1914 in aviation

1914 in aviation

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Encyclopedia
This is a list of aviation
Aviation
Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft. Aviation is derived from avis, the Latin word for bird.-History:...

-related events from 1914.

The outbreak of World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 accelerates all aspects of aviation which in turn changes war in a twofold way. The aeroplane turns the sky into a new battle field and eliminates the distinction between frontline and hinterland, with the civilian population far behind the frontline also becoming a target. The war results in the deaths of approximately 20,000 flyers, most of them trained pilots.

Events

  • The Austro-Hungarian Navy
    Austro-Hungarian Navy
    The Austro-Hungarian Navy was the naval force of Austria-Hungary. Its official name in German was Kaiserliche und Königliche Kriegsmarine , abbreviated as k.u.k. Kriegsmarine....

     formally creates an air arm.
  • Fiat
    Fiat
    FIAT, an acronym for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino , is an Italian automobile manufacturer, engine manufacturer, financial, and industrial group based in Turin in the Italian region of Piedmont. Fiat was founded in 1899 by a group of investors including Giovanni Agnelli...

     establishes its Società Italiana Aviazione subsidiary, beginning its involvement in the manufacture of aircraft.
  • The Yokosuka Naval Arsenal
    Yokosuka Naval Arsenal
    was one of four principal naval shipyards owned and operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy, and was located at Yokosuka city, Kanagawa prefecture on Tokyo Bay, south of Yokohama...

     begins to produce seaplanes, the first manufacture of naval aircraft in Japan.
  • The Aeromarine Plane and Motor Company
    Aeromarine
    The Aeromarine Plane and Motor Company was an early American aircraft manufacturer founded by Inglis M. Upperçu which operated from 1914 to 1930. From 1928 to 1930 it was known as the Aeromarine-Klemm Corporation.-History:...

     is founded in Keyport
    Keyport, New Jersey
    Keyport is a borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough population was 7,240. Keyport's nickname is the "Pearl of the Bayshore" or the "Gateway to the Bayshore"....

    , New Jersey
    New Jersey
    New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

    , with Inglis M. Uppercu as president.

January

  • 1 January – The St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line
    St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line
    The St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line was the first scheduled airline using a winged aircraft.The airline provided service between St. Petersburg, Florida and neighboring Tampa.-Overview:...

     starts services between St. Petersburg
    St. Petersburg, Florida
    St. Petersburg is a city in Pinellas County, Florida, United States. It is known as a vacation destination for both American and foreign tourists. As of 2008, the population estimate by the U.S. Census Bureau is 245,314, making St...

     and Tampa
    Tampa, Florida
    Tampa is a city in the U.S. state of Florida. It serves as the county seat for Hillsborough County. Tampa is located on the west coast of Florida. The population of Tampa in 2010 was 335,709....

    , Florida
    Florida
    Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

    , becoming the first airline
    Airline
    An airline provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit...

     to provide regular services with heavier-than-air aircraft, with Anthony Jannus conveying passengers in a Benoist XIV
    Benoist XIV
    -References:* * * * Servis, Richard. "". Non Fiction Reader Magazine* from St Petersburg Museum of History executive director Will Michaels printed in the St Petersburg Times 2 February 2004.* -External links:* *...

     flying boat
    Flying boat
    A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water. It differs from a float plane as it uses a purpose-designed fuselage which can float, granting the aircraft buoyancy. Flying boats may be stabilized by under-wing floats or by wing-like projections from the fuselage...

    . A.C. Pheil is the first airline passenger.
  • 1 January – The Naval Wing of the Royal Flying Corps
    Royal Flying Corps
    The Royal Flying Corps was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of the First World War. During the early part of the war, the RFC's responsibilities were centred on support of the British Army, via artillery co-operation and photographic reconnaissance...

     is given the responsibility for the operation of all British military airship
    Airship
    An airship or dirigible is a type of aerostat or "lighter-than-air aircraft" that can be steered and propelled through the air using rudders and propellers or other thrust mechanisms...

    s. The Royal Navy
    Royal Navy
    The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

     will retain control of all British airships until December 1919.

February

  • The Sikorsky Ilya Muromets
    Sikorsky Ilya Muromets
    The Ilya Muromets refers to a class of Russian pre-World War I large four-engine commercial airliners and heavy military bombing aircraft used during World War I by the Russian Empire. The aircraft series was named after Ilya Muromets, a hero from Russian mythology...

     sets a load-to-altitude record, lifting 16 people to 2,000 metres (6,562 ft).
  • 8–10 February – Berliner, Haase and Nikolai fly 3,053 km (1,896 statute miles) in their free balloon from Bitterfeld to Perm. This record stands until 1950.

April

  • 20 April – Three U.S. Navy aircraft depart Pensacola
    Pensacola, Florida
    Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle and the county seat of Escambia County, Florida, United States of America. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 56,255 and as of 2009, the estimated population was 53,752...

     on board the USS Mississippi
    USS Mississippi (BB-23)
    USS Mississippi , the lead ship of her class of battleships, was the second ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the U.S. state of Mississippi. After her career in the USN, she was sold to Greece and renamed Kilkis in 1914...

     in support of troops at Vera Cruz
    Veracruz, Veracruz
    Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. The city is located in the central part of the state. It is located along Federal Highway 140 from the state capital Xalapa, and is the state's most...

    , Mexico
    Mexico
    The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

    . They will fly reconnaissance missions until 12 May.
  • 20 April – Howard Pixton
    Howard Pixton
    Sopwith test pilot C Howard Pixton won the 1914 Schneider Trophy air race held in Monacoflying a Sopwith Tabloid seaplane powered by a 100 hp Gnome 9V rotary engine, completing the race at an average speed of 86.83 miles per hour. The trophy was then moved to the British Royal Aero...

     wins the Schneider Trophy
    Schneider Trophy
    The Coupe d'Aviation Maritime Jacques Schneider was a prize competition for seaplanes. Announced by Jacques Schneider, a financier, balloonist and aircraft enthusiast, in 1911, it offered a prize of roughly £1,000. The race was held eleven times between 1913 and 1931...

     at Monaco
    Monaco
    Monaco , officially the Principality of Monaco , is a sovereign city state on the French Riviera. It is bordered on three sides by its neighbour, France, and its centre is about from Italy. Its area is with a population of 35,986 as of 2011 and is the most densely populated country in the...

    . Pixton averages 139.66 km/h (86.78 mph) over the course in a Sopwith Schneider
  • 25 April – The first combat flight by a U.S. Navy aircraft takes place. It is a flight to observe Mexican
    Mexico
    The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

     positions during the Veracruz Incident.

May

  • The Royal Navy
    Royal Navy
    The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

     purchases the incomplete merchant ship Ark Royal for a complete redesign as the United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

    s first aviation ship designed as such. She will become the seaplane carrier Ark Royal
    HMS Ark Royal (1914)
    HMS Ark Royal was the first ship in history designed and built as a seaplane carrier. She was purchased by the Royal Navy in 1914 shortly after her keel had been laid and the ship was only in frames; this allowed the ship's design to be modified almost totally to accommodate seaplanes...

    .
  • 8 May – A civilian pilot, René Caudron, makes the first French shipboard takeoff in an airplane from a ramp constructed over the foredeck of the seaplane carrier Foudre, using a Caudron G.3
    Caudron G.3
    The Caudron G.3 was a single-engined French biplane built by Caudron, widely used in World War I as a reconnaissance aircraft and trainer. In comparison to its competitors, it had a better rate of climb and it was considered especially suitable in mountainous terrain.-Development:The Caudron G.3...

     amphibian floatplane
    Floatplane
    A floatplane is a type of seaplane, with slender pontoons mounted under the fuselage; only the floats of a floatplane normally come into contact with water, with the fuselage remaining above water...

    .

June

  • 9 June – Using a ramp constructed over the foredeck of the seaplane carrier Foudre, French Navy
    French Navy
    The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale and often called La Royale is the maritime arm of the French military. It includes a full range of fighting vessels, from patrol boats to a nuclear powered aircraft carrier and 10 nuclear-powered submarines, four of which are capable of launching...

     Lieutenant de Vaisseau Jean de Laborde
    Jean de Laborde
    Jean de Laborde was a French admiral, famous for the scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon.As a vice-admiral, Laborde was chief of the First Squadron, organised around the battleship Strasbourg....

     attempts France
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

    s second airplane takeoff from a ship and the first by a French naval aviator
    Naval Aviator
    A United States Naval Aviator is a qualified pilot in the United States Navy, Marine Corps or Coast Guard.-Naming Conventions:Most Naval Aviators are Unrestricted Line Officers; however, a small number of Limited Duty Officers and Chief Warrant Officers are also trained as Naval Aviators.Until 1981...

    , but crashes.
  • 20 June – While the Austro-Hungarian
    Austria-Hungary
    Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

     airship
    Airship
    An airship or dirigible is a type of aerostat or "lighter-than-air aircraft" that can be steered and propelled through the air using rudders and propellers or other thrust mechanisms...

     Militärluftschiff III (or M.III) hovers over Fischamend
    Fischamend
    Fischamend is a city in the district of Wien-Umgebung in Lower Austria, Austria....

     testing new camera equipment, an Austro-Hungarian Army
    Austro-Hungarian Army
    The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army , the Austrian Landwehr , and the Hungarian Honvédség .In the wake of fighting between the...

     pilot tries to loop M.III in a Farman biplane
    Biplane
    A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two superimposed main wings. The Wright brothers' Wright Flyer used a biplane design, as did most aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage, it produces more drag than a similar monoplane wing...

    . The airplane strikes the top of the airship, tearing a hole and igniting the escaping hydrogen gas. Both aircraft are destroyed, and both men in the airplane and all seven men aboard M.III are killed. It is the end of the Austro-Hungarian airship program.

July

  • 1 July – The Naval Wing of the Royal Flying Corps
    Royal Flying Corps
    The Royal Flying Corps was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of the First World War. During the early part of the war, the RFC's responsibilities were centred on support of the British Army, via artillery co-operation and photographic reconnaissance...

     is separated from the RFC and established it as a separate service, the Royal Naval Air Service
    Royal Naval Air Service
    The Royal Naval Air Service or RNAS was the air arm of the Royal Navy until near the end of the First World War, when it merged with the British Army's Royal Flying Corps to form a new service , the Royal Air Force...

    , under the control of the Royal Navy.
  • 1 July – The United States Navy
    United States Navy
    The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

     establishes its first air department, the Bureau of Aeronautics
    Bureau of Aeronautics
    The Bureau of Aeronautics was the U.S. Navy's material-support organization for Naval Aviation from 1921 to 1959. The bureau had "cognizance" for the design, procurement, and support of Naval aircraft and related systems...

    .
  • 10–11 July – German Reinhold Böhm flies his Albatros-biplane 24 hours and 12 minutes without refueling and nonstop. This one-man-flight record lasts until 1927.
  • 18 July – The United States Congress
    United States Congress
    The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

     creates an Aviation Section in the United States Army
    United States Army
    The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

     Signal Corps.
  • 22 July – The Austro-Hungarian Navy
    Austro-Hungarian Navy
    The Austro-Hungarian Navy was the naval force of Austria-Hungary. Its official name in German was Kaiserliche und Königliche Kriegsmarine , abbreviated as k.u.k. Kriegsmarine....

     battleship
    Battleship
    A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of heavy caliber guns. Battleships were larger, better armed and armored than cruisers and destroyers. As the largest armed ships in a fleet, battleships were used to attain command of the sea and represented the apex of a...

    s Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand
    SMS Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand
    SMS* Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand was an Austro-Hungarian Radetzky class pre-dreadnought battleship commissioned into the Austro-Hungarian Navy on 5 June 1910.Although SMS Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand was laid down and commissioned after the launching of HMS Dreadnought in 1906, her design was begun...

    , Radetzky
    SMS Radetzky
    SMS* Radetzky was the first of the three pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy . She was named for the 19th century Austrian Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky von Radetz...

    , and SMS Zrínyi
    SMS Zrinyi
    SMS Zrínyi was a Radetzky-class pre-dreadnought battleship of the Austro-Hungarian Navy , named for the Zrinski, a noble Croatian family...

     each transport one flying boat
    Flying boat
    A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water. It differs from a float plane as it uses a purpose-designed fuselage which can float, granting the aircraft buoyancy. Flying boats may be stabilized by under-wing floats or by wing-like projections from the fuselage...

     from Pola
    Pula
    Pula is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 62,080 .Like the rest of the region, it is known for its mild climate, smooth sea, and unspoiled nature. The city has a long tradition of winemaking, fishing,...

     to the Gulf of Cattaro. The following day they carry out a reconnaissance of the border with Montenegro
    Montenegro
    Montenegro Montenegrin: Crna Gora Црна Гора , meaning "Black Mountain") is a country located in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast and Albania to the...

    . These are the first operational flights by naval aircraft.
  • 28 July – World War I
    World War I
    World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

     begins
    as Austria-Hungary
    Austria-Hungary
    Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

     declares war on Serbia
    Serbia
    Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

    .
  • 28 July – Royal Naval Air Service
    Royal Naval Air Service
    The Royal Naval Air Service or RNAS was the air arm of the Royal Navy until near the end of the First World War, when it merged with the British Army's Royal Flying Corps to form a new service , the Royal Air Force...

     Squadron Commander
    Squadron Leader
    Squadron Leader is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence. It is also sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure. In these...

     Arthur M. Longmore
    Arthur Longmore
    Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Murray Longmore GCB, DSO was an early naval aviator, before reaching high rank in the Royal Air Force.-Biography:...

     successfully releases a 14-inch (356-mm) torpedo
    Torpedo
    The modern torpedo is a self-propelled missile weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with it or in proximity to it.The term torpedo was originally employed for...

     from a Short Admiralty Type 81
    Short Admiralty Type 81
    -References:*Barnes, C.H. Shorts Aircraft since 1900. London:Putnam, 1967.*Bruce, J.M. British Aeroplanes 1914–18. London:Putnam, 1957.*Bruce, J.M. . Flight, 14 December 1956, pp. 921–926.*Bruce, J.M. . Flight, 21 December 1956, pp. 965–968....

     floatplane
    Floatplane
    A floatplane is a type of seaplane, with slender pontoons mounted under the fuselage; only the floats of a floatplane normally come into contact with water, with the fuselage remaining above water...

    . It may be the first successful aerial launch of a torpedo, although Captain Alessandro Guidoni
    Alessandro Guidoni
    Alessandro Guidoni served as a General in the then Italian Royal Airforce. Guidonia Montecelio, the small town where he died while testing a new parachute, was named after him in 1937...

     of Italy
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

    s drop of a dummy torpedo from the experimental Pateras Pescara monoplane
    Monoplane
    A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with one main set of wing surfaces, in contrast to a biplane or triplane. Since the late 1930s it has been the most common form for a fixed wing aircraft.-Types of monoplane:...

     in "mid-1914" may have been ëarlier.
  • 30 July – Norwegian
    Norway
    Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

     Tryggve Gran
    Tryggve Gran
    Jens Tryggve Herman Gran DSC, MC was a Norwegian aviator, explorer and author. He was the first pilot to cross the North Sea.-Background:...

     flying a Blériot
    Blériot Aéronautique
    Blériot Aéronautique was a French aircraft manufacturer founded by Louis Blériot. It also made a few cyclecars from 1921 to 1922.After Louis Blériot became famous for being the first to fly over the English Channel in 1909, he established an aircraft manufacturing company. This company really took...

     monoplane makes the first crossing of the North Sea
    North Sea
    In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

     by aeroplane.

August

  • Imperial German Navy Rear Admiral
    Rear Admiral
    Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore and captain, and below that of a vice admiral. It is generally regarded as the lowest of the "admiral" ranks, which are also sometimes referred to as "flag officers" or "flag ranks"...

     Paul Behncke
    Paul Behncke
    Paul Behncke was a German admiral during the First World War, most notable for his command of the Third Battle Squadron of the German High Seas Fleet during the Battle of Jutland....

    , Chief of the Naval Staff, urges that the navys Zeppelin
    Zeppelin
    A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship pioneered by the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century. It was based on designs he had outlined in 1874 and detailed in 1893. His plans were reviewed by committee in 1894 and patented in the United States on 14 March 1899...

    s begin attacks on London
    London
    London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

    , arguing that Zeppelin attacks "may be expected, whether they involve London or the neighborhood of London, to cause panic in the population which may possibly render it doubtful that the war may be continued."
  • 1 August – Germany and Russia enter World War I with Germanys declaration of war on Russia.
  • 3 August – France and Belgium enter World War I when Germany invades Belgium and declares war on France.
  • 3 August – The Imperial German Navy leases the cargo-passenger ship Answald for conversion into Germanys first seaplane carrier, SMS Answald, designated Flugzeugmutterschiff I (Airplane Mothership I).
  • 4 August – The United Kingdom enters World War I, declaring war on Germany.
  • 8 August – A French aerial observer is injured by small-arms fire, becoming that nation's first air casualty in a war.
  • 12 August – Lieutenant Robin R. Skene and mechanic R. Barlow crash their Blériot
    Blériot Aéronautique
    Blériot Aéronautique was a French aircraft manufacturer founded by Louis Blériot. It also made a few cyclecars from 1921 to 1922.After Louis Blériot became famous for being the first to fly over the English Channel in 1909, he established an aircraft manufacturing company. This company really took...

     monoplane on the way to Dover, becoming the first members of the Royal Flying Corps
    Royal Flying Corps
    The Royal Flying Corps was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of the First World War. During the early part of the war, the RFC's responsibilities were centred on support of the British Army, via artillery co-operation and photographic reconnaissance...

     to die on active duty.
  • 13 August – A Royal Aircraft Factory BE.2
    Royal Aircraft Factory BE.2
    The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2 was a British single-engine two-seat biplane which was in service with the Royal Flying Corps from 1912 until the end of World War I. The "Bleriot" in its designation refers to the fact that, like the Bleriot types it was of tractor configuration, with the...

     becomes the first British aircraft to arrive in France for the war.
  • 14 August – The first true bomber, the French Voisin III
    Voisin III
    -Survivors and replicas:There is a Full-scale replica of the Voisin III La on display at the Pearson Air Museum in Vancouver, WA near Portland Oregon-References:* * archived from www.caedmon.n-yorks.sch.uk* archived from www.csd.uwo.ca...

    , is used in combat for the first time in an attack on German airship
    Airship
    An airship or dirigible is a type of aerostat or "lighter-than-air aircraft" that can be steered and propelled through the air using rudders and propellers or other thrust mechanisms...

     hangar
    Hangar
    A hangar is a closed structure to hold aircraft or spacecraft in protective storage. Most hangars are built of metal, but other materials such as wood and concrete are also sometimes used...

    s at Metz-Frascaty
    Metz-Frescaty Air Base
    Metz-Frescaty Air Base is a front-line French Air Force base. The base is located approximately south-southwest of Metz ; about east of Paris....

    , Germany
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

    .
  • 17 August – The Imperial Japanese Navy
    Imperial Japanese Navy
    The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japan's constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling international disputes...

    's first aviation ship, Wakamiya
    Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya
    Wakamiya was a seaplane carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the first Japanese aircraft carrier. She was converted from a transport ship into a seaplane carrier and commissioned in August 1914. She was equipped with four Japanese-built French Maurice Farman seaplanes...

    , is recommissioned as a seaplane carrier.
  • 22 August – An Avro 504
    Avro 504
    The Avro 504 was a World War I biplane aircraft made by the Avro aircraft company and under licence by others. Production during the War totalled 8,970 and continued for almost 20 years, making it the most-produced aircraft of any kind that served in World War I, in any military capacity, during...

     on patrol over Belgium is shot down by German
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

     rifle fire, the first Royal Flying Corps
    Royal Flying Corps
    The Royal Flying Corps was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of the First World War. During the early part of the war, the RFC's responsibilities were centred on support of the British Army, via artillery co-operation and photographic reconnaissance...

     aircraft destroyed in action.
  • 22 August – An early attempt to get a Lewis gun
    Lewis Gun
    The Lewis Gun is a World War I–era light machine gun of American design that was perfected and widely used by the British Empire. It was first used in combat in World War I, and continued in service with a number of armed forces through to the end of the Korean War...

     into action in air-to-air combat fails when a Royal Flying Corps Farman armed with one scrambles to intercept a German Albatros
    Albatros Flugzeugwerke
    Albatros-Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturer best known for supplying the German airforces during World War I.The company was based in Johannisthal, Berlin, where it was founded by Walter Huth and Otto Wiener on December 20, 1909. It produced some of the most capable fighter aircraft...

     and takes 30 minutes to climb to 1,000 feet (305 meters) because of the gun's weight. On landing, the pilot is ordered to remove the Lewis gun and carry a rifle on future missions.
  • 23 August – Japan enters World War I, declaring war on Germany.
  • 25 August – Pyotr N. Nesterov
    Pyotr Nesterov
    Pyotr Nikolayevich Nesterov was a Russian pilot, an aircraft technical designer and an aerobatics pioneer.-Life and career:The son of a military academy teacher, Pyotr Nesterov decided to choose a military career. In August 1904 he left the military school in Nizhny Novgorod and went to the...

     is first pilot to down an enemy aircraft in aerial combat when he rams an Austro-Hungarian
    Austria-Hungary
    Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

     plane flown by Baron von Rosenthal.
  • 27 August – The Royal Naval Air Services famed Eastchurch Squadron arrives in France for World War I service, commanded by Wing Commander
    Wing Commander (rank)
    Wing commander is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries...

     Charles Samson
    Charles Rumney Samson
    Air Commodore Charles Rumney Samson CMG, DSO & Bar, AFC was a British naval aviation pioneer. He also operated the first British armoured vehicles in combat...

    .
  • 30 August – Paris
    Paris
    Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

     is bombed by a German aircraft for the first time - by an Etrich Taube flown by Lt Ferdinand von Hiddessen.

September

  • 1 September – The Wakamiya arrives off Kiaochow Bay, China
    China
    Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

    , to participate in operations during the Siege of Tsingtao. It is the first combat deployment of an aviation ship by any country.
  • 5 September – During the Siege of Tsingtao, the Imperial Japanese Navy carries out its first air combat mission. A three-seat Farman seaplane
    Seaplane
    A seaplane is a fixed-wing aircraft capable of taking off and landing on water. Seaplanes that can also take off and land on airfields are a subclass called amphibian aircraft...

     from the Wakamiya bombs German fortifications at Tsingtao, China
    China
    Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

    , and conducts a reconnaissance of Kiaochow Bay.
  • 16 September – The Canadian Aviation Corps
    Canadian Aviation Corps
    Canadian Aviation Corps was an early attempt to create an air force for Canada at the beginning of the First World War. The unit was created in 1914 and was attached to the Canadian Expeditionary Force. The CAC had a maximum strength of three personnel and one aircraft which was delivered but...

     is formed.
  • 22 September – In the first British air raid against Germany in history, Royal Naval Air Service
    Royal Naval Air Service
    The Royal Naval Air Service or RNAS was the air arm of the Royal Navy until near the end of the First World War, when it merged with the British Army's Royal Flying Corps to form a new service , the Royal Air Force...

     BE.2
    Royal Aircraft Factory BE.2
    The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2 was a British single-engine two-seat biplane which was in service with the Royal Flying Corps from 1912 until the end of World War I. The "Bleriot" in its designation refers to the fact that, like the Bleriot types it was of tractor configuration, with the...

     aircraft of No. 3 Squadron based at Antwerp, Belgium
    Belgium
    Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

    , attack German airship
    Airship
    An airship or dirigible is a type of aerostat or "lighter-than-air aircraft" that can be steered and propelled through the air using rudders and propellers or other thrust mechanisms...

     hangar
    Hangar
    A hangar is a closed structure to hold aircraft or spacecraft in protective storage. Most hangars are built of metal, but other materials such as wood and concrete are also sometimes used...

    s at Cologne
    Cologne
    Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

     and Düsseldorf
    Düsseldorf
    Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the...

    , Germany
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

    , but fail to inflict damage due to bad weather and the failure of bomb
    Bomb
    A bomb is any of a range of explosive weapons that only rely on the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy...

    s to explode.
  • 27 September – The first French bomber group is formed.
  • 30 September – The Wakamiya is damaged by a naval mine
    Naval mine
    A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to destroy surface ships or submarines. Unlike depth charges, mines are deposited and left to wait until they are triggered by the approach of, or contact with, an enemy vessel...

     and forced to retire from the Siege of Tsingtao, ending the first combat deployment of an aviation ship in history.

October

  • The Imperial Japanese Navy auxiliary cruiser Chikezen Maru carries two floatplane
    Floatplane
    A floatplane is a type of seaplane, with slender pontoons mounted under the fuselage; only the floats of a floatplane normally come into contact with water, with the fuselage remaining above water...

    s during an unsuccessful search for the Imperial German Navy armed merchant raider
    Merchant raider
    Merchant raiders are ships which disguise themselves as non-combatant merchant vessels, whilst actually being armed and intending to attack enemy commerce. Germany used several merchant raiders early in World War I, and again early in World War II...

     Wolf in the Indian Ocean
    Indian Ocean
    The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula ; on the west by eastern Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and...

    .
  • 5 October – Sgt
    Sergeant
    Sergeant is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organizations around the world. Its origins are the Latin serviens, "one who serves", through the French term Sergent....

     Joseph Frantz and Cpl
    Corporal
    Corporal is a rank in use in some form by most militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations. It is usually equivalent to NATO Rank Code OR-4....

     Louis Quenault of Escadrille VB24 are the first aviators in history to shoot down another aircraft, downing a German Aviatik B.II
    Aviatik B.II
    -References:* * -See also:...

     with machine gun
    Machine gun
    A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm, usually designed to fire rounds in quick succession from an ammunition belt or large-capacity magazine, typically at a rate of several hundred rounds per minute....

     fire from their Voisin III
    Voisin III
    -Survivors and replicas:There is a Full-scale replica of the Voisin III La on display at the Pearson Air Museum in Vancouver, WA near Portland Oregon-References:* * archived from www.caedmon.n-yorks.sch.uk* archived from www.csd.uwo.ca...

     over Jonchery
    Jonchery
    Jonchery is a commune in the Haute-Marne department in north-eastern France....

    , Reims
    Reims
    Reims , a city in the Champagne-Ardenne region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris. Founded by the Gauls, it became a major city during the period of the Roman Empire....

    .
  • 8 October – In a raid planned by Royal Naval Air Service Wing Commander
    Wing Commander (rank)
    Wing commander is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries...

     Charles Samson
    Charles Rumney Samson
    Air Commodore Charles Rumney Samson CMG, DSO & Bar, AFC was a British naval aviation pioneer. He also operated the first British armoured vehicles in combat...

    , two RNAS Sopwith Tabloid
    Sopwith Tabloid
    |-See also:-References:* Bruce, J.M. "". Flight. 8 November 1957. pp. 733–736.* Bruce, J.M. "". Flight. 15 November 1957. pp. 765–766.* Bruce, J.M. "". Flight. 29 November 1957. pp. 845–848....

    s set out to attack the Zeppelin
    Zeppelin
    A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship pioneered by the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century. It was based on designs he had outlined in 1874 and detailed in 1893. His plans were reviewed by committee in 1894 and patented in the United States on 14 March 1899...

     sheds at Düsseldorf
    Düsseldorf
    Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the...

    . One of the aircraft attacks the Cologne
    Cologne
    Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

     railway station instead, but the other, piloted by Flight Lieutenant
    Flight Lieutenant
    Flight lieutenant is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many Commonwealth countries. It ranks above flying officer and immediately below squadron leader. The name of the rank is the complete phrase; it is never shortened to "lieutenant"...

     "Reggie" Marix finds his target and destroys a shed holding the Imperial German Army Zeppelin
    Zeppelin
    A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship pioneered by the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century. It was based on designs he had outlined in 1874 and detailed in 1893. His plans were reviewed by committee in 1894 and patented in the United States on 14 March 1899...

     Z IX (or LZ25 as well as Z IX itself. It is the first time that an airplane destroys a dirigible.
  • 13 October – The Imperial Japanese Navy attempts air-to-air combat for the first time, as a naval airplane joins three Imperial Japanese Army
    Imperial Japanese Army
    -Foundation:During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū...

     airplanes in an attempt to attack a German reconnaissance plane during the Siege of Tsingtao. The German aircraft escapes.

November

  • Advocating massed Zeppelin
    Zeppelin
    A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship pioneered by the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century. It was based on designs he had outlined in 1874 and detailed in 1893. His plans were reviewed by committee in 1894 and patented in the United States on 14 March 1899...

     attacks on London, Imperial German Navy Grand Admiral
    Grand Admiral
    Grand admiral is a historic naval rank, generally being the highest such rank present in any particular country. Its most notable use was in Germany — the German word is Großadmiral.-France:...

     Alfred von Tirpitz
    Alfred von Tirpitz
    Alfred von Tirpitz was a German Admiral, Secretary of State of the German Imperial Naval Office, the powerful administrative branch of the German Imperial Navy from 1897 until 1916. Prussia never had a major navy, nor did the other German states before the German Empire was formed in 1871...

     writes, "The English are now in terror of the Zeppelin, perhaps not without reason...[S]ingle bombs from flying machines are wrong; they are odious when they hit and kill old women, and one gets used to them. If [however] one could set fire to London in thirty places, then what in a small way is odious would retire before something fine and powerful."
  • The first Imperial German Navy shipboard air operations take place, when the armored cruiser
    Armored cruiser
    The armored cruiser was a type of warship of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Like other types of cruiser, the armored cruiser was a long-range, independent warship, capable of defeating any ship apart from a battleship, and fast enough to outrun any battleships it encountered.The first...

     Friedrich Karl embarks two seaplane
    Seaplane
    A seaplane is a fixed-wing aircraft capable of taking off and landing on water. Seaplanes that can also take off and land on airfields are a subclass called amphibian aircraft...

    s with which to scout Russian
    Russian Empire
    The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

     ports in the Baltic Sea
    Baltic Sea
    The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

    . One is still aboard when Friedrich Karl strikes a mine
    Naval mine
    A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to destroy surface ships or submarines. Unlike depth charges, mines are deposited and left to wait until they are triggered by the approach of, or contact with, an enemy vessel...

     and sinks on November 17.
  • 1 November – The Ottoman Empire
    Ottoman Empire
    The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

     enters World War I when Russia declares war.
  • 21 November – In the Tondern raid
    Tondern raid
    The Tondern raid, officially designated Operation F.7, was a British bombing raid mounted by the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force against the Imperial German Navy's airship base at Tondern in Germany. It was the first attack in history made by aircraft flying from a carrier flight deck. On 19 July...

    , three Royal Naval Air Service Avro 504
    Avro 504
    The Avro 504 was a World War I biplane aircraft made by the Avro aircraft company and under licence by others. Production during the War totalled 8,970 and continued for almost 20 years, making it the most-produced aircraft of any kind that served in World War I, in any military capacity, during...

    s based at Belfort
    Belfort
    Belfort is a commune in the Territoire de Belfort department in Franche-Comté in northeastern France and is the prefecture of the department. It is located on the Savoureuse, on the strategically important natural route between the Rhine and the Rhône – the Belfort Gap or Burgundian Gate .-...

    , France, conduct historys first long-range strategic bombing
    Strategic bombing
    Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating an enemy nation-state by destroying its economic ability and public will to wage war rather than destroying its land or naval forces...

     raid, attacking German airship
    Airship
    An airship or dirigible is a type of aerostat or "lighter-than-air aircraft" that can be steered and propelled through the air using rudders and propellers or other thrust mechanisms...

     sheds on the shore of Lake Constance
    Lake Constance
    Lake Constance is a lake on the Rhine at the northern foot of the Alps, and consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee , the Untersee , and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein.The lake is situated in Germany, Switzerland and Austria near the Alps...

     at Friederichshafen. Carrying four 20-lb (9-kg) bombs each, they cause a gas works to explode and badly damage a dirigible, losing one aircraft shot down.
  • 27 November – The first air-sea battle in history occurs when Imperial Japanese Navy Farman seaplanes make an unsuccessful attempt to bomb German and Austro-Hungarian ships in Kiaochow Bay during the Siege of Tsingtao.

December

  • Upon the conclusion of the Siege of Tsingtao, the Wakamiya returns Japanese naval seaplanes deployed at Tsingtao to Japan. The Japanese naval air arm sees no further combat during World War I.
  • 10 December – HMS Ark Royal
    HMS Ark Royal (1914)
    HMS Ark Royal was the first ship in history designed and built as a seaplane carrier. She was purchased by the Royal Navy in 1914 shortly after her keel had been laid and the ship was only in frames; this allowed the ship's design to be modified almost totally to accommodate seaplanes...

     is completed. She is the first ship with an internal hangar
    Hangar
    A hangar is a closed structure to hold aircraft or spacecraft in protective storage. Most hangars are built of metal, but other materials such as wood and concrete are also sometimes used...

     enclosed by her hull, and the first with specially designed internal spaces to accommodate aviation fuel, lubricants, ordnance, and spares and machinery required for aircraft maintenance.
  • 14 December – A Royal Naval Air Service Avro 504
    Avro 504
    The Avro 504 was a World War I biplane aircraft made by the Avro aircraft company and under licence by others. Production during the War totalled 8,970 and continued for almost 20 years, making it the most-produced aircraft of any kind that served in World War I, in any military capacity, during...

     of the Eastchurch Squadron drops four 16-lb (7.25-kg) bombs on the Ostend
    Ostend
    Ostend  is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. It comprises the boroughs of Mariakerke , Stene and Zandvoorde, and the city of Ostend proper – the largest on the Belgian coast....

    -Bruges
    Bruges
    Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located in the northwest of the country....

     railway in Belgium.
  • 16 December – SMS Glyndwr is the first Imperial German Navy aviation ship to be commissioned. She serves initially as a seaplane
    Seaplane
    A seaplane is a fixed-wing aircraft capable of taking off and landing on water. Seaplanes that can also take off and land on airfields are a subclass called amphibian aircraft...

     pilot training ship.
  • 21 December – The United Kingdom is bombed by a German aircraft for the first time. A Taube drops two bombs near the Admiralty Pier, Kent
    Kent
    Kent is a county in southeast England, and is one of the home counties. It borders East Sussex, Surrey and Greater London and has a defined boundary with Essex in the middle of the Thames Estuary. The ceremonial county boundaries of Kent include the shire county of Kent and the unitary borough of...

    .
  • 21 December – Flying a Maurice Farman
    Maurice Farman
    Maurice Alain Farman was a French Grand Prix motor racing champion, an aviator, and an aircraft manufacturer and designer.-Biography:...

     biplane
    Biplane
    A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two superimposed main wings. The Wright brothers' Wright Flyer used a biplane design, as did most aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage, it produces more drag than a similar monoplane wing...

    , Royal Naval Air Service Wing Commander
    Wing Commander (rank)
    Wing commander is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries...

     Charles R. Samson
    Charles Rumney Samson
    Air Commodore Charles Rumney Samson CMG, DSO & Bar, AFC was a British naval aviation pioneer. He also operated the first British armoured vehicles in combat...

     conducts historys first night bombinh raid, attacking Ostend
    Ostend
    Ostend  is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. It comprises the boroughs of Mariakerke , Stene and Zandvoorde, and the city of Ostend proper – the largest on the Belgian coast....

    , Belgium
    Belgium
    Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

    .
  • 25 December – HMS Empress
    HMS Empress (1914)
    HMS Empress was a seaplane carrier of the Royal Navy that served during World War I. Converted from the Cross-Channel packet ship Empress, the ship's aircraft conducted aerial reconnaissance, observation and bombing missions in the North Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. During the last year of the...

    , HMS Engadine
    HMS Engadine (1911)
    HMS Engadine was a seaplane tender which served in the First World War. She was built as a Folkestone-Boulogne ferry by William Denny and Brothers, launched on 23 September 1911 and named after the Engadine valley in Switzerland...

    , and HMS Riviera
    HMS Riviera
    Built as a fast Cross-Channel steamer for the South East and Chatham Railway Co., HMS Riviera was requisitioned by the Admiralty on 11 August 1914 and converted by Chatham Dockyard to carry and operate four seaplanes....

     launch a seaplane
    Seaplane
    A seaplane is a fixed-wing aircraft capable of taking off and landing on water. Seaplanes that can also take off and land on airfields are a subclass called amphibian aircraft...

     attack on the Zeppelin sheds at Cuxhaven. It is the first attempt in history to exert sea power on land by means of the air. Fog prevents the aircraft from reaching their target, and only three of the nine aircraft find their way back to their mother ships.