at war with South Korea, and its allies, Albania
Albania
Albania , officially known as the Republic of Albania , is a country in Southeastern Europe, in the Balkans region. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea...

, Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

, Madagascar
Madagascar
The Republic of Madagascar is an island country located in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa...

 and Seychelles
Seychelles
Seychelles , officially the Republic of Seychelles , is an island country spanning an archipelago of 115 islands in the Indian Ocean, some east of mainland Africa, northeast of the island of Madagascar....

 boycotted the games. For differing reasons, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Ethiopia , officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with over 82 million inhabitants, and the tenth-largest by area, occupying 1,100,000 km2...

, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. The country is situated between 11 and 14 degrees north of the Equator in the Northern Hemisphere, which places it entirely within the tropics. The Pacific Ocean...

, and Albania
Albania
Albania , officially known as the Republic of Albania , is a country in Southeastern Europe, in the Balkans region. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea...

 (who declared an Olympic-record fourth consecutive boycott) did not participate in the Games. However, the much larger boycotts seen in the previous three Summer Olympics were avoided, resulting in the largest ever number of participating nations to that date.

Host city selection


Seoul was chosen to host the Summer Games in a vote held on September 30, 1981, finishing ahead of the Japanese city of Nagoya. Below was the vote count that occurred at the 84th IOC Session and 11th Olympic Congress
Olympic Congress
An Olympic Congress is a large gathering of representatives from the different constituencies of the Olympic Movement, organised by the International Olympic Committee . As detailed in chapter 1, rule 4 of the Olympic Charter, the IOC President is responsible for convening a Congress, presiding...

 in Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden is a spa town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on the western foothills of the Black Forest, on the banks of the Oos River, in the region of Karlsruhe...

, West Germany
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

.
1988 Summer Olympics bidding result
City Country Round 1
Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

 
 South Korea 52
Nagoya
Nagoya bid for the 1988 Summer Olympics
Nagoya 1988 was one of the two short-listed bids for the 1988 Games, and was to be held in Nagoya, Japan.Nagoya was eliminated in the first round of the ballot to select a host city at the 84th IOC sitting on September 1981 in Baden-Baden, West Germany....

 
 Japan 27

Highlights



  • Soviet
    Soviet Union
    The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

     Vladimir Artemov
    Vladimir Artemov
    Vladimir Nikolaevich Artemov is a former Russian gymnast, Olympic champion and world champion who competed for the Soviet Union.He was born in Vladimir....

     wins four gold medals in gymnastics
    Gymnastics
    Gymnastics is a sport involving performance of exercises requiring physical strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and balance. Internationally, all of the gymnastic sports are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique with each country having its own national governing body...

    . Daniela Silivaş
    Daniela Silivas
    Viorica Daniela Silivaş-Harper , best known as Daniela Silivaş, is a Romanian gymnast who is most famous for winning six medals in women's artistic gymnastics at the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul, Korea...

     of Romania
    Romania
    Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

     wins three.
  • After having demolished the world record in the 100 m dash at the Olympic Trials in Indianapolis, US
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

     sprinter Florence Griffith Joyner sets an Olympic record (10.62) in the 100-meter dash and a still-standing world record (21.34) in the 200-meter dash to capture gold medals in both events. To these medals, she adds a gold in the 4×100 relay and a silver in the 4×400. Just after the Games, she announces her retirement.
  • Canadian
    Canada
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

     Ben Johnson wins the 100 m with a new world record, but is disqualified after he tests positive for stanozolol
    Stanozolol
    Stanozolol, commonly sold under the name Winstrol , Tenabol and Winstrol Depot , was developed by Winthrop Laboratories in 1962...

    . In 2004, Johnson accused the American sports authorities of protecting American athletes at the expense of foreign ones. He still claims to this day that André Jackson, "the Mystery Man," put the stanozolol in his food or his drink.
  • American boxer
    Boxing
    Boxing, also called pugilism, is a combat sport in which two people fight each other using their fists. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of between one to three minute intervals called rounds...

     Roy Jones Jr.
    Roy Jones Jr.
    Roy Jones, Jr. is an American boxer. As a professional he has captured numerous world titles in the middleweight, super middleweight, light heavyweight, and heavyweight divisions...

     loses the gold medal to South Korea
    South Korea
    The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

    n fighter Park Si-Hun
    Park Si-Hun
    Park Si-Hun is a retired South Korean amateur boxer and former Olympic gold medal winner.- Career :...

     in a very controversial 3–2 judge's decision. Allegations swirled that Korean officials had fixed the judging. Jones Jr. receives the Val Barker Trophy
    Val Barker Trophy
    The Val Barker Trophy, named for boxer Val Barker, is presented every four years to an Olympic boxing athlete who exemplifies style during competition.-Recipients:...

    , an award for the most impressive boxer of the Games. The three judges ruling against Jones were eventually suspended.
  • Lawrence Lemieux
    Lawrence Lemieux
    Lawrence Lemieux is a Canadian sailor, who competed at the 1984 Summer Olympics in the Star Class and at the 1988 Summer Olympics in the Finn class....

    , a Canadian sailor in the Finn class
    Finn (dinghy)
    The Finn dinghy is the men's single-handed, cat-rigged Olympic class for sailing. It was designed by Swedish canoe designer, Rickard Sarby, in 1949 for the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki...

     was in second place and poised to win a silver medal when he abandoned the race to save an injured competitor. He arrived in 21st place, but was recognized by the IOC with a special award honoring his bravery and sacrifice.
  • US diver Greg Louganis
    Greg Louganis
    Gregory "Greg" Efthimios Louganis is an American Olympic diver and author.He received the James E. Sullivan Award from the Amateur Athletic Union in 1984 as the most outstanding amateur athlete in the United States....

     wins back-to-back titles on both diving events, but only after hitting the springboard with his head in the 3 m event final. This became a minor controversy years later when Louganis revealed he knew he was HIV
    HIV
    Human immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive...

    -positive at the time, and did not tell anybody. Since HIV cannot survive in open water, no other divers were ever in danger.
  • Christa Luding-Rothenburger of East Germany becomes the first (and only) athlete to win Olympic medals at the Winter Olympics
    Winter Olympic Games
    The Winter Olympic Games is a sporting event, which occurs every four years. The first celebration of the Winter Olympics was held in Chamonix, France, in 1924. The original sports were alpine and cross-country skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, ski jumping and speed skating...

     and Summer Olympics in the same year. She adds a cycling silver to the speed skating
    Speed skating
    Speed skating, or speedskating is a competitive form of ice skating in which the competitors race each other in traveling a certain distance on skates. Types of speed skating are long track speed skating, short track speed skating, and marathon speed skating...

     gold she won earlier in the Winter Olympics of that year
    1988 Winter Olympics
    The 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XV Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event celebrated in and around Calgary, Alberta, Canada from 13 to 28 February 1988. The host was selected in 1981 after having beat Falun, Sweden and Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy...

     in Calgary
    Calgary
    Calgary is a city in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It is located in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, approximately east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies...

    .
  • Anthony Nesty
    Anthony Nesty
    Anthony Conrad Nesty is a former Surinamese international swimmer who was an Olympic gold medalist in the 100-metre butterfly event in 1988.- Early years :...

     of Suriname
    Suriname
    Suriname , officially the Republic of Suriname , is a country in northern South America. It borders French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west, Brazil to the south, and on the north by the Atlantic Ocean. Suriname was a former colony of the British and of the Dutch, and was previously known as...

     wins his country's first Olympic medal by winning the 100 m butterfly
    Butterfly stroke
    The butterfly is a swimming stroke swum on the breast, with both arms moving simultaneously. The butterfly kick was developed separately, and is also known as the "dolphin kick"...

    , scoring an upset victory over Matt Biondi
    Matt Biondi
    Matthew Nicholas Biondi is a three-time U.S. Olympic swimmer in the 1984, 1988, and 1992 Summer Olympics, winning a total of 11 medals...

     by .01 of a second (thwarting Biondis attempt of breaking Mark Spitz
    Mark Spitz
    Mark Andrew Spitz is a retired American swimmer. He won seven gold medals at the 1972 Munich Olympic Games, an achievement only surpassed by Michael Phelps who won eight golds at the 2008 Olympics....

    ' record seven golds in one Olympic event); he is the first black person
    Black people
    The term black people is used in systems of racial classification for humans of a dark skinned phenotype, relative to other racial groups.Different societies apply different criteria regarding who is classified as "black", and often social variables such as class, socio-economic status also plays a...

     to win individual swimming gold.
  • Swimmer
    Swimming (sport)
    Swimming is a sport governed by the Fédération Internationale de Natation .-History: Competitive swimming in Europe began around 1800 BCE, mostly in the form of the freestyle. In 1873 Steve Bowyer introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native...

     Kristin Otto
    Kristin Otto
    Kristin Otto is a German Olympic swimming champion. She is most famous for being the first woman to win six gold medals, doing so at the 1988 Seoul Olympic games...

     of East Germany wins six gold medals. Other multi-medalists in the pool are Matt Biondi
    Matt Biondi
    Matthew Nicholas Biondi is a three-time U.S. Olympic swimmer in the 1984, 1988, and 1992 Summer Olympics, winning a total of 11 medals...

     (five) and Janet Evans
    Janet Evans
    Janet Beth Evans is a American competitive swimmer who specializes in distance freestyle. She recently announced her comeback to the sport with intentions to swim in the 2012 Olympic Trials.-Biography:...

     (three).
  • Swedish
    Sweden
    Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

     fencer
    Fencing
    Fencing, which is also known as modern fencing to distinguish it from historical fencing, is a family of combat sports using bladed weapons.Fencing is one of four sports which have been featured at every one of the modern Olympic Games...

     Kerstin Palm
    Kerstin Palm
    Kerstin Palm is a Swedish fencer who has been competing continually since the mid 1960s. Competing in seven Summer Olympics, she earned her best finish of fifth in the women's individual foil event at Mexico City in 1968. She is also the female fencer who has participated in the most Olympic...

     becomes the first woman to take part in seven Olympics.
  • In swimming Mel Stewart
    Melvin Stewart
    Melvin Monroe Stewart is a retired American swimmer who won two gold medals and one bronze medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. Stewart graduated from Mercersburg Academy and the University of Tennessee.-Biography:Stewart was a prominent 200m butterfly swimmer of his era...

     of the USA is favorite to win the men's 200 m butterfly final but comes in 5th.
  • Mark Todd
    Mark Todd (equestrian)
    Mark James Todd, CBE is a New Zealand horseman noted for his accomplishments in the discipline of eventing, voted Rider of the 20th Century by the International Federation for Equestrian Sports, Mark James Todd, CBE (born 1 March 1956) is a New Zealand horseman noted for his accomplishments in the...

     of New Zealand
    New Zealand
    New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

     wins his second consecutive individual gold medal in the three-day event in equestrian on Charisma
    Charisma (horse)
    Charisma was a horse ridden by New Zealander Mark Todd, and the gelding won many competitions in the sport of eventing. He is considered by many to be one of the greatest event horses ever to have competed.* Color: Dark Bay* Markings: Star...

    , only the second time in eventing history that a gold medal has been won consecutively.
  • Baseball
    Baseball
    Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

     and Taekwondo
    Taekwondo
    Taekwondo is a Korean martial art and the national sport of South Korea. In Korean, tae means "to strike or break with foot"; kwon means "to strike or break with fist"; and do means "way", "method", or "path"...

     are demonstration sports. The opening ceremony featured a mass demonstration of taekwondo with hundreds of adults and children performing moves in unison.
  • This is the last time the US are represented by a basketball
    Basketball
    Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

     team that doesn't feature NBA
    National Basketball Association
    The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

     stars; the team wins the bronze medal after being defeated by the Soviet Union.
  • For the first time in history, all the dressage
    Dressage
    Dressage is a competitive equestrian sport, defined by the International Equestrian Federation as "the highest expression of horse training." Competitions are held at all levels from amateur to the World Equestrian Games...

     events are won by women.
  • Women's judo
    Judo
    is a modern martial art and combat sport created in Japan in 1882 by Jigoro Kano. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the object is to either throw or takedown one's opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue one's opponent with a grappling maneuver, or force an...

     was held for the first time, as a demonstration sport.
  • Bowling was held as a demonstration sport, with Kwon Jong Yul of South Korea and Arianne Cerdeña from the Philippines winning the men's and women's gold medal, respectively.
  • Table tennis
    Table tennis
    Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight, hollow ball back and forth using table tennis rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net...

     is introduced at the Olympics, with China
    People's Republic of China
    China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

     and South Korea both winning two titles.
  • Tennis
    Tennis
    Tennis is a sport usually played between two players or between two teams of two players each . Each player uses a racket that is strung to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over a net into the opponent's court. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society at all...

     returns to the Olympics after a 64-year absence, and Steffi Graf
    Steffi Graf
    Steffi Graf is a former World No. 1 German tennis player.In total, Graf won 22 Grand Slam singles titles, second among male and female players only to Margaret Court's 24...

     adds to her four Grand Slam
    Grand Slam (tennis)
    The four Major tennis tournaments, also called the Slams, are the most important tennis events of the year in terms of world tour ranking points, tradition, prize-money awarded, strength and size of player field, and public attention. They are the Australian Open, the French Open, Wimbledon, and...

     victories in the year by also winning the Olympic title, beating Gabriela Sabatini
    Gabriela Sabatini
    Gabriela Beatriz Sabatini is a former professional Argentine tennis player. She was one of the leading players on the women's circuit in the late-1980s and early-1990s...

     in the final.
  • Two Bulgaria
    Bulgaria
    Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

    n weightlifters are stripped of their gold medals after failing doping tests, and the team withdraws after this event.
  • Controversies occur involving boxers including a gold medal being awarded to a Korean light-middleweight after having apparently been defeated by an American boxer and an assault on a New Zealand referee by Korean officials after the referee cautioned a Korean bantamweight
    Bantamweight
    Bantamweight is usually a class in boxing for boxers who weigh above 115 pounds and up to 118 pounds . However, in Mixed Martial Arts it is 134-136 pounds . Wrestling also has similar weight classes including bantamweight...

    .
  • Soviet weightlifter Yuri Zakhareivich wins the mens Heavyweight (up to 110 kg class) with a 210 kg snatch and 245 kg clean and jerk for a 455 kg total. Zakhareivich had dislocated his elbow in 1983 attempting a world record and had it rebuilt with synthetic tendons.


Live doves were released during the Opening Ceremony as a symbol of world peace, but a number of the doves were burned alive by the lighting of the Olympic cauldron. As a result of protests following the incident, the last time live doves were released at the Opening Ceremony was in 1992 in Barcelona, hours before the flame was lit. Balloon doves were released in 1994 at the Lillehammer Winter Games and paper doves were used at the Atlanta Ceremonies in 1996.

These were also the last Summer Olympic Games to hold Opening Ceremonies during the daytime due to hot summer weather. The Opening Ceremonies were highlighted by a skydiving team descending over the stadium and forming the 5-colored Olympic Rings, as well as a mass demonstration of taekwondo
Taekwondo
Taekwondo is a Korean martial art and the national sport of South Korea. In Korean, tae means "to strike or break with foot"; kwon means "to strike or break with fist"; and do means "way", "method", or "path"...

.

Significance of the 1988 Olympics in South Korea



Hosting the 1988 Olympics presented an opportunity to bring international attention to South Korea. The idea for South Korea to place a bid for 1988 Games emerged during the last days of the Park Chung-hee
Park Chung-hee
Park Chung-hee was a Republic of Korea Army general and the leader of South Korea from 1961 to 1979. He seized power in a military coup and ruled until his assassination in 1979. He has been credited with the industrialization of the Republic of Korea through export-led growth...

 administration in the late 1970s. After President Park’s assassination in 1979, Chun Doo-hwan
Chun Doo-hwan
Chun Doo-hwan was a ROK Army general and the President of South Korea from 1980 to 1988. Chun was sentenced to death in 1996 for his heavy-handed response to the Gwangju Democratization Movement, but later pardoned by President Kim Young-sam with the advice of then President-elect Kim Dae-jung,...

, his successor, submitted Korea’s bid to the IOC in September 1981, in hopes that the increased international exposure brought by the Olympics would legitimize his authoritarian regime amidst increasing political pressure for democratization, provide protection from increasing threats from North Korea
North Korea
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , , is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea...

, and showcase the Korean economic miracle
Miracle on the Han River
Miracle on the Han River refers to South Korea's highly accelerated export-fueled economic growth, including rapid industrialization, technological achievement, education boom, exponential rise in living standards, rapid urbanization, skyscraper boom, modernization, successful hosting of the 1988...

 to the world community. South Korea was awarded the bid on September 30, 1981, becoming the 16th nation, the second Asian nation (following Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 in the 1964 Summer Olympics
1964 Summer Olympics
The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan in 1964. Tokyo had been awarded with the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honor was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's...

).

In an attempt to follow the model of 1964 Tokyo Olympics as a rite of passage for the Japanese economy and re-integration of Japan in the family of nations in the post-war era, the Korean government hoped to use the Olympics as a “coming-out party” for the newly industrialized Korean economy. The South Korean government hoped the Olympics would symbolize a new legitimacy of Korea in world affairs. The Olympics gave a powerful impetus to the development of South Korea's relations with Eastern Europe, the USSR and with the People's Republic of China.

As political demonstrations emerged in June 1987
June Democracy Movement
The June Democracy Movement was a nation-wide democracy movement in South Korea that generated mass protests from June 10 to June 29, 1987...

, the possibility of jeopardizing hosting the Olympic Games contributed to the June 29 declaration which issued President Chun out of power and led to direct elections in December 1987. The desire not to taint the Olympic Games with military dictatorship and riots served as an impetus for Korea’s transition to democracy. Roh Tae-woo
Roh Tae-woo
Roh Tae-woo , is a former ROK Army general and politician. He was the 13th president of South Korea .Roh befriended Chun Doo-hwan while in high school in Daegu. In his younger life, Roh was a keen rugby union player....

 served as the transitional president, directly elected by South Koreans in December 1987, during the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games.

1988 Summer Olympics boycott



In preparation for the 1988 Olympics, the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is an international corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president...

  worked to prevent another Olympic boycott by the Eastern Bloc
Eastern bloc
The term Eastern Bloc or Communist Bloc refers to the former communist states of Eastern and Central Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact...

 as had happened at the 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Los Angeles, California, United States in 1984...

 in Los Angeles. This was made more difficult by the lack of diplomatic relations between South Korea and socialist countries. This prompted action by the IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch, who was committed to the participation of these countries. Thus, at the Assembly of National Olympic Committees in Mexico City in November 1984, the "Mexico Declaration" was adopted; by it, the participants agreed to include the host of the Olympic Games in 1988. The agreement of the Soviet Union brought a pledge of equal participation, to which, however, various socialist National Olympic Committees reacted with incomprehension. After the Los Angeles games, East Germany had already decided to participate again in Seoul. The IOC also decided that it would send invitations to the 1988 Games itself and did not leave this task the organizing committee as had been done before. Despite these developments, behind the scenes, the IOC did consider relocating the Games and explored the suitability of Munich as an alternative.

Another point of conflict was the involvement of North Korea
North Korea
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , , is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea...

 in hosting the Games, something encouraged by the Cuban president Fidel Castro Ruz who called for North Korea to be considered joint host of the Games. As a result, on 8 and 9 January 1986 in Lausanne, Switzerland, the IOC President chaired a meeting of the North and South Korean Olympic Committees. North Korea demanded that eleven of the 23 Olympic sports be carried out on its territory, and also demanded special opening and closing ceremonies. There should be a joint organizing committee and a united team. The negotiations were continued into another meeting, but were not successful. The IOC did not meet the demands of North Korea and only about half of the desired sporting events were offered to the North. So the focus thereafter was solely on Seoul and South Korea.

North Korea boycotted the Games after the failed negotiations and was supported by Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. The country is situated between 11 and 14 degrees north of the Equator in the Northern Hemisphere, which places it entirely within the tropics. The Pacific Ocean...

 and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Ethiopia , officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with over 82 million inhabitants, and the tenth-largest by area, occupying 1,100,000 km2...

. Albania
Albania
Albania , officially known as the Republic of Albania , is a country in Southeastern Europe, in the Balkans region. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea...

 and the Seychelles
Seychelles
Seychelles , officially the Republic of Seychelles , is an island country spanning an archipelago of 115 islands in the Indian Ocean, some east of mainland Africa, northeast of the island of Madagascar....

 also did not attend, but, in order to avoid sanctions by the IOC, did not call their absence a boycott. The participation of Madagascar
Madagascar
The Republic of Madagascar is an island country located in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa...

 had been expected, and their team was expected at the opening ceremony of 160 nations. However, the country joined the North Korean boycott.

Official theme song


In 1988, the Seoul Olympic Organizing Committee (SLOOC) decided to produce and distribute an official song of the Seoul Games to publicize the Games to all the IOC member nations, encouraging their participation in the festival and
consolidating the harmony and friendship of the entire world citizens through the song. The song "Hand in Hand
Hand in Hand (Olympics)
"Hand in Hand" was the theme song of the 1988 Summer Olympics.This 4:13 minute song was produced by Giovanni Giorgio Moroder . Its English lyric was composed by Tom Whitlock , Korean lyric by Kim Moon-hwan...

." was written by Italian composer Giorgio Moroder
Giorgio Moroder
Hansjörg "Giorgio" Moroder is an Italian record producer, songwriter and performer based in Los Angeles. When in Munich in the 1970s, he started his own record label called Oasis Records, which several years later became a subdivision of Casablanca Records...

 and American songwriter Tom Whitlock
Tom Whitlock
Thomas "Tom" Ross Whitlock is a songwriter and lyricist best known for his Academy Award and Golden Globe winning song "Take My Breath Away" from the film Top Gun, which he co-wrote with Giorgio Moroder.-Early life:...

, and performed by singing group Koreana
Koreana
Koreana is a bilingual Korean musical group that performs songs in both English and Korean. The group performed at the opening ceremonies of the 1988 Seoul Olympics where they sang its official theme song "Hand in Hand."...

. "Hand in Hand" topped popular songs in 17 countries including Sweden, Federal Rep. Of Germany, the Philippines, Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Japan and Hong Kong and was listed
among the top 10s of the popular songs in more than 30 countries.

Venues




  • Seoul Sports Park venues
    • Seoul Olympic Stadium
      Olympic Stadium (Seoul)
      The Seoul Olympic Stadium, aka Jamsil Olympic Stadium is located in Seoul, South Korea. It was the main stadium was built for the 1988 Summer Olympics and the 10th Asian Games in 1986...

      ² – opening/closing ceremonies, athletics, equestrian (jumping individual final), football (final)
    • Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool
      Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool
      Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool is an aquatics venue located in Seoul, South Korea. It hosted the swimming, diving, water polo, synchronized swimming, and the swimming part of the modern pentathlon events at the 1988 Summer Olympics. The venue was constructed from November 1977 to December 1980 and has...

      ² – diving, modern pentathlon (swimming), synchronized swimming, swimming, water polo
    • Jamsil Gymnasium² – basketball, volleyball (final)
    • Jamsil Students' Gymnasium
      Jamsil Students' Gymnasium
      Jamsil Students' Gymnasium is an indoor sporting arena located in Seoul, South Korea. The capacity of the arena is 7,500 and was built from November 1972 to December 1976 to host Boxing events at the 1988 Summer Olympics. It also hosted boxing events at the 1986 Asian Games and wheelchair...

      ² – boxing
    • Jamsil Baseball Stadium
      Jamsil Baseball Stadium
      Jamsil Baseball Stadium is a baseball stadium in Jamsil 1-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, South Korea. The stadium holds 30,265 people and was built from April 1980 to July 1982. It makes up the Jamsil Sports Complex along with the nearby Seoul Olympic Stadium, and hosted the baseball events during the...

      ² – baseball (demonstration)
  • Olympic Park
    Olympic Park, Seoul
    The Seoul Olympic Park, shortened to Olpark, is an Olympic Park built to host the 1988 Summer Olympics. Olympic Park is located in Songpa-gu, Bangi-dong.- Competition facilities :*Olympic Velodrome, Seoul*Olympic Fencing Gymnasium...

     venues
    • Olympic Velodrome
      Olympic Velodrome (Seoul)
      The Seoul Olympic Cyclodrome is a velodrome located at the Olympic Park in Seoul, South Korea. It hosted the track cycling events of the 1988 Summer Olympics. It was constructed from September 1984 to April 1986 and has a seating capacity of 6,000.-Reference:...

      ¹ – cycling (track)
    • Olympic Weightlifting Gymnasium
      Olympic Weightlifting Gymnasium
      The Woori Financial Art Hall is an musical theatre located in the Olympic Park area of Seoul, South Korea. Constructed between August 1984 and April 1986, it hosted the weightlifting competitions for the 1988 Summer Olympics.-References:* Volume 1. Part 1. p. 176.*...

      ¹ – weightlifting
    • Olympic Fencing Gymnasium
      Olympic Fencing Gymnasium
      Olympic Fencing Gymnasium is an indoor sporting arena located at the Olympic Park in Seoul, South Korea. The capacity of the arena is 6,341 people and was built from September 1984 to April 1986 to host fencing and fencing part of the modern pentathlon events at the 1988 Summer Olympics...

      ¹ – fencing, modern pentathlon (fencing)
    • Olympic Gymnastics Hall
      Olympic Gymnastics Arena
      The Olympic Gymnastics Arena is an indoor sports arena, located at the Olympic Park, in Seoul, South Korea. The capacity of the arena is 14,730 and was constructed between 31 August 1984 and 30 April 1986, to host gymnastics at the 1988 Summer Olympics....

      ¹ – gymnastics
    • Olympic Tennis Center
      Seoul Olympic Park Tennis Center
      Seoul Olympic Park Tennis Center is a tennis venue in Seoul, South Korea, located in the Olympic Park. It hosted the tennis events for the 1988 Summer Olympics and has hosted several South Korea Davis Cup team and South Korea Fed Cup team ties. The center currently hosts the Hansol Korea Open...

      ¹ – tennis
    • Mongchon Tosong
      Mongchon Tosong
      Mongchon Toseong is an ancient earthen rampart dating from the Baekje kingdom. It appears to have played the same role in defending the region the fortifications constructed on Mt. Acha. The fortification walls are estimated to have been about 2.7 km in length and approximately 6-7 meters high...

      ¹ – modern pentathlon (running)
  • Other venues in metropolitan Seoul
    • Seoul Equestrian Park
      Seoul Race Park
      Seoul Race Park is a Korean thoroughbred racetrack in Gwacheon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. It is host to many of Korea's most valuable thoroughbred horse races including the Korean Derby and Grand Prix. Seoul Race Park is located next to Seoul Racecourse Park Station on Line 4 of the Seoul...

      – equestrian (all but jumping individual final), modern pentathlon (riding)
    • Han River Regatta Course/Canoeing Site Course
      Misari Regatta
      Misari Regatta is a boat racing track and park located in the neighborhood of Misa-dong in Hanam City, Gyeonggi Province, in the vicinity of 20 km east of Seoul, South Korea. It was established for the rowing and canoeing competition during the 1986 Asian Games and the 1988 Olympics...

      ¹ – canoeing, rowing
    • Saemaul Sports Hall
      Saemaul Sports Hall
      Saemaul Sports Hall is an indoor arena located in Seoul, South Korea. Built from June 1984 to June 1986, it hosted the volleyball preliminaries for the 1988 Summer Olympics. At the Asian Games two years earlier, the hall hosted the judo competitions....

      ¹ – volleyball preliminaries
    • Hanyang University Gymnasium
      Hanyang University Gymnasium
      Hanyang University Gymnasium is an indoor sporting arena located in Seoul, South Korea. The capacity of the arena is 8,000 people and was built in 1986 to host volleyball events at the 1988 Summer Olympics.-Reference:* Volume 1. Part 1. p. 194....

      ¹ – volleyball preliminaries
    • Changchung Gymnasium² – judo, taekwondo (demonstration)
    • Seoul National University Gymnasium
      Seoul National University Gymnasium
      Seoul National University Gymnasium is an indoor sporting arena located in Seoul, South Korea. The capacity of the arena is 5,000 people and was built in 1986 to host table tennis and badminton events at the 1988 Summer Olympics.-References:...

       – badminton (demonstration), table tennis
    • Royal Bowling Center
      Royal Bowling Center
      The Royal Bowling Center is a bowling alley located in Seoul, South Korea. It hosted the bowling demonstration events during the 1988 Summer Olympics.-Reference:* Volume 1. Part 1. p. 206....

      ² – bowling (demonstration)
    • Dongdaemun Stadium
      Dongdaemun Stadium
      The Dongdaemun Stadium, was in Seoul, South Korea and included a multi-purpose athletics stadium, a baseball park and other sports facilities. It was located near the Dongdaemun or Great East Gate and the surrounding Dongdaemun market and had many vendors selling athletics-related goods...

      ² – football preliminaries
    • Hwarang Archery Field
      Hwarang Archery Field
      The Hwarang Archery Field is an archery field constructed between November 1985 and January 1986, and then renovated between May and August 1988. It hosted the archery competitions for the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul.- Reference :...

      ², Nowon-gu – archery
    • Taenung International Shooting Range
      Taenung International Shooting Range
      The Taenung International Shooting Range is a firing range located in Seoul, South Korea. Constructed in 1972, it hosted the ISSF World Shooting Championships in 1978, the first time an international sporting event of this magnitude took place in the country...

      ², Taenung – modern pentathlon (shooting), shooting
    • Streets of Seoul - athletics (20 km/ 50 km walk, marathon)
    • Jangchung Gymnasium
      Jangchung Gymnasium
      Jangchung Gymnasium is an indoor sporting arena located in Seoul, South Korea. The capacity of the arena is 7,000 and was built in 1963. It hosted judo and taekwondo events at the 1988 Summer Olympics.-References:* Volume 1. Part 1. p. 202....

       - taekwondo (demonstration), judo
  • Venues outside Seoul
    • Sangmu Gymnasium
      Sangmu Gymnasium
      Sangmu Gymnasium is an indoor sporting arena located in Seongnam, South Korea. The capacity of the arena is 5,000 people and was built in 1986 to host wrestling events at the 1988 Summer Olympics.-References:* Volume 1. Part 1. p. 192....

      ¹, Seongnam
      Seongnam
      Seongnam is the second largest city in South Korea's Gyeonggi province after Suwon and the 9th largest city in the country, with a population of nearly 1 million...

       – wrestling
    • Daejeon Stadium
      Daejeon Hanbat Stadium
      Daejeon Hanbat Stadium is a football stadium in Daejeon, South Korea. It is mainly is used for football and was the home ground for the Daejeon Citizen team before Daejeon World Cup Stadium opened in 2001. The stadium has a capacity of 20,618 people and opened in 1964...

      ², Daejeon
      Daejeon
      Daejeon is South Korea's fifth largest metropolis and the provincial capital of Chungnam. Located in the center of the country, Daejeon had a population of over 1.5 million in 2010. It is at the crossroads of Gyeongbu railway, Honam railway, Gyeongbu Expressway, and Honam Expressway. Within the...

       – football preliminaries
    • Daegu Stadium
      Daegu Civil Stadium
      Daegu Civic Stadium is a sports complex in Daegu, South Korea. Its main stadium is currently used mostly for football matches, but it is occasionally used to host large-scale karaoke events. During the 1986 Asian Games and 1988 Summer Olympics, it hosted some football matches. The stadium has a...

      ², Daegu
      Daegu
      Daegu , also known as Taegu, and officially the Daegu Metropolitan City, is a city in South Korea, the fourth largest after Seoul, Busan, and Incheon, and the third largest metropolitan area in the country with over 2.5 million residents. The city is the capital and principal city of the...

       – football preliminaries
    • Buson Stadium
      Busan Gudeok Stadium
      Busan Gudeok Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Busan, South Korea. It is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium holds 24,363 people and opened in 1928. During the 1988 Summer Olympics, it hosted some football preliminary matches. And it was a main stadium for the 2nd East...

      ², Busan
      Busan
      Busan , formerly spelled Pusan is South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul, with a population of around 3.6 million. The Metropolitan area population is 4,399,515 as of 2010. It is the largest port city in South Korea and the fifth largest port in the world...

       – football preliminaries
    • Gwangju Stadium
      Gwangju Stadium
      Gwangju Moodeung Stadium is a Sports complex in Gwangju, South Korea. Main stadium is currently used mostly for football matches and has a capacity of 30,000 people and was opened in 1966. During the 1988 Summer Olympics, it hosted some football matches. This complex have Gwangju Mudeung Baseball...

      ², Gwangju
      Gwangju
      Gwangju is the sixth largest city in South Korea. It is a designated metropolitan city under the direct control of the central government's Home Minister...

       – football preliminaries
    • Suwon Gymnasium
      Suwon Gymnasium
      Suwon Gymnasium is an indoor sporting arena located in Suwon, South Korea. The capacity of the arena is 5,145 people and was built in 1963 to host handball events at the 1988 Summer Olympics. Today it forms part of Suwon Civil Stadium.-References:...

      ¹, Suwon
      Suwon
      Suwon is the provincial capital of Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. A major city of over a million inhabitants, Suwon lies approximately south of Seoul. It is traditionally known as "The City of Filial Piety"....

       – handball
    • Seongnam Stadium
      Seongnam 1 Stadium
      Seongnam Sports Complex is a multi-purpose stadium in Seongnam, South Korea. It was built in December 1984 and used for 1988 Summer Olympics Seoul field hockey matches, but it is currently used mostly for football matches. It was the main stadium of Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma by 2004 - now Seongnam...

      ², Seongnam
      Seongnam
      Seongnam is the second largest city in South Korea's Gyeonggi province after Suwon and the 9th largest city in the country, with a population of nearly 1 million...

       – field hockey
    • Busan Yachting Center
      Busan Yachting Center
      The Busan Yachting Center was a yachting center constructed in Busan, South Korea. Constructed between June 1983 and May 1986 after receiving permission from the Busan Port Authority in early 1982, the venue hosted the sailing competitions for the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul.-Reference:* Volume...

      ¹, Busan
      Busan
      Busan , formerly spelled Pusan is South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul, with a population of around 3.6 million. The Metropolitan area population is 4,399,515 as of 2010. It is the largest port city in South Korea and the fifth largest port in the world...

       – sailing
    • Tongillo Road Course
      Tongillo Road Course
      The Tongillo Road Course was a temporary road course that was repaired between March 1987 and August 1988. The course was located in the Tongil-ro section of Seoul between the Philippine Expeditionary Forces To Korea memorial and Munsan, located north of Seoul on the unificiation road, which is off...

       - cycling (individual road race, road team time trial)


¹ New facilities constructed in preparation for the Olympic Games. ² Existing facilities modified or refurbished in preparation for the Olympic Games.

Medals awarded


Demonstration sports


These were the demonstration sports in the games:
  • Badminton
    Badminton at the 1988 Summer Olympics
    Badminton was an exhibition sport at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. There were five events: men's singles, women's singles, men's doubles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles...

  • Baseball
    Baseball at the 1988 Summer Olympics
    Baseball at the 1988 Summer Olympics was a demonstration sport for the seventh time. Eight teams competed in Seoul in the baseball tournament. The format used was the same as the tournament of four years earlier. Five teams that had competed in the 1984 tournament returned.-Preliminary round:There...

  • Bowling
    Bowling at the 1988 Summer Olympics
    Bowling at the 1988 Summer Olympics was a demonstration sport for the first and only time. In all, a total of 20 nations competed in the exhibition, which was held on September 18 at the Seoul’s Royal Bowling Center.-Medal summary:-Medal table:...

  • Judo
    Judo at the 1988 Summer Olympics
    The Judo competition at the 1988 Summer Olympics continued the seven weight classes first used at the 1980 Games. The open division was eliminated from the competition. Women's judo made its first appearance at the Olympic Games, as a demonstration sport...

     (women)
  • Taekwondo
    Taekwondo at the 1988 Summer Olympics
    Taekwondo was a demonstration sport at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. It was the first time that the sport was included in the Olympic program; it would become an official sport twelve years later at the 2000 Games....

  • Wheelchair racing

Participating nations




Athletes from 159 nations competed at the Seoul Games. Aruba
Aruba
Aruba is a 33 km-long island of the Lesser Antilles in the southern Caribbean Sea, located 27 km north of the coast of Venezuela and 130 km east of Guajira Peninsula...

, American Samoa
American Samoa
American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of the sovereign state of Samoa...

, Cook Islands
Cook Islands
The Cook Islands is a self-governing parliamentary democracy in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand...

, Guam
Guam
Guam is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States located in the western Pacific Ocean. It is one of five U.S. territories with an established civilian government. Guam is listed as one of 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories by the Special Committee on Decolonization of the United...

, Maldives
Maldives
The Maldives , , officially Republic of Maldives , also referred to as the Maldive Islands, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean formed by a double chain of twenty-six atolls oriented north-south off India's Lakshadweep islands, between Minicoy Island and...

, Vanuatu
Vanuatu
Vanuatu , officially the Republic of Vanuatu , is an island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago, which is of volcanic origin, is some east of northern Australia, northeast of New Caledonia, west of Fiji, and southeast of the Solomon Islands, near New Guinea.Vanuatu was...

, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is an island country in the Lesser Antilles chain, namely in the southern portion of the Windward Islands, which lie at the southern end of the eastern border of the Caribbean Sea where the latter meets the Atlantic Ocean....

, and South Yemen
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen — also referred to as South Yemen, Democratic Yemen or Yemen — was a socialist republic in the present-day southern and eastern Provinces of Yemen...

 made their first Olympic appearance at these Games.

In the following list, the number in parentheses indicates the number of athletes from each nation that competed in Seoul:

also participated in the Opening Ceremonies and Closing Ceremonies, marking its first appearance at the Olympic Games, but its delegation consisted of only one swimming official.

Medal count



These are the top ten nations that won medals at these Games:
1 55 31 46 132
2 37 35 30 102
3 36 31 27 94
4 (host nation) 12 10 11 33
5 11 14 15 40
6 11 6 6 23
7 10 12 13 35
8 7 11 6 24
9 6 4 6 16
10 6 4 4 14

Mascot



The official mascot for the 1988 Summer Olympic Games was Hodori
Hodori
Hodori was the official mascot of the 1988 Summer Olympic Games in Seoul, South Korea.The stylized tiger was designed by Kim Hyun as an amicable Amur Tiger, portraying the friendly and hospitable traditions of the Korean people, and the name Hodori was chosen from 2,295 suggestions sent in by the...

. It was a stylized tiger
Tiger
The tiger is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to and weighing up to . Their most recognizable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with lighter underparts...

 designed by Kim Hyun as an amicable Amur Tiger, portraying the friendly and hospitable traditions of the Korean people
Korean people
The Korean people are an ethnic group originating in the Korean peninsula and Manchuria. Koreans are one of the most ethnically and linguistically homogeneous groups in the world.-Names:...

. Hodori's female version was called Hosuni.

The name Hodori was chosen from 2,295 suggestions sent in by the public. It is a portmanteau of ho, which is a derived word from the Korean
Korean language
Korean is the official language of the country Korea, in both South and North. It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in People's Republic of China. There are about 78 million Korean speakers worldwide. In the 15th century, a national writing...

 word for "tiger" (horangi), and dori, which is a diminutive for "boys" in Korean.

Broadcast rights


The games were covered by the following broadcasters:: Ten Network: Rede Globo
Rede Globo
Rede Globo , or simply Globo, is a Brazilian television network, launched by media mogul Roberto Marinho on April 26, 1965. It is owned by media conglomerate Organizações Globo, being by far the largest of its holdings...

, Rede Manchete
Rede Manchete
Rede Manchete was a television network from Brazil. It first aired on June 5, 1983 in Rio de Janeiro and simultaneously in other 5 Brazilian cities, like São Paulo on Rede Exclesior's old channel 9 frequency...

, SBT
SBT
Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão is a Brazilian television network. The network first aired in 1981, and its headquarters are based in Osasco, at the CDT Anhanguera complex. SBT is owned by Silvio Santos , a popular Brazilian TV host...

 and Rede Bandeirantes
Rede Bandeirantes
Rede Bandeirantes , officially nicknamed Band or Band Network, is a television network from Brazil, based in São Paulo. Part of the Grupo Bandeirantes de Comunicação , it aired for the first time in 1967...

: RTÉ
Raidió Teilifís Éireann
Raidió Teilifís Éireann is a semi-state company and the public service broadcaster of Ireland. It both produces programmes and broadcasts them on television, radio and the Internet. The radio service began on January 1, 1926, while regular television broadcasts began on December 31, 1961, making...

: BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

: CCTV
China Central Television
China Central Television or Chinese Central Television, commonly abbreviated as CCTV, is the major state television broadcaster in mainland China. CCTV has a network of 19 channels broadcasting different programmes and is accessible to more than one billion viewers...

: NBC
Olympics on NBC
NBC Sports' coverage of the Olympic Games consists of broadcasts on the various networks of NBC Universal in the United States, including the NBC broadcast network, Spanish language network Telemundo, and many of the company's cable networks....

: NPO: SVT
Sveriges Television
Sveriges Television AB , Sweden's Television, is a national television broadcaster based in Sweden, funded by a compulsory fee to be paid by all television owners...

: CBC
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly known as CBC and officially as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian crown corporation that serves as the national public radio and television broadcaster...

: NHK
NHK
NHK is Japan's national public broadcasting organization. NHK, which has always identified itself to its audiences by the English pronunciation of its initials, is a publicly owned corporation funded by viewers' payments of a television license fee....

: ATV
Asia Television Limited
Asia Television Limited is one of the two free-to-air television broadcasters in Hong Kong, the other being rival Television Broadcasts Limited . It launched in 1957 under the name Rediffusion Television as the first television station in Hong Kong...

 and TVB
Television Broadcasts Limited
Television Broadcasts Limited, commonly known as TVB, is the second over-the-air commercial television station in Hong Kong. It commenced broadcasting on 19 November 1967...

: TDM
Teledifusão de Macau
Teledifusão de Macau , is a radio-television network serving the Chinese special administrative region of Macao. It was established on 1 January 1982 during Portugese administration....

: TVE
Televisión Española
Televisión Española is the national state-owned public-service television broadcaster in Spain. TVE's activities were previously financed by a combination of advertising revenue and subsidies from the national government, but since it's been supported by subsidies only.TVE belongs to the RTVE...

: TTV
Taiwan Television
Taiwan Television Enterprise, Ltd. , commonly known as TTV is launched), is the first television broadcast station in Taiwan...

, CTV
China Television
China Television Company, Ltd. was established on September 3, 1968 by the then-ruling Nationalist Party of the Republic of China . The party owned the majority stake of the network...

 and CTS
Chinese Television System
Chinese Television System is a broadcast television station in Republic of China .-History:Founded on October 31, 1971, CTS started off as a joint venture between the ROC's Ministry of National Defense and the Ministry of Education. At the time of its establishment, CTS was the only VHF-supported...

: KBS and MBC
Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation
Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC (Hangul : 문화방송주식회사, Munhwa Bangsong Jushikoesa) is one of four major national South Korean television and radio networks. Munhwa is the Korean word for "culture". Its flagship terrestrial television...

: Televisa
Televisa
Televisa is a Mexican multimedia conglomerate, the largest mass media company in Latin America and in the Spanish-speaking world. It is a major international entertainment business, with much of its programming airing in the United States on Univision, with which it has an exclusive contract...

: ARD
ARD (broadcaster)
ARD is a joint organization of Germany's regional public-service broadcasters...

 and ZDF
ZDF
Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen , ZDF, is a public-service German television broadcaster based in Mainz . It is run as an independent non-profit institution, which was founded by the German federal states . The ZDF is financed by television licence fees called GEZ and advertising revenues...

 : DFF
Deutscher Fernsehfunk
Deutscher Fernsehfunk , known from 1972 to 1990 as Fernsehen der DDR , was the state television broadcaster in East Germany.-Foundation:...

: TF1
TF1
TF1 is a national French TV channel, controlled by TF1 Group, whose major share-holder is Bouygues. TF1's average market share of 24% makes it the most popular domestic network...

: NBT
National Broadcasting Services of Thailand
National Broadcasting Services of Thailand was formed by Radio Thailand and Television of Thailand' and is a national public broadcasting state media government mass media conglomerate of radio and television services in the Kingdom of Thailand. It is owned and operated by Government's Public...

: Doordarshan
DoorDarshan
Doordarshan is an Indian public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati. It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in India in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters. Recently, it has also started Digital Terrestrial Transmitters. On September 15, 2009,...

: TRT
Turkish Radio and Television Corporation
The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, also known as TRT , is the national public broadcaster of Turkey and was founded in 1964. Around 70% of TRT's funding comes from a tax levied on electricity bills and a sales tax on television and radio receivers...

: TVNZ
Television New Zealand
Television New Zealand, more commonly referred to, and stylized as TVNZ, is a government-owned corporation television network broadcasting in New Zealand and parts of the Pacific. It operates TV1, TV2, TVNZ7, TVNZ Heartland, TVNZ U and new media services....

: TVRI: TV3
TV3 (Malaysia)
Sistem Televisyen Malaysia Berhad or TV3 began broadcasting on 1 June 1984 as Malaysia’s first commercial television station. It is part of Media Prima Berhad group of companies. It now transmits opened broadcasting business private 24-hours a day, 7 days a week since 1 January 2010...

: Singapore Broadcasting Corporation Twelfth Frequency
MediaCorp TV12 Central
MediaCorp TV12 Central or Central was an English and Tamil language Television channel in Singapore it was launched on 31 March 1996 replacing Premiere 12 it was launched since on 1 January 1994 as Television Corporation of Singapore since 1994.The channel was a combination of 3 distinct...

: NBN
National Broadcasting Network
People's Television is the flagship government television network owned by the Philippine Government through People's Television Network, Inc. . Its head office, studios and transmitter are located at Broadcast Complex, Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City .-History:The country's government...

: RTB: RAI
RAI
RAI — Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane, is the Italian state owned public service broadcaster controlled by the Ministry of Economic Development. Rai is the biggest television company in Italy...

: NTC: TVP
Telewizja Polska
Telewizja Polska Spółka Akcyjna is Poland's public broadcasting corporation...

: Eurosport
Eurosport
Eurosport is a pan-European television sport network operated by French broadcaster TF1 Group. The network of channels are available in 59 countries, in 20 different languages providing viewers with European and international sporting events...

: CT-USSR
Soviet Central Television
The Central Television of the USSR , was the state television broadcaster in the Soviet Union....


External links