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People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China

Timeline

781 BC   The first historic solar eclipse is recorded in China.

202 BC   coronation ceremony of Liu Bang as Emperor Gaozu of Han takes place, initiating four centuries of the Han Dynasty's rule over China

141 BC   Liu Che, posthumously known as Emperor Wu of Han, assumes the throne over the Han Dynasty of China.

221   Liu Bei, a Chinese warlord and member of the Han royal house, declares himself emperor of Shu-Han and claims his legitimate succession to the Han Dynasty.

607   Ono no Imoko is dispatched as envoy to the Sui court in China (Traditional Japanese date: July 3, 607).

618   Li Yuan becomes Emperor Gaozu of Tang, initiating three centuries of Tang Dynasty rule over China.

626   Li Shimin, posthumously known as Emperor Taizong of Tang, assumes the throne over the Tang Dynasty of China.

631   Emperor Taizong of Tang, the Emperor of China, sends envoys to the Xueyantuo bearing gold and silk in order to seek the release of enslaved Chinese prisoners captured during the transition from Sui to Tang from the northern frontier; this embassy succeeded in freeing 80,000 Chinese men and women who were then returned to China.

706   In China, Emperor Zhongzong of Tang inters the bodies of relatives in the Qianling Mausoleum, located on Mount Liang outside Chang'an.

755   An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion during the Tang Dynasty of China.

960   The coronation of Zhao Kuangyin as Emperor Taizu of Song, initiating the Song Dynasty period of China that would last more than three centuries.

971   In China, the war elephant corps of the Southern Han are soundly defeated at Shao by crossbow fire from Song Dynasty troops.

1126   Emperor Huizong abdicates the Chinese throne in favour of his son Emperor Qinzong.

1271   Kublai Khan renames his empire "Yuan" (元 yuán), officially marking the start of the Yuan Dynasty of Mongolia and China.

1276   While taking exile in Fuzhou in southern China, away from the advancing Mongol invaders, the remnants of the Song Dynasty court hold the coronation ceremony for the young prince Zhao Shi, making him Emperor Duanzong of Song.

1279   A Mongolian victory in the Battle of Yamen ends the Song Dynasty in China.

1363   Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders — Chen Youliang and Zhu Yuanzhang — are pitted against each other in what is one of the largest naval battles in history, during the last decade of the ailing, Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty.

1368   In a coronation ceremony, Zhu Yuanzhang ascends to the throne of China as the Hongwu Emperor, initiating Ming Dynasty rule over China that would last for three centuries.

1402   Zhu Di, better known by his era name as the Yongle Emperor, assumes the throne over the Ming Dynasty of China.

1461   The Ming Dynasty Chinese military general Cao Qin stages a coup against the Tianshun Emperor.

1517   Seven Portuguese armed vessels led by Fernão Pires de Andrade meet Chinese officials at the Pearl River estuary.

1524   Beginning of Giovanni da Verrazzano's voyage to find a passage to China.

1556   The deadliest earthquake in history, the Shaanxi earthquake, hits Shaanxi province, China. The death toll may have been as high as 830,000.

1662   The Chinese general Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege.

1786   A landslide dam on the Dadu River created by an earthquake ten days earlier collapses, killing 100,000 in the Sichuan province of China.

1839   In Humen, China, Lin Tse-hsü destroys 1.2 million kg of opium confiscated from British merchants, providing Britain with a ''casus belli'' to open hostilities, resulting in the First Opium War.

1841   The United Kingdom formally occupies Hong Kong, which China later formally cedes.

1856   The Second Opium War between several western powers and China begins with the ''Arrow Incident'' on the Pearl River.

1857   Second Opium War: France and the United Kingdom declare war on China.

1860   In the Second Opium War, an Anglo-French force defeats Chinese troops at the Battle of Baliqiao.

1875   Kwang-su becomes emperor of China.

1881   China and Russia sign the Sino-Russian Ili Treaty.

1893   Ziqiang Institute, today known as Wuhan University, is founded by Zhang Zhidong, governor of Hubei and Hunan Provinces in late Qing Dynasty of China after his memorial to the throne is approved by the Qing Government.

1894   The First Sino-Japanese War erupts between Japan and China over Korea.

1894   First Sino-Japanese War: Japan defeats China in the Battle of Pyongyang.

1895   The Treaty of Shimonoseki between China and Japan is signed. This marks the end of the First Sino-Japanese War, and the defeated Qing Empire is forced to renounce its claims on Korea and to concede the southern portion of the Fengtien province, Taiwan and the Pescadores Islands to Japan.

1898   Empress Dowager Cixi seizes power and ends the Hundred Days' Reform in China.

1900   John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China

1900   Empress Dowager Longyu of China orders all foreigners killed, including foreign diplomats and their families.

1900   A joint European-Japanese-United States force (Eight-Nation Alliance) occupies Beijing, in a campaign to end the bloody Boxer Rebellion in China.

1901   The Boxer Rebellion in China officially ends with the signing of the Boxer Protocol.

1904   Battle of Port Arthur: A surprise torpedo attack by the Japanese at Port Arthur, China starts the Russo-Japanese War.

1908   Child Emperor Pu Yi ascends the Chinese throne at the age of two

1911   An accidental bomb explosion in Hankou, Wuhan, China leads to the ultimate fall of the Qing Empire

1911   The Wuchang Uprising leads to the demise of Qing Dynasty, the last Imperial court in China, and the founding of the Republic of China.

1912   The Kuomintang, the Chinese nationalist party, is founded.

1914   World War I: Japan declares war on Germany and bombs Qingdao, China.

1919   May Fourth Movement: Student demonstrations take place in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China, protesting the Treaty of Versailles, which transferred Chinese territory to Japan.

1920   The Haiyuan earthquake, magnitude 8.5, rocks the Gansu province in China, killing an estimated 200,000.

1921   Mongolia, under Baron Roman Ungern von Sternberg, declares its independence from China.

1927   Guangzhou Uprising: Communist militia and worker Red Guards launch an uprising in the Chinese city of Guangzhou, taking over most of the city and announcing the formation of a Guangzhou Soviet.

1928   Japanese atrocities in Jinan, China.

1932   A magnitude 7.6 earthquake in Gansu, China kills

1934   Chinese Communists begin the Long March; it ended a year and four days later, by which time Mao Zedong had regained his title as party chairman.

1937   Tōngzhōu Incident: in Tōngzhōu (China), the East Hopei Army attacks Japanese troops and civilians.

1937   Panay incident: Japanese aircraft bomb and sink US gunboat ''Panay'' on the Yangtze River in China.

1940   Sino-Japanese War: Japan declares Nanking capital of a new Chinese puppet government, nominally controlled by Wang Ching-wei.

1941   World War II: First battle of the American Volunteer Group, better known as the "Flying Tigers" in Kunming, China.

1943   World War II: The United States and United Kingdom give up territorial rights in China.

1945   Three-day celebration was held in China, following the Victory over Japan Day on September 2.

1948   A Buddhist monastery burns in Shanghai, China, leaving twenty monks dead.

1948   Off southern Manchuria, 6,000 people are killed as a Chinese merchant ship explodes and sinks.

1949   The Communist Party of China writes the Common Programme for the future People's Republic of China.

1949   The People's Republic of China is declared by Mao Zedong.

1950   The United Kingdom recognizes the People's Republic of China. The Republic of China severs diplomatic relations with the UK in response.

1950   The Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China sign a mutual defense treaty.

1950   Korean War: Troops from the People's Republic of China launch a massive counterattack in North Korea against South Korean and United Nations forces (the Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River and the Battle of Chosin Reservoir), ending any hopes of a quick end to the conflict.

1950   Korean War: North Korean and Chinese troops force United Nations forces to retreat from North Korea.

1951   Korean War: Chinese and North Korean forces capture Seoul.

1951   Tibetans sign the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet with the People's Republic of China.

1953   The Korean War ends when the United States, the People's Republic of China, and North Korea sign an armistice agreement. Syngman Rhee, President of South Korea, refuses to sign but pledges to observe the armistice.

1959   Tibetan uprising: Fearing an abduction attempt by China, 300,000 Tibetans surround the Dalai Lama's palace to prevent his removal.

1959   The last Canadian missionary leaves the People's Republic of China.

1962   The Chinese People's Liberation Army declares a unilateral cease-fire in the Sino-Indian War.

1964   The People's Republic of China detonates its first nuclear weapon.

1965   China announces that it will reinforce its troops on the Indian border.

1966   The first prominent dàzìbào during the Cultural Revolution in China is posted at Peking University.

1966   Purges of intellectuals and imperialists becomes official People's Republic of China policy at the beginning of the Cultural Revolution.

1967   Vietnam War: the People's Republic of China agrees to give North Vietnam an undisclosed amount of aid in the form of a grant.

1970   The first Chinese satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, is launched.

1971   Ping Pong Diplomacy: In an attempt to thaw relations with the United States, the People's Republic of China hosts the U.S. table tennis team for a weeklong visit.

1971   The Soviet Union says it will support the People's Republic of China's admission to the United Nations

1971   People's Republic of China: Chairman Mao Zedong's second in command and successor Marshal Lin Biao flees the country via plane after the failure of alleged coup against Mao. The plane crashes in Mongolia, killing all aboard.

1971   The United Nations seated the People's Republic of China and expelled the Republic of China (see political status of Taiwan and China and the United Nations)

1971   Representatives of the People's Republic of China attend the United Nations, including the United Nations Security Council, for the first time.

1972   President Richard Nixon visits the People's Republic of China to normalize Sino-American relations.

1972   Sino-American relations: The United States and People's Republic of China sign the Shanghai Communiqué.

1972   The Universal Postal Union decides to recognize the People's Republic of China as the only legitimate Chinese representative, effectively expelling the Republic of China administering Taiwan.

1972   The Universal Postal Union decides to recognize the People's Republic of China as the only legitimate Chinese representative, effectively expelling the Republic of China administering Taiwan.

1972   Sino-Japanese relations: Japan establishes diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China after breaking official ties with the Republic of China.

1973   Cold War: Following United States President Richard Nixon's visit to the People's Republic of China, the two countries agree to establish liaison offices.

1976   In the People's Republic of China, the April Fifth Movement leads to the Tiananmen incident.

1976   The Tangshan earthquake measuring between 7.8 and 8.2 moment magnitude flattens Tangshan in the People's Republic of China, killing 242,769 and injuring 164,851.

1976   New Premier Hua Guofeng orders the arrest of the Gang of Four and associates and ends the Cultural Revolution in the People's Republic of China.

1976   The People's Republic of China announces that Hua Guofeng is the successor to the late Mao Zedong as chairman of Communist Party of China.

1977   Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping is restored to power.

1978   Censorship: the People's Republic of China lifts a ban on works by Aristotle, Shakespeare and Dickens.

1978   U.S. President Jimmy Carter announces that the United States will recognize the People's Republic of China and cut off all relations with Taiwan

1979   Formal diplomatic relations are established between the People's Republic of China and the United States of America.

1979   In China, a Hawker Siddeley Trident crashes into a factory near Beijing, killing at least 200.

1982   The People's Republic of China adopts its current constitution.

1984   The Sino-British Joint Declaration, stating that the People's Republic of China would resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong and the United Kingdom would restore Hong Kong to China with effect from July 1, 1997 is signed in Beijing by Deng Xiaoping and Margaret Thatcher.

1984   The Sino-British Joint Declaration, stating that the People's Republic of China would resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong and the United Kingdom would restore Hong Kong to China with effect from July 1, 1997 is signed in Beijing by Deng Xiaoping and Margaret Thatcher.

1986   Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh visit the People's Republic of China

1986   {{USS|Rentz|FFG-46|6}}, {{USS|Reeves|DLG-24|6}} and {{USS|Oldendorf|DD-972|6}} visit Qingdao (Tsing Tao) China — the first US Naval visit to China since 1949.

1989   Upon Hu Yaobang's death, the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 begin in the People's Republic of China.

1989   Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989: In Beijing, around 100,000 students gather in Tiananmen Square to commemorate Chinese reform leader Hu Yaobang.

1989   The Chinese authorities declare martial law in the face of pro-democracy demonstrations, setting the scene for the Tiananmen Square massacre.

1989   The government of China sends troops to force protesters out of Tiananmen Square after seven weeks of occupation.

1990   The railroad between the People's Republic of China and Kazakhstan becomes complete at Dostyk, adding a sizable link to the concept of the Eurasian Land Bridge.

1992   Li Hongzhi gives the first public lecture on Falun Gong in Changchun, People's Republic of China.

1992   Emperor Akihito becomes the first Emperor of Japan to stand on Chinese soil.

1992   A China Southern Airlines domestic flight in the People's Republic of China, crashes, killing all 141 people on-board.

1993   Jiang Zemin is appointed President of the People's Republic of China.

1994   Sino-Soviet Split: Russia and the People's Republic of China agree to de-target their nuclear weapons against each other.

1996   The Lijiang earthquake in Lijiang, Yunnan, China.

1996   China launches a Long March 3 rocket, carrying the Intelsat 708 satellite. The rocket flies off course 3 seconds after liftoff and crashes into a rural village.

1996   At the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in China, a Long March 3 rocket, carrying an Intelsat 708, crashes into a rural village after liftoff, killing many people.

1997   The People's Republic of China announces it will spend $27.7 billion USD to fight erosion and pollution in the Yangtze and Yellow river valleys.

1997   Comet Hale-Bopp: Observers in China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia are treated to a rare double feature as an eclipse permits Hale-Bopp to be seen during the day.

1997   The United Kingdom transfers sovereignty over Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China.

1997   The People's Republic of China resumes sovereignty over the city-state of Hong Kong, ending 156 years of British colonial rule.

1997   After nearly 18 years of incarceration, the People's Republic of China releases Wei Jingsheng, a pro-democracy dissident, from jail for medical reasons.

1997   In Ottawa, Canada, representatives from 121 countries sign The Ottawa treaty prohibiting manufacture and deployment of anti-personnel landmines. The United States, People's Republic of China, and Russia do not sign the treaty, however.

1999   A China Southern Airlines Tupolev TU-154 airliner crashes on approach to Wenzhou airport in eastern the People's Republic of China, killing 61.

1999   Kosovo War: In Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, three Chinese citizens are killed and 20 wounded when a NATO aircraft bombs the Chinese embassy in Belgrade.

1999   The United States House of Representatives releases the ''Cox Report'' which details the People's Republic of China's nuclear espionage against the U.S. over the prior two decades.

1999   Falun Gong is banned in the People's Republic of China, and a large scale crackdown of the practice is launched.

1999   Shenzhou 1: The People's Republic of China launches its first Shenzhou spacecraft.

1999   Macau is handed over to the People's Republic of China by Portugal.

2001   An EP-3E United States Navy surveillance aircraft collides with a Chinese People's Liberation Army Shenyang J-8 fighter jet. The Navy crew makes an emergency landing in Hainan, People's Republic of China and is detained.

2001   An EP-3E United States Navy surveillance aircraft collides with a Chinese People's Liberation Army Shenyang J-8 fighter jet. The Navy crew makes an emergency landing in Hainan, People's Republic of China and is detained.

2001   The detained crew of a United States EP-3E aircraft that landed in Hainan, People's Republic of China after a collision with an J-8 fighter is released.

2001   The People's Republic of China joins the World Trade Organization.

2001   The People's Republic of China is granted permanent normal trade relations with the United States.

2003   The People's Republic of China begins filling the reservoir behind the Three Gorges Dam.

2003   China launches Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission.

2003   PetroChina Chuandongbei natural gas field explosion, Guoqiao, Kai County, Chongqing, China, killing at least 234.

2004   Twenty-three Chinese people drown when a group of 35 cockle-pickers are trapped by rising tides in Morecambe Bay, England. Twenty-one bodies are recovered.

2004   Ruzhou School massacre: a man stabs and kills eight people and seriously wounds another four in a school dormitory in Ruzhou, China.

2005   The first direct commercial flights from mainland China (from Guangzhou) to Taiwan since 1949 arrived in Taipei. Shortly afterwards, a China Airlines flight lands in Beijing.

2005   Tung Chee Hwa, the first Chief Executive of Hong Kong, steps down from his post after his resignation is approved by the Chinese central government.

2005   The first-ever joint military exercise between Russia and China, called Peace Mission 2005 begins.

2005   The second Chinese human spaceflight ''Shenzhou 6'' launched carrying Fèi Jùnlóng and Niè Hǎishèng for five days in orbit.

2005   Several villagers are shot dead during protests in Dongzhou, China.

2006   The first operation of Qinghai-Tibet Railway in the People's Republic of China.

2006   The Nathula Pass between India and China, sealed during the Sino-Indian War, re-opens for trade after 44 years.

2007   China's first lunar satellite, Chang'e 1 goes into orbit around the Moon.

2008   An earthquake (measuring around 8.0 magnitude) occurs in Sichuan, China, killing over 69,000 people.

2008   CNSA astronaut Zhai Zhigang becomes the first Chinese person to perform a spacewalk while flying on ''Shenzhou 7''.

2009   A series of violent riots break out in Ürümqi, the capital city of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China.

2009   Typhoon Ketsana (2009) hit the Philippines, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand, causing 700 fatalities.

2010   Hailed as the largest World's Fair in history, Expo 2010 opens in Shangai, China.