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Šiauliai is the fourth largest city in Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

, with a population of 133,900. It is the capital of Šiauliai County
Šiauliai County
Šiauliai County is one of ten counties in Lithuania. It is in the north of the country, and its capital is Šiauliai...

. Unofficially, the city is the capital of Northern Lithuania.

Names


Šiauliai is referred to by a various names in different languages: Samogitian: Šiaulē, Latvian
Latvian language
Latvian is the official state language of Latvia. It is also sometimes referred to as Lettish. There are about 1.4 million native Latvian speakers in Latvia and about 150,000 abroad. The Latvian language has a relatively large number of non-native speakers, atypical for a small language...

 Saule (historic) and Šauļi (modern), German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

: Schaulen, , Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

: Шавли (Shavli - historic) and Шяуля́й (Shaulyai - modern), Yiddish
Yiddish language
Yiddish is a High German language of Ashkenazi Jewish origin, spoken throughout the world. It developed as a fusion of German dialects with Hebrew, Aramaic, Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages...

: שאַװל (Shavel).

History


The city was first mentioned in written sources as Soule in Livonian Order
Livonian Order
The Livonian Order was an autonomous Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order and a member of the Livonian Confederation from 1435–1561. After being defeated by Samogitians in the 1236 Battle of Schaulen , the remnants of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword were incorporated into the Teutonic Knights...

 chronicles describing the battle of Saule. Thus the city's founding date is now considered to be September 22, 1236, the same date when the battle took place, not far from Šiauliai. At first it developed as a defense post against the raids by the Teutonic
Teutonic Knights
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem , commonly the Teutonic Order , is a German medieval military order, in modern times a purely religious Catholic order...

 and Livonian Order
Livonian Order
The Livonian Order was an autonomous Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order and a member of the Livonian Confederation from 1435–1561. After being defeated by Samogitians in the 1236 Battle of Schaulen , the remnants of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword were incorporated into the Teutonic Knights...

s. After the battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
The Battle of Grunwald or 1st Battle of Tannenberg was fought on 15 July 1410, during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War. The alliance of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led respectively by King Jogaila and Grand Duke Vytautas , decisively defeated the Teutonic Knights, led...

 in 1410, the raids stopped and Šiauliai started to develop as an agricultural settlement. In 1445, a wooden church was built. It was replaced in 1634 with the brick church which can be seen in the city center today.

Šiauliai was granted Magdeburg city rights
Magdeburg rights
Magdeburg Rights or Magdeburg Law were a set of German town laws regulating the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages granted by a local ruler. Modelled and named after the laws of the German city of Magdeburg and developed during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, it was...

 in 1589. In the 16th century it became an administrative center of the area. However, in the 17th and 18th centuries the city was devastated by The Deluge and epidemics of the Bubonic plague
Bubonic plague
Plague is a deadly infectious disease that is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis, named after the French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin. Primarily carried by rodents and spread to humans via fleas, the disease is notorious throughout history, due to the unrivaled scale of death...

.

The credit for the city's rebirth goes to Antoni Tyzenhaus
Antoni Tyzenhaus
Antoni Tyzenhaus was the noble from the Tyzenhaus family, son of Benedykt Tyzenhaus. As a personal friend of Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, Tyzenhaus became Treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and administrator of royal estates...

 (1733–1785) who after a violent revolt of peasants of the Crown properties in the Northern Lithuania (so-called in Polish: Powstanie Szawelskie, 1769), started the radical economic and urban reforms. He decided to rebuilt the city according to the Classicism
Classicism
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained: of the Discobolus Sir Kenneth Clark observed, "if we object to his restraint...

 ideas: at first houses were built randomly in a radial shape, but Tyzenhaus decided to build the city in an orderly rectangular grid. Šiauliai grew to become a well-developed city, with several prominent brick buildings. In 1791 Stanisław August Poniatowski, king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, confirmed once again that Šiauliai's city rights and granted it a coat of arms
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a unique heraldic design on a shield or escutcheon or on a surcoat or tabard used to cover and protect armour and to identify the wearer. Thus the term is often stated as "coat-armour", because it was anciently displayed on the front of a coat of cloth...

 which depicted a bear, the symbol of Samogitia
Samogitia
Samogitia is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. It is located in northwestern Lithuania. Its largest city is Šiauliai/Šiaulē. The region has a long and distinct cultural history, reflected in the existence of the Samogitian dialect...

, the Eye of Providence
Eye of Providence
The Eye of Providence is a symbol showing an eye often surrounded by rays of light or a glory and usually enclosed by a triangle...

, and a red bull, the symbol of the Poniatowski family. The modern coat of arms has been modeled after this version.

After the Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland
The Partitions of Poland or Partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in the second half of the 18th century and ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years...

, Šiauliai got a new coat of arms. The city grew and became an important educational and cultural center. Also, infrastructure was rapidly developing: in 1836–1858 a road connecting Riga
Riga
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 702,891 inhabitants Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states, one of the largest cities in Northern Europe and home to more than one third of Latvia's population. The city is an important seaport and a major industrial, commercial,...

 and Tilsit
Sovetsk, Kaliningrad Oblast
Sovetsk , known by its historical German name of Tilsit in East Prussia before 1946, is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the south bank of the Neman River. Population: -History of Tilsit:...

 was built, in 1871 a railroad connecting Liepāja
Liepaja
Liepāja ; ), is a republican city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea directly at 21°E. It is the largest city in the Kurzeme Region of Latvia, the third largest city in Latvia after Riga and Daugavpils and an important ice-free port...

 with Romny
Romny
Romny is a city in the northern Ukrainian Oblast of Sumy. It is located on the Romen River and is the administrative center of the Romny Raion...

 was built. Šiauliai, being in a crossroad of important merchant routes, started to develop as an industrial town. Already in 1897 it was the third largest city in Lithuania with population of about 16,000. The demographics changed also: 56.4% of the inhabitants were Jewish in 1909. Šiauliai was known for its leather industry. Chaim Frenkel owned the biggest leather factory in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

.

During World War I, about 65% of the buildings were burned down and the city center was destroyed. After the war and re-establishment of Lithuania, the importance of Šiauliai grew. Before Klaipėda
Klaipeda
Klaipėda is a city in Lithuania situated at the mouth of the Nemunas River where it flows into the Baltic Sea. It is the third largest city in Lithuania and the capital of Klaipėda County....

 was attached to Lithuania, the city was second after Kaunas by population size
Population size
In population genetics and population ecology, population size is the number of individual organisms in a population.The effective population size is defined as "the number of breeding individuals in an idealized population that would show the same amount of dispersion of allele frequencies under...

. By 1929 the city center was rebuilt. Modern utilities were also included: streets were lighted, it had public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

ation, telephone and telegraph lines, water supply network
Water supply network
A water supply system or water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components which provide water supply. A water supply system typically includes:# A drainage basin ;...

 and sewer
Sanitary sewer
A sanitary sewer is a separate underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings to treatment or disposal. Sanitary sewers serving industrial areas also carry industrial wastewater...

.

The first independence years were difficult because the industrial city lost its markets in Russia. It needed to find new clients in Western Europe. In 1932 a railroad to Klaipėda was built and it connected the city to the Western markets. In 1938 the city produced about 85% of Lithuania's leather, 60% of footwear, 75% of flax
Flax
Flax is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is native to the region extending from the eastern Mediterranean to India and was probably first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent...

 fiber, 35% of candies. Culture
Culture
Culture is a term that has many different inter-related meanings. For example, in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions...

 also flourished as many new periodicals were printed, new schools and universities opened, a library, theater, museum, and normal school
Normal school
A normal school is a school created to train high school graduates to be teachers. Its purpose is to establish teaching standards or norms, hence its name...

 were opened.

In 1939, one fifth of the city's population was Jewish. German soldiers entered Šiauliai on June 26, 1941. According to one of the Jewish survivors of Šiauliai, Nesse Godin
Nesse Godin
Nesse Godin is a Holocaust survivor. She has dedicated her adult life to teaching and sharing memories of the Holocaust...

, some 700 people were shot in nearby woods during the first weeks of occupation after having been forced to dig their own graves. There were two ghetto
Ghetto
A ghetto is a section of a city predominantly occupied by a group who live there, especially because of social, economic, or legal issues.The term was originally used in Venice to describe the area where Jews were compelled to live. The term now refers to an overcrowded urban area often associated...

 areas in Šiauliai, one in the Kaukas suburb, and one in Trakų. During World War II, the Jewish population was reduced from 6,000 to 500. About 80% of the buildings were destroyed.

The city was largely rebuilt anew in a typical Soviet fashion during the years of subsequent Soviet occupation.

Mayors

  • 1990–1991 – Kazimieras Šavinis
  • 1991–1995 – Arvydas Salda
  • 1995 - 1997 – Alfredas Lankauskas
  • 2000 – Vida Stasiūnaitė
  • 2002-2003 – Vaclovas Volkovas
  • 2003–2007 – Vytautas Juškus
  • 2007–2011 – Genadijus Mikšys
  • 2011–present – Justinas Sartauskas

Geography


Šiauliai Žemaičių located in eastern part of the northern plateau, Mūša, Dubysa and Venta River
Venta River
Venta River is a river in north-western Lithuania and western Latvia. Its source is near Kuršėnai in the Lithuanian Šiauliai County. It flows into the Baltic Sea at Ventspils in Latvia....

 divide. Distance of 210 km to Vilnius, Kaunas - 142 km, Klaipėda - 161 km, Riga - 128 km, Kaliningrad - 250 km. The total city area
Urban area
An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets.Urban areas are created and further...

 81.13 square km, from the green areas 18.87 square km, water - 12.78 km ². Urban land outside perimeter of the administrative 70,317 km.

Altitude: Rėkyvos the lake water level - 129.8 m (425.85 ft) above sea level
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

, Talsos lake level - 103 m (337.93 ft) in the city center - 128.4 m (421.26 ft), Salduvės Hill - 149.7 m (491.14 ft) above sea level
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

.

Water


The total water area - 1,280 ha, 15.7% in urban areas.
  • Šiauliai Lakes
    • Rėkyva Lake, 1179ha
    • Talša lake, 56,2ha
    • Ginkūnai Lake, 16,6ha
  • River
    • Kulpė
    • Rūdė
    • Vijolė
    • Švedė
    • Šimša
    • Tilžė
    • Šventupis

Climate


The average temperature in January; -7 °C in July; +18 °C (64 °F). The amount of precipitation in a year - 538.5 mm.

In 1942, the city recorded the lowest Lithuania year mean temperature (+3.6 °C).

Museums

  • Aušros alėjos Palace
  • Ch. Frenkel vila
  • Bicycle Museum
  • Museum of Photography
  • Jovaro the poet's memorial house
  • Radio and TV Museum
  • Venclauskių Palace
  • Railway Museum
  • Cat's Museum
  • Police Museum
  • Fire Safety
    Fire safety
    Fire safety refers to precautions that are taken to prevent or reduce the likelihood of a fire that may result in death, injury, or property damage, alert those in a structure to the presence of a fire in the event one occurs, better enable those threatened by a fire to survive, or to reduce the...

     Museum
  • Water Museum
  • Fire truck museum
  • Šiaulių Sports Museum

Leisure, Entertainment

  • Cinemas
    • Saulė
    • Laikas
    • Atlantis Cinemas (Tilžė)
    • Forum Cinemas (Akropolis)

  • Shopping centers
    • Akropolis, opened March 2009
    • Saulės miestas, opened March 2007
    • Bruklinas, opened November 2007
    • Tilžė, opened February 2008
    • Arena, opened November 2007

Demographics


In 1795 Šiauliai were 3 700 people, but already in 1897 Šiauliai population (16 128 population) was the second provincial city of Kaunas. In 1909 56.4% of the population was Jewish. In 1923 Šiauliai population was in third place in Kaunas and Klaipėda. Under the occupied territory
Occupied territories
Occupied territory is territory under military occupation. Occupation is a term of art in international law; in accordance with Article 42 of the Laws and Customs of War on Land ; October 18, 1907, territory is considered occupied when it is actually placed under the authority of the hostile army...

 of the area (24 km ²) remained fourth in the city of Kaunas, Klaipėda and Panevėžys.

Economy


In 22 December 2005, Šiauliai City Council
City council
A city council or town council is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality or local government area.-Australia & NZ:Because of the differences in legislation between the States, the exact definition of a City Council varies...

 set some strategic directions and objectives for economic growth until 2015. Šiauliai vision: "Šiauliai - Sun City: the open, pushing and safe."

Starting from the 19th century Šiauliai become an industrial center. During the Russian Empire period, the city had the largest Leather factory in the whole empire, owned by Chaim Frenkel. Šiauliai contributed to around 85% of all Leather production in Lithuania, 60% of footwear the industry, 75% of the flax fiber industry, and 35% of the sweets industry.

During the Soviet years, the city produced electronics, mechanical engineering
Mechanical engineering
Mechanical engineering is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the production and usage of heat and mechanical power for the...

, wood processing, construction industry. Most of the industrial enterprises were concentrated in urban areas.

According to 2005 data, the city has:
  • Manufacturing and service companies - 3195
  • Commercial enterprises - 781
  • Shopping centers
    Shopping mall
    A shopping mall, shopping centre, shopping arcade, shopping precinct or simply mall is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area — a modern, indoor version...

     - 30

Energy


The first steam machine was equipped in 1867, Governorate beer brewery. In 1900 Šiauliai's Chaim Frenkel leather factory is equipped with a 50 kW Dynamo machine, which was used to produce electricity for the factory premises, and to illuminate the area and suko of 16 and 12 horsepower power.
Šiauliai average annual per capita is 2,170 kWh of electricity (in Lithuania - 3264 kWh in Europe - 6482 kWh).

Šiauliai city municipality council is the governing body of the Šiauliai city municipality. It is responsible for municipality laws. The council is composed of 31 member elected for four-year terms.

Education

  • 1851 Boys Gymnasium (now Julius Janonis gymnasium) was opened
  • 1898 Girls Gymnasium (now Didždvaris gymnasum) was opened
  • 1920 Jewish Gymnasium was opened
  • 1920 Šiauliai Teachers seminary was founded
  • 1928 Primary education became compulsory
  • 1930 Vincas Kudirka primary school was opened
  • 1939 The Institute of trade was moved from Klaipėda, it was the first Higher Education school in Šiauliai
  • 1948 Šiauliai Teachers Institute was founded, in 1954 it became Pedagogical Institute, and since 1996, when the Šiauliai faculty of Kaunas Polytechnic Institute was connected, it is Šiauliai University
    Šiauliai University
    Šiauliai University, established in 1997, is located in Šiauliai, Lithuania. As of 2008, the University was attended by approximately 11,800 students.- History :...

    .


Students in city (in 2006):
  • In Šiauliai University - 10 440
  • In Šiauliai College - 2770
  • In North Lithuania College - 350
  • In Šiauliai region College of Management and Languages - 517
  • In Šiauliai Conservatory - 149
  • In Šiauliai Vocational Training
    Vocational education
    Vocational education or vocational education and training is an education that prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic, and totally related to a specific trade, occupation, or vocation...

     Center - 2663


There are 8 gymnasiums, 7 high schools, 16 secondary schools, 7 primary schools, 9 children non-formal education schools, 29 kindergartens. 21 000 students studied in general education schools in 2006.

Parks


The city park to the creation of Anton Tyzenhaus essentially graduated Vladimir Zubov. The 19th century Park was the middle of regular rectangular shape, and age at the end was close to the English style of the free layouts. Citizens for a small fee was allowed to walk in the park. In 1931, Park and Alley chestnut was officially donated to the Šiauliai city municipality.

Šiauliai has 16 parks, covering an area of 1177 hectares. Didždvario, province and Rėkyvos parks add to the cultural values of the registry.

Roads


Šiauliai has always been a major intersection. The famous Saulės battle took place near a trade route
Trade route
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. Allowing goods to reach distant markets, a single trade route contains long distance arteries which may further be connected to several smaller networks of commercial...

 from Riga to Bubiai and Tauragė.In 1836-1858 Riga-Sovetsk highway was built near it.

About 1912 first cars appeared on city's streets.

Highways passing through Šiauliai :
  • A9 / E272 Šiauliai - Panevėžys
    Panevežys
    Panevėžys see also other names, is the fifth largest city in Lithuania. As of 2008, it occupied 50 square kilometers with 113,653 inhabitants. The largest multifunctional arena in Panevėžys is the Cido Arena...

     (79 km)
  • A11 / E272 Šiauliai - Palanga
    Palanga
    Palanga and beautiful sand dunes. Officially Palanga has the status of a city municipality and includes Šventoji, Nemirseta, Būtingė and other settlements, which are considered as part of the city of Palanga.-Legend:...

     (147 km)
  • A12 / E77 Riga
    Riga
    Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 702,891 inhabitants Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states, one of the largest cities in Northern Europe and home to more than one third of Latvia's population. The city is an important seaport and a major industrial, commercial,...

     - Šiauliai - Sovetsk
    Sovetsk
    Sovetsk may refer to:*Sovetsk, Kaliningrad Oblast, a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia: formerly named Tilsit*Sovetsk, Kirov Oblast, a town in Kirov Oblast, Russia*Sovetsk, Tula Oblast, a town in Tula Oblast, Russia...

     (186 km).
  • City has is western bypass A18.


In 2006 Šiauliai had 297 km of roads, of which 32% had gravel surface. Longest streets are Tilžės street - 9.72 km and Vilnius street - 5.67 km with 1.28 km of pedestrian Boulevard.

Railways


In 1871 Liepāja-Romny railway was built.In 1916 Tilžė-Riga and in 1931 - Šiauliai-Klaipėda railways were built. The city has a railway station.

Airport


In 1930, an air strip was developed. It was expanded in 1961 during the Soviet period, and is now a military (NATO) base, and home to the Šiauliai International Airport
Šiauliai International Airport
Šiauliai International Airport is located 7 km southeast of the city of Šiauliai, in northern Lithuania. It covers an area of 471 hectares.- History :...

.

Public transport


The first passenger transport company in the city of Šiauliai was founded in 1940. It was autotrestas, which had 29 buses. In 1944 instead of autotresto was organized motor firm. In 1947 the first taxi Šiauliai machines. And then, a growing city, increasing the number of passengers - in 1955 founded the city of Šiauliai bus and taksomotorų autoūkis. In 2006, a modern bus station
Bus station
A bus station is a structure where city or intercity buses stop to pick up and drop off passengers. It is larger than a bus stop, which is usually simply a place on the roadside, where buses can stop...

 with the trade center. The city has 27 city routes, the maximum number is 29.

Connections


Šiauliai of communication in 1897 could be used not only for mail or telegraph, and telephone. Telephone subscribers in 1923 was 170, while in 1937 - 700 rooms. 1936; the city to install a phone machine.

1957, a television tower
Radio masts and towers
Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. They are among the tallest man-made structures...

, which are equipped with radio and antenna lines. In 1995 launched the construction of cable television lines, 1998 started to install the cable internet
Cable modem
A cable modem is a type of network bridge and modem that provides bi-directional data communication via radio frequency channels on a HFC and RFoG infrastructure. Cable modems are primarily used to deliver broadband Internet access in the form of cable Internet, taking advantage of the high...

, since 2003 - Optical Internet line. In 2008 the city has 14 post office
Post office
A post office is a facility forming part of a postal system for the posting, receipt, sorting, handling, transmission or delivery of mail.Post offices offer mail-related services such as post office boxes, postage and packaging supplies...

s (central LT-76001).

Sport



Šiauliai since 1924, played soccer, 1936 were 14 teams. Then started to play basketball, handball, rugby, hockey, kultyvuojama athletics, cycling, boxing and other sports. In 2007 25 July, in preparation for the 37th European men basketball championship
Eurobasket 2011
EuroBasket 2011 was the 37th men's European Basketball Championship, held by FIBA Europe. The competition was hosted by Lithuania. This was the second time Eurobasket had been held in Lithuania, the country having also hosted the 1939 championship. FIBA Europe asserted that Lithuania managed to...

, a modern Šiauliai Arena was erected.
Club Sport League Venue
BC Šiauliai
BC Šiauliai
BC „Šiauliai“ is the professional basketball club of Šiauliai, Lithuania. The club competes in the Lithuanian Basketball League, Baltic Basketball League and ULEB Eurocup. It has won the 3rd place award in the LKL a record 9 times.-Club History:The team was head coached by Antanas Sireika for...

Basketball Lithuanian Basketball League (LKL
Lietuvos Krepšinio Lyga
The Lietuvos krepšinio lyga is Lithuania's premier professional men's basketball league, composed of 12 teams.- History :...

), Baltic Basketball League (BBL), Eurocup
Šiaulių arena
Šiauliu arena
Šiauliai Arena is the largest arena in Šiauliai, Lithuania. It generally hosts basketball games as well as concerts. The basketball club BC Šiauliai, which currently competes in the domestic LKL and ULEB Cup, uses the facility for all of its European and LKL home fixtures. It opened on July 25, 2007...

FK Šiauliai
FK Šiauliai
FK Šiauliai is a Lithuanian football team from the city of Šiauliai. The team plays in the Lithuanian top division A Lyga.Before 2004 it was known as "Sakalas Šiauliai".- Participation in Lithuanian Championships :* 2003 – 8th* 2004 – 1st...

Football The A League A Lyga
A Lyga
The A Lyga is the top division of professional football in Lithuania. It is organized by LFF . League size has varied between 8 and 12 teams over the past few years; for its 2011 season, the league features 12 teams...

Šiaulių stadionas
ABRO- Saulė Basketball Šiaulių sporto rūmai


Twin towns - sister cities


Šiauliai is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Khmelnytsky
Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine
Khmelnytskyi is a city in Ukraine in the region of Podillia. It is located on the Southern Buh River and about from the Ukrainian capital, Kiev. The town's original name was Płoskirów, later Proskurov, but in 1954 was renamed Khmelnytskyi. It is the center of the Khmelnytskyi Oblast in western...

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 Częstochowa
Czestochowa
Częstochowa is a city in south Poland on the Warta River with 240,027 inhabitants . It has been situated in the Silesian Voivodeship since 1999, and was previously the capital of Częstochowa Voivodeship...

, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 Omaha, Nebraska
Omaha, Nebraska
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska, United States, and is the county seat of Douglas County. It is located in the Midwestern United States on the Missouri River, about 20 miles north of the mouth of the Platte River...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Baranovichi
Baranovichi
Baranovichi , is a city in the Brest Province of western Belarus with a population of 173,000. It is a significant railway junction and home to a state university.-Overview:...

, Belarus
Belarus
Belarus , officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Grodno , Gomel ,...

 Fredericia
Fredericia
Fredericia is a town located in Fredericia municipality in the eastern part of the Jutland peninsula in Denmark, in a sub-region known locally as Trekanten, or The Triangle...

, Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 Jelgava
Jelgava
-Sports:The city's main football team, FK Jelgava, plays in the Latvian Higher League and won the 2009/2010 Latvian Football Cup.- Notable people :*August Johann Gottfried Bielenstein - linguist, folklorist, ethnographer...

, Latvia
Latvia
Latvia , officially the Republic of Latvia , is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by Estonia , to the south by Lithuania , to the east by the Russian Federation , to the southeast by Belarus and shares maritime borders to the west with Sweden...

 Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 Kristianstad
Kristianstad
Kristianstad is a city and the seat of Kristianstad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 35,711 inhabitants in 2010.-History:The city was founded in 1614 by King Christian IV of Denmark, the city's name literally means 'Town of Christian', as a planned city after the burning of the town of Vä...

, Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 Pärnu
Pärnu
Pärnu is a city in southwestern Estonia on the coast of Pärnu Bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea. It is a popular summer vacation resort with many hotels, restaurants, and large beaches. The Pärnu River flows through the city and drains into the Gulf of Riga...

, Estonia
Estonia
Estonia , officially the Republic of Estonia , is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia , and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation . Across the Baltic Sea lies...

 Etten-Leur
Etten-Leur
Etten-Leur is a municipality in the southern Netherlands. Its name is a combination of the two towns from which the municipality originally arose: Etten and Leur...

, Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 Teterow
Teterow
Teterow is a town of Germany, in the district of Rostock, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Population: 9,535 .The Teterower See is to the north-east of the town.-History:The Stadtkirche St. Peter und Paul Teterow is a town of Germany, in the district of Rostock, in Mecklenburg-Western...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 Plauen
Plauen
Plauen is a town in the Free State of Saxony, east-central Germany.It is the capital of the Vogtlandkreis. The town is situated near the border of Bavaria and the Czech Republic.Plauen's slogan is Plauen - echt Spitze.-History:...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...


People


According to the population census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

 of 2001, ethnic Lithuanians comprise 93 %, Russians - 5%, and the remaining 2 % consist of Ukrainians, Belarussians, Jews, Roma, Latvians, Armenians and other ethnic group
Ethnic group
An ethnic group is a group of people whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage, often consisting of a common language, a common culture and/or an ideology that stresses common ancestry or endogamy...

s. About 94 % of the city's population consider Lithuanian their native language
First language
A first language is the language a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity...

, 5 % are Russian speakers and the remainder speak Ukrainian, Belarussian, Latvian, Roma, Armenian etc. About 80% of those older than 20 have command of the Russian language, while only 17% can speak English and 7 % - German.

The list of famous people
Celebrity
A celebrity, also referred to as a celeb in popular culture, is a person who has a prominent profile and commands a great degree of public fascination and influence in day-to-day media...

 who were born in Šiauliai:
  • Regimantas Adomaitis, movie and stage actor, born here
  • André Andrejew
    André Andrejew
    André Andrejew was one of the most important art directors of the international cinema of the twentieth century. He had a distinctive, innovative style. His décors were both expressive and realistic...

    , a classic Russian and French movie art director
    Art director
    The art director is a person who supervise the creative process of a design.The term 'art director' is a blanket title for a variety of similar job functions in advertising, publishing, film and television, the Internet, and video games....

    , born here
  • Šarūnas Bartas
    Šarunas Bartas
    Šarūnas Bartas is a Lithuanian film director. One of the most prominent Lithuanian film directors internationally from the late 20th century...

    , film director, born here
  • Wojciech Buyko, Polish classic photographer, born here in 1882 (†1942?)
  • Virgilijus Noreika
    Virgilijus Noreika
    Virgilijus Kęstutis Noreika is a Lithuanian tenor.-Career:Noreika graduated with honors from the Lithuanian State Conservatory in 1958. A year earlier, while still a student, he was engaged as a performer at the National Opera and Ballet Theater of Lithuania...

    , opera singer, born here
  • Yosef Shalom Eliashiv
    Yosef Sholom Eliashiv
    Yosef Shalom Elyashiv is a Haredi rabbi and posek who lives in Jerusalem, Israel.At the age of , Elyashiv is active and remains the paramount leader of both Israel and the Diaspora Lithuanian-Haredi community, and many Ashkenazi Jews regard him as the posek ha-dor, the contemporary leading...

     (image), rabbi, and grandson of a kabbalist Rabbi Shalom Ben Hayim Haikel Eliashiv zt"l (Leshem), a native of this city
  • Jacob Gens, self proclaimed Vilnius Ghetto
    Vilna Ghetto
    The Vilna Ghetto or Vilnius Ghetto was a Jewish ghetto established by Nazi Germany in the city of Vilnius in the occupied Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic , during the Holocaust in World War II...

     police commander under the Nazi occupation (1941–1943), born here (1903)
  • Nesse Godin
    Nesse Godin
    Nesse Godin is a Holocaust survivor. She has dedicated her adult life to teaching and sharing memories of the Holocaust...

    , Shoah survivor and Shoah awareness advocate in the United States.
  • Robertas Javtokas
    Robertas Javtokas
    Robertas Javtokas is a Lithuanian professional basketball player. Javtokas is 2.11 m in height and weighs 122 kg . He plays the center position. He has been a member of the Lithuanian national team since 2000...

    , professional basketball player
  • Samuel Kessel, father of Joseph Kessel
    Joseph Kessel
    Joseph Kessel was a French journalist and novelist.He was born in Villa Clara, Entre Ríos, Argentina, because of the constant journeys of his father, a Lithuanian doctor of Jewish origin. Joseph Kessel lived the first years of his childhood in Orenburg, Russia, before the family moved to France...

    , physician was born here
  • Igor Kisiel, scientist, professor at the Technical University
    Institute of technology
    Institute of technology is a designation employed in a wide range of learning institutions awarding different types of degrees and operating often at variable levels of the educational system...

     of Wroclaw, born in Illovieciai near Šiauliai
  • Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł, magnate, noble, a duke and a politician. He held the post of Starosta
    Starosta
    Starost is a title for an official or unofficial position of leadership that has been used in various contexts through most of Slavic history. It can be translated as "elder"...

     (city foreman) of this city.
  • Jan Sawicki-Stella, colonel in the Russian army
    Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
    The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation are the military services of Russia, established after the break-up of the Soviet Union. On 7 May 1992 Boris Yeltsin signed a decree establishing the Russian Ministry of Defence and placing all Soviet Armed Forces troops on the territory of the RSFSR...

     who during the insurrection against Russia in 1863, went to fight on the Polish-Lithuanian side, born here
  • Meyer Schapiro
    Meyer Schapiro
    Meyer Schapiro was a Lithuanian-born American art historian known for forging new art historical methodologies that incorporated an interdisciplinary approach to the study of works of art...

    , art historian
    Art history
    Art history has historically been understood as the academic study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts, i.e. genre, design, format, and style...

    , born here
  • Antanas Sireika
    Antanas Sireika
    Antanas Sireika is a professional Lithuanian basketball coach.- Coaching career :Lithuanian national basketball team began a strange tradition, after head coach was leaving his post he gave his place to his assistant, this happened when Vladas Garastas was replaced by his assistant coach Jonas...

    , born near Šiauliai was a coach for a hometown basketball team for many seasons.
  • Andrius Spokas, artist born here
  • Olegas Truchanas
    Olegas Truchanas
    Olegas Truchanas was a Lithuanian-Australian conservationist and nature photographer.He was a key figure in the attempt to stop the damming of the ecologically sensitive Lake Pedder in South West Tasmania by the Hydro Electricity Commission...

    , Lithuanian photographer, went to school here, recognized in Australia for his ecological conscious photography
  • Wiktoryn Witkiewicz, father of the legendary Russian envoy to Afghanistan Jan Prosper Witkiewicz, has been the Vice-Marshall of Šiauliai in Kingdom of Poland
  • Mindaugas Žukauskas
    Mindaugas Žukauskas
    Mindaugas Žukauskas is a Lithuanian professional basketball player. He was a captain of the Lithuanian national basketball team. In August 2006 Žukauskas transferred from Montepaschi to another Italian team Scavolini Pesaro...

    , professional basketball player was born here
  • Marius Žaromskis
    Marius Žaromskis
    Marius Žaromskis is a Lithuanian welterweight mixed martial artist. After fighting the majority of his career for British promotion Cage Rage, he signed with DREAM in 2009 and then, later that year, with Strikeforce. With DREAM, Žaromskis won their 2009 Welterweight Grand Prix and became their...

    , mma fighter

General


City resources