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.30-30 Winchester

.30-30 Winchester

Overview
The .30-30 Winchester/.30 Winchester Center Fire/7.62×51mmR cartridge was first marketed in early 1895 for the Winchester Model 1894
Winchester Model 1894
Winchester Model 1894 is a lever-action rifle which became one of the most famous and popular hunting rifles...

 lever-action rifle. The .30-30 (thirty-thirty), as it is most commonly known, was the USA's first small-bore, sporting rifle cartridge designed for smokeless powder
Smokeless powder
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older gunpowder which they replaced...

. The .30-30 is one of the most common deer
Deer hunting
Deer hunting is survival hunting or sport hunting, harvesting deer, dating back to tens of thousands of years ago. Which occurred though out Europe Asia and North America There are numerous types of deer throughout the world that are hunted.- New Zealand :...

 cartridges in North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

. Popular in Mexico and Latin America, it is known there as the treinta-treinta.

Although the original name used by Winchester on their firearms and ammunition was .30 WCF, the designation .30-30 was used by both Marlin
Marlin Firearms
Marlin Firearms Co., formerly of North Haven, Connecticut, is a manufacturer of high power, center fire, lever action, and .22 caliber rimfire rifles. In the past, the company made shotguns, derringers and revolvers...

 and Union Metallic Cartridge Co.
Remington Arms
Remington Arms Company, Inc. was founded in 1816 by Eliphalet Remington in Ilion, New York, as E. Remington and Sons. It is the oldest company in the United States which still makes its original product, and is the oldest continuously operating manufacturer in North America. It is the only U.S....

, who did not want to put the name of rival Winchester on their products.
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Encyclopedia
The .30-30 Winchester/.30 Winchester Center Fire/7.62×51mmR cartridge was first marketed in early 1895 for the Winchester Model 1894
Winchester Model 1894
Winchester Model 1894 is a lever-action rifle which became one of the most famous and popular hunting rifles...

 lever-action rifle. The .30-30 (thirty-thirty), as it is most commonly known, was the USA's first small-bore, sporting rifle cartridge designed for smokeless powder
Smokeless powder
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older gunpowder which they replaced...

. The .30-30 is one of the most common deer
Deer hunting
Deer hunting is survival hunting or sport hunting, harvesting deer, dating back to tens of thousands of years ago. Which occurred though out Europe Asia and North America There are numerous types of deer throughout the world that are hunted.- New Zealand :...

 cartridges in North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

. Popular in Mexico and Latin America, it is known there as the treinta-treinta.

Naming


Although the original name used by Winchester on their firearms and ammunition was .30 WCF, the designation .30-30 was used by both Marlin
Marlin Firearms
Marlin Firearms Co., formerly of North Haven, Connecticut, is a manufacturer of high power, center fire, lever action, and .22 caliber rimfire rifles. In the past, the company made shotguns, derringers and revolvers...

 and Union Metallic Cartridge Co.
Remington Arms
Remington Arms Company, Inc. was founded in 1816 by Eliphalet Remington in Ilion, New York, as E. Remington and Sons. It is the oldest company in the United States which still makes its original product, and is the oldest continuously operating manufacturer in North America. It is the only U.S....

, who did not want to put the name of rival Winchester on their products. The added -30 stands for the standard load of 30 gr of early smokeless powder
Smokeless powder
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older gunpowder which they replaced...

, which was on par with current IMR/DuPont's 4064. Over time Marlin's variation on the name stuck, though ".30 WCF" is also used.

Characteristics and use


The .30-30 is considered to be the "entry-class" for modern deer cartridges. While it will take deer-sized and black bear-sized game, it is limited in effective range to approximately 200 yards (183 m) for that purpose. It is common to define the characteristics of similar cartridges as being in ".30-30 class" when describing their effectiveness. The .30-30 is typically loaded with bullet
Bullet
A bullet is a projectile propelled by a firearm, sling, or air gun. Bullets do not normally contain explosives, but damage the intended target by impact and penetration...

s weighing between 150 and 170 grains , but lighter loads are possible. Bullets of up to 180 gr can be used but the overall length restrictions of the lever action rifles used for this round limit their usefulness.

One of the primary reasons for the .30-30's popularity amongst deer hunters is its light recoil
Recoil
Recoil is the backward momentum of a gun when it is discharged. In technical terms, the recoil caused by the gun exactly balances the forward momentum of the projectile and exhaust gasses, according to Newton's third law...

. Average recoil from a typical 150 gr load at 2390 feet per second (728.5 m/s) in a 7.5 pounds (3.4 kg) rifle is 10.6 pound-forces (47.2 N) of felt recoil at the shooter's shoulder. This, combined with the cartridge's ability to take the majority of large game in North America, as long as the game is within 200 yards (180 m) of the shooter, results in a highly effective hunting round.

Because the majority of rifles chambered in .30-30 are lever-action rifles with tubular magazines, most .30-30 cartridges are loaded with round-nose or flat-nose bullets. This is to prevent a spitzer-point bullet (the shape seen on the .308 Winchester
.308 Winchester
The .308 Winchester is a rifle cartridge and is the commercial cartridge upon which the military 7.62x51mm NATO centerfire cartridge is based. The .308 Winchester was introduced in 1952, two years prior to the NATO adoption of the 7.62x51mm NATO T65...

 above) from setting off the primer
Percussion cap
The percussion cap, introduced around 1830, was the crucial invention that enabled muzzleloading firearms to fire reliably in any weather.Before this development, firearms used flintlock ignition systems which produced flint-on-steel sparks to ignite a pan of priming powder and thereby fire the...

 of the cartridge ahead of it in the magazine during recoil. Were that to happen, the gun would probably be damaged or destroyed and the shooter seriously injured. The Savage Model 99
Savage Model 99
The Model 99, and its predecessor models 1895 and 1899, are a series of lever action rifles created by the Savage Arms Company in Utica, New York.-History:...

 was introduced in 1899 with a rotary magazine, in part to avoid that issue. When used in single-shot rifles or handguns, such as the Thompson Center Arms
Thompson Center Arms
Thompson/Center Arms Company is an American firearms company based in Rochester, New Hampshire. The company is best known for its line of interchangeable barrel single-shot pistols and rifles. Thompson Center manufactures muzzleloading rifles and is credited with creating the resurgence of their...

 Contender or Encore series, it is common for shooters to handload
Handloading
Handloading or reloading is the process of loading firearm cartridges or shotgun shells by assembling the individual components , rather than purchasing completely assembled, factory-loaded cartridges...

 the cartridge with spire-point bullets for improved ballistics.
A notable exception to the "no-spire point" guidelines for tubular magazines is the new Hornady
Hornady
Hornady Manufacturing Company is an American manufacturer of ammunition and handloading components, based in Grand Island, Nebraska.The company was founded by Joyce Hornady in 1949 and is currently run by his son Steve Hornady who took over after his father's death in a plane crash in 1981.Hornady...

 LEVERevolution line of flexible memory elastomer
Elastomer
An elastomer is a polymer with the property of viscoelasticity , generally having notably low Young's modulus and high yield strain compared with other materials. The term, which is derived from elastic polymer, is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, although the latter is preferred...

tipped ammunition. By allowing a more efficient bullet shape
External ballistics
External ballistics is the part of the science of ballistics that deals with the behaviour of a non-powered projectile in flight. External ballistics is frequently associated with firearms, and deals with the behaviour of the bullet after it exits the barrel and before it hits the target.-Forces...

, it allows a lighter bullet, higher muzzle velocity, and flatter trajectory
Trajectory
A trajectory is the path that a moving object follows through space as a function of time. The object might be a projectile or a satellite, for example. It thus includes the meaning of orbit—the path of a planet, an asteroid or a comet as it travels around a central mass...

. Given the popularity of the .30-30 cartridge and the lever action rifle, the potential market for the new ammunition is huge. Early reports indicate substantially improved accuracy with the round and at good terminal ballistic performance.

.30 WINCHESTER SMOKELESS first appeared in Winchester's catalog No. 55, dated August, 1895. As chambered in the Winchester Model 1894 carbine and rifle, it was also known as .30 Winchester Centerfire or .30 WCF. When the cartridge was chambered in the Marlin Model 1893 rifle, rival gunmaker Marlin used the designation .30-30 or .30-30 Smokeless.

As originally produced by Winchester Repeating Arms (WRA) and Union Metallic Cartridge Company (UMC, who dubbed the cartridge .30-30), it was manufactured with a metal patched lead bullet weighing 160 gr. However, one year later UMC produced a 170 gr. bullet offering. 150 gr. and 170 gr. bullets continue to be very popular, as seen in the number of these weights offered by current manufacturers, although the 160 gr. bullet weight has reappeared in the Hornady cartridge noted above. Jacketed bullets for the .30-30 are .308 inches nominal diameter. Cast lead bullets for the .30-30 are also popular, and usually are dimensioned to .309 inches in diameter for use in the .30-30.

The .30-30 is one of the relatively few currently popular centerfire rifle cartridges that have a rimmed case. The .30-30, like most other rimmed case examples, such as the 7.62x54mmR, the .303 British
.303 British
.303 British, or 7.7x56mmR, is a .311 inch calibre rifle and machine gun cartridge first developed in Britain as a blackpowder round put into service in December 1888 for the Lee-Metford rifle, later adapted to use smokeless powders...

, the 9.3x74mmR
9.3x74mmR
9.3x74R is a European medium bore cartridge invented in Germany around 1900, and designed to be used in non-bolt action rifles, particularly double or single shot.-Design:...

, the .45-70
.45-70
The .45-70 rifle cartridge, also known as .45-70 Government, was developed at the U.S. Army's Springfield Armory for use in the Springfield Model 1873...

, and the Nitro Express
Nitro Express
The Nitro Express series of cartridges are used in large-bore hunting rifles, also known as elephant guns or express rifles. They are named after the propellant they use, cordite, which is composed of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine...

 cartridges, were all old cartridges in wide use before rimless designs were introduced for bolt action rifles. The modern .307 Winchester
.307 Winchester
The 307 Winchester cartridge was introduced by Winchester in 1982 to meet the demand of .300 Savage performance in a lever-action rifle equipped with a tubular magazine...

, .308 Marlin Express
.308 Marlin Express
The .308 Marlin Express is a cartridge developed in 2007 by Marlin Firearms and Hornady. It is based on the .307 Winchester with a goal to duplicate .308 Winchester performance. The cartridge uses a slightly shorter, rimmed case to function in lever action rifles...

, and the .444 Marlin
.444 Marlin
The .444 Marlin is a rifle cartridge designed in 1964 by Marlin Firearms and Remington Arms. It was designed to fill in a gap for the older .45-70 at a time when that cartridge was not currently available in any lever action, making it the largest at the time available lever-action cartridge...

 are exceptions to the trend toward rimless but all of these are cartridges designed specifically for lever action rifles.

Rifles and handguns chambered in .30-30



The .30-30 is by far the most common chambering in lever action rifles such as the Winchester Model 1894
Winchester Model 1894
Winchester Model 1894 is a lever-action rifle which became one of the most famous and popular hunting rifles...

, the Savage Model 99
Savage Model 99
The Model 99, and its predecessor models 1895 and 1899, are a series of lever action rifles created by the Savage Arms Company in Utica, New York.-History:...

, and the Marlin Model 336
Marlin Model 336
The Marlin Model 336 is a lever-action carbine made by Marlin Firearms. It is most often chambered in .30-30 Winchester or .35 Remington, though it has also been chambered in several other cartridges over the years.-History:...

. Mossberg also came out with quite a few lever action rifles in the chambering, the Mossberg model 472,479 and the newer 464 .You can also find these Mossberg rifles under the brands of Western Field[sold through Montgomery Wards as the M72]and through Sears and Roebuck under the name Revelation[model 200]The 472 was only produced from 1970 to 1979 and the 479 until 1983 both of which are rare and are often confused as the marlin 336.The best way to tell is on the lever,if the trigger stays with the lever [like a browning BLR] you then have a Mossberg 472 or 479 if it stays with the receiver then you have a marlin 336.There is even a sought after Roy Rogers edition with a gold trigger,butt plate and Roy Rogers signature on the stock. Rossi of Brazil has recently started offering what is essentially a clone of the Marlin 336 series in .30-30 as well. The cartridge's rimmed design, medium length, and moderate pressure work well for the typical lever action design. The rimmed design is also well suited for various single-shot
Single-shot
Single-shot firearms are firearms that hold only a single round of ammunition, and must be reloaded after each shot. The history of firearms began with single-shot designs, and many centuries passed before multi-shot designs became commonplace...

 actions, so it is commonly found there as well. Rimmed cartridges are chambered in bolt action rifles, but .30-30 bolt actions are uncommon today, despite being quite effective in the field. “At one time Winchester turned out the Model 54 bolt-action repeater in this caliber [.30 WCF], but it was a decided failure, chiefly because the man desiring a bolt action preferred to take one of the better and more powerful cartridges. However, in this particular caliber, the .30 WCF cartridge proved to be decidedly accurate.” In addition, rimmed cartridges typically don't feed well with the box magazines normally found on bolt-action rifles. Other examples of bolt action rifles offered in .30-30 Winchester are the Savage Models 340 and 840 and the Remington 788
Remington 788
The Remington 788 is an inexpensive yet accurate hunting rifle developed by the Remington Arms Company to compete with other gun companies' less expensive rifles and marketed alongside their more expensive Model 700 line. The 788 utilizes a single-column detachable magazine holding 3 rounds...

.

In the sport of handgun metallic silhouette
Metallic silhouette
Metallic silhouette shooting is a group of target shooting disciplines that involves shooting at metal cutouts representing game animals at varying distances. Metallic silhouette shooting can be done with airguns, black powder firearms, modern handguns, or modern rifles...

 shooting, the .30-30 has had some success. The Thompson Center Arms
Thompson Center Arms
Thompson/Center Arms Company is an American firearms company based in Rochester, New Hampshire. The company is best known for its line of interchangeable barrel single-shot pistols and rifles. Thompson Center manufactures muzzleloading rifles and is credited with creating the resurgence of their...

 Contender pistol, with its compact frame and break-open action, is ideally suited for cartridges of the .30-30's size. With proper loading, the .30-30 will produce velocities of nearly 2000 f/s (610 m/s) out of the short 10 inch (25 cm) Contender barrel, though recoil and muzzle blast are strong from the short barrel. The longer 14 inches (35.6 cm) barrel results in significant reductions in felt recoil (due to increased weight) and muzzle blast, with higher velocities, especially if factory loaded rifle ammunition is used. Magnum Research
Magnum Research
Magnum Research Inc. is a privately held corporation based in Fridley, Minnesota which manufactures and distributes firearms. The majority owners, Jim Skildum and John Risdall , have been with the company since its founding in 1979...

 offers their five-shot BFR
Magnum Research BFR
The Magnum Research BFR is a single-action revolver manufactured by Magnum Research. It is made from stainless steel and is manufactured in a variety of heavy calibers, such as .500 S&W Magnum, including some traditional rifle cartridges, such as the .30-30 and .45-70/.450 Marlin. The name "BFR"...

 revolver in .30-30.

Derivative cartridges


In addition to the most common factory derivations, the .25-35 Winchester
.25-35 Winchester
The .25-35 Winchester, or WCF was introduced in 1895 by Winchester for the Winchester Model 1894 lever action rifle...

, 6.5x52R and the less well known .219 Zipper
.219 Zipper
The .219 Zipper cartridge was created by Winchester Repeating Arms in 1937 to be used in their lever-action Model 64 rifle. It is a .25-35 Winchester cartridge necked down to a .22 caliber bullet...

, the .30-30 has also spawned many wildcat cartridge
Wildcat cartridge
A wildcat cartridge, or wildcat, is a custom cartridge for which ammunition and firearms are not mass produced. These cartridges are often created in order to optimize a certain performance characteristic of an existing commercial cartridge.Developing and using wildcat cartridges does not...

s over the years. One of the more successful is the 7-30 Waters
7-30 Waters
The 7-30 Waters cartridge is a wildcat cartridge developed by author Ken Waters in 1976 to give better performance to lever action rifle shooters than the parent .30-30 Winchester cartridge, by providing a higher velocity and flatter trajectory with a smaller, lighter bullet...

, made by necking the .30-30 case down to 7 mm (.284 inch). The 7-30 Waters eventually moved from a wildcat design to a factory chambering, with rifles being made by Winchester, and barrels made by T/C for their Contender pistol. Other .30-30 based wildcats are used almost exclusively in the Contender pistol. One of the more notable examples is the .30 Herrett, a .30-30 case necked back to reduce case capacity for more efficient loading with fast burning powders. The .30 Herrett produces higher velocities with less powder than the larger .30-30 case in the short 10 and 14 inch (25 and 35 cm) Contender barrels. Other examples are the .357 Herrett, developed to handle heavier bullets and larger game than the .30 Herrett, and the 7mm International Rimmed, a popular metallic silhouette
Metallic silhouette
Metallic silhouette shooting is a group of target shooting disciplines that involves shooting at metal cutouts representing game animals at varying distances. Metallic silhouette shooting can be done with airguns, black powder firearms, modern handguns, or modern rifles...

 cartridge. Bullberry, a maker of custom Contender barrels, offers proprietary .30-30 wildcats in 6 mm, .25 caliber, and 6.5 mm diameters. In addition, P.O. Ackley used the cartridge as the basis for the .30-30 Ackley Improved.

External links